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Full text of "Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh"

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II OCT 1888 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



OF 



EDINBUKGH. 



VOL. XXXI. 



BOTANY OF SOCOTRA 



BY 



Pkofessok BAYLEY BALFOUR. 




EDINBURGH: 

PUBLISHED BY ROBERT GRANT & SON, 107 PRINCES STREET, 
"AND WILLIAMS & NOKGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STREET, CO VENT GARDEN, LONDON. 

MDCCCLXXXVIII. 



40 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



KOYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBUBGH. 



;3. /p. o. &/. 



TEANSACTIONS 



OF TH1C 



RO Y AL SOCIETY 



OF 



EDINBURGH. 



VOL. XXXI. 




EDINBURGH: 

PUBLISHED BY ROBERT GRANT & SON, 107 PRINCES STREET, 
AND WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON. 



MDCCCLXXXVIII. 



BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 



BY 

ISAAC BAYLEY BALFOUR, 

M.A., D.SC., M.D., F.R.SS. h. & E., F.L.S., F.G.S., 

FELLOW OF ST MARY MAGDALEN COLLEGE, AND SHERARDIAN PROFESSOR OF BOTANT IN THE 

UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD, 

FORMERLY REGIUS PROFESSOR OF BOTANY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW. 



Mitb tbe assistance of otber Botanists. 



FORMING VOL. XXXI. OF 
THE TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



EDINBURGH: 

PUBLISHED BY ROBERT GRANT & SON, 107 PRINCES STREET, 
AND WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STREET, CO VENT GARDEN, LONDON. 



MDCCCLXXXVIII. 



I'lIlN I'l'.K BY NK.II.I, AND COMPANY. KDI N HtMtOll. 



CONTENTS. 



PREFACE, 



Introductory Chapter, 



Flora of Socotra, 



Index, 



Index of Vernacular Names, 



Appendix, with Corrections, 



. 


PAGE 

IX-XIX 


• 


. XX-LXXVI 


. 


1-410 


. 


411-438 


. 


439 




441-446 



PBEFACE. 



In presenting this account of the Botany of the Island of Socotra to the 
Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, some explanation is necessary of 
how it came about that an expedition for the scientific exploration of Socotra 
was sent from England, and how it happened that I was connected with it. 

In the volume of Reports of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science for 1878, page lx, this resolution occurs — 

" That Mr Sclater, Dr G. Hartlaub, Sir Joseph Hooker, Captain J. W. Hunter, and Professor 
Flower be a committee for the purpose of taking steps for the investigation of the Natural 
History of Socotra ; that Mr Sclater be the Secretary, and that the sum of £100 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose." 

In the Report of the same Association for 1879, page 210, is to be found 
this — 

" Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr Sclater, Dr G. Hartlaub, Sir Joseph Hooker, 
Capt. F. M. Hunter, and Professor Flower appointed to take steps for the investigation of the 
Natural History of Socotra. 

" The Committee have not held any formal meetings, but have been in frequent communi- 
cation with each other on the subject. The best time for the exploration of Socotra being 
from November to March, the Committee were not able to make the necessary arrangements 
last autumn. Next winter, however, they believe that Colonel H. H Godwin- Austen, than 
whom no more competent naturalist could be found, will be able to undertake an expedition 
to Socotra, and to make a thorough investigation of its Natural History. Colonel Godwin- 
Austen has applied to the Surveyor- General of India for the use of some of the assistants on 
his staff, and proposes to make a complete typographical survey of the island during the 
expedition. 

" It is estimated that the total cost of the expedition will be about £300. Of this £100, 
granted by the Association last year, has been received by the Committee, and deposited in 
the London and County Bank at interest. The sum of £175 having been devoted to this 
same purpose out of the Government Fund of £4000 administered by the Royal Society, has 
been paid to Colonel Godwin- Austen, and has been added to the account at the London and 
County Bank. 

TRANS. ROY. S0C. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. h 



X BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

" There remains, therefore, only £25 requisite to complete the sum of £300 which the 
Committee consider will be required for the expedition. 

" The Committee request that the Committee for the investigation of the Natural History 
of Socotra may be reappointed, with the additional name of Colonel H. H. Godwin- Austen, 
and that the balance of £25 necessary to complete the estimate of expenditure may be placed 
at their disposal." 

On the 20th December 1879, Sir Joseph Hooker wrote to me that Colonel 
Godwin- Austen had not been able to go to Socotra as he had intended, and 
asked me to undertake the exploration. I had at that time just taken up 
the work of the Professorship of Botany in the University of Glasgow, and 
could not enter upon an enterprise which would involve my being away from 
Glasgow after the middle of April, and it was hardly possible to be at Socotra 
before the beginning of February. I could not, therefore, hope to have more 
than two months at the most for exploration. Sir Joseph Hooker was, 
however, satisfied that the time would allow of my obtaining sufficient 
insight into the natural history of the island to make such a raid justifiable, 
and accordingly, nothing loath to be the first to unravel some of the mystery 
which for so long had clung around Socotra, I agreed to start upon a rapid 
pioneer expedition. There was little time to make any great preparations for 
the exploration, and many things which under more leisurely conditions would 
have been done had to be left undone, but having made such arrangements as 
were possible, I left London on the 9th of January 1880. 

How Socotra was reached and the narrative of our movements there will be 
learned from the subjoined Report, which is taken from that published in the 
volume of British Association Reports for 1880. 

" Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr Sclater, Dr G. Hartlaub, Sir Joseph Hooker, 
Captain F. M. Hunter, and Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin- Austen, appointed to take steps 
for the Investigation of the Natural History of Socotra. 

" Colonel Godwin- Austen having been unable to carry out his intention of going to 
Socotra, the Committee were fortunate enough to obtain the services of Dr I. B. Balfour, 
Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow, for this purpose. Prof. Balfour left this 
country on January 9, for Aden, and returned home on April 21. As his report of proceedings, 
&c. (appended), will show, he has, considering the short time (only six weeks) that could be 
devoted to the investigation of the island, and the inevitable delays and difficulties always 
attending the first exploration of an unknown country, not only achieved a remarkable amount 
of success, but has proved how much more rich the island is than was anticipated, and how 
much is left for future explorers. 

" The total expenditure of Prof. Balfour on his expedition amounted to about £420. 
The Committee having received £100 from this Association, and £300 from the Government 
Grant Fund of the Royal Society, there remains a debt of about £20 due to Prof. Balfour. 

" The Committee request that a grant of £50 may be made to them to enable them to 
discharge this debt. The balance they propose to devote in aid of the publication of the 
results obtained by the expedition. 



PREFACE. XI 

" The Committee consider that the best thanks of the Association are due to Prof. Balfour 
for having undertaken this expedition, and for the zeal and industry with which he has carried 
it through. 

" The Committee consider that the best thanks of the Association are also due to Brigadier- 
General Loch, C.B., Resident at Aden, Major Goodfellow, Assistant Political Agent, and 
Captain Heron, of H.M.S. ' Seagull,' for the great assistance they have rendered to Prof. 
Balfour on this occasion. The success of the expedition is, as Prof. Balfour informs us, mainly 
due to the cordial co-operation of these gentlemen. 

" Referring to the report of Prof. Balfour, the Committee feel no doubt that in every 
branch of science considerable results are yet to be obtained by further investigations in 
Socotra, and are of opinion that a second expedition should be sent out as soon as the necessary 
facilities can be obtained." 



" Report to the Socotra Committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 
of the Proceedings of the Expedition to the Island of Socotra. By Bayley Balfour, Sc.D., 
M.B., Regius Professor of Botany, University of Glasgow, in charge of the Expedition. 

" Having undertaken at the request of the Committee the work of an expedition to the 
Island of Socotra, for the purpose of investigating its Natural History, I left England on 
January 9, and joining the French mail steamer ' Ava ' at Marseilles, reached Aden on the 24th 
of that month. I was accompanied by Alexander Scott, a gardener from the Royal Botanic 
Garden, Edinburgh. 

" On arrival at Aden, I met my friend Dr Hay, the Port Surgeon, to whose kindness I am 
much indebted, and with his aid I was enabled to make a fair collection of the plants of Aden. 
Captain F. M. Hunter, Junior Assistant Political Resident, a member of your Committee, was 
not at Aden at this time, having gone to the interior a few days previously, and as he had no 
prospect of returning to Aden before the expedition left for Socotra, he had left for me a letter 
of instruction, giving valuable information and hints, the outcome of his personal experiences 
on the island. In his absence Major Goodfellow, Senior Assistant Political Resident, gave me 
every assistance, and the attainment of the object of the expedition is in great part due 
to him. 

" The official letters of recommendation to the authorities at Aden from the Home Govern- 
ment, for which the Committee applied, had not reached Aden at the date of our arrival, but 
having a private letter of introduction from General Strachey to Brigadier- General Loch, C.B., 
Political Resident, I presented it. General Loch very cordially sympathised with the object 
of the expedition, and promoted most materially the carrying out of the work of the expedition. 
In default of instructions from the Home Government he telegraphed to the Bombay Council 
asking for authority to aid the expedition, and received a very gratifying affirmative reply. 
He then at once placed the despatch boat ' Dagmar,' of the Bombay Marine, at our disposal to 
convey us to Socotra, and we were enabled to obtain from the arsenal tents and camp 
implements. He also very kindly granted leave to Lieutenant Cockburn, 6th Royal Regiment, 
that he might go with us to Socotra. Lieutenant Cockburn then joined the expedition, and 
apart from the advantage and pleasure I derived from having him as a companion, the 
excellent sketches he made will enable the Committee to judge of how great an acquisition he 
was to the staff of the expedition and of the valuable services he rendered. 

" The P. & O. mail steamer arriving on January 26, brought the promised official letters, 
one from the India Office to the Resident, and another from the Admiralty to the Senior 
Naval Officer at Aden. As a result of the latter letter, Captain Heron, of H.M.S. ' Seagull,' 
called upon me on the 27th, and offered to take the expedition to Socotra in his ship. It was 



xii BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

subsequently arranged, therefore, that we should go in the ' Seagull ' instead of the ' Dagmar,' 
and the date of sailing was fixed for February 2. 

" The intervening days were occupied in obtaining stores and servants ; the latter not easy 
to procure, especially a good interpreter, on account of the very high rate of pay demanded. 

" All our gear was shipped on the 'Seagull' by noon on February 2, and our party — composed 
of Europeans, — Lieutenant Cockburn, Alexander Scott, and myself; and natives, — interpreter, 
cook, tent Lascar, general servant, and two coolies — went on board later. Captain Heron 
purposed to sail that day, but the monsoon blowing strongly up the harbour a start was delayed 
until next morning. On the morning of the 3rd, though the wind had not much lulled, anchor 
was weighed and the ' Seagull ' steamed out of Aden harbour in the teeth of a stiff breeze. By 
the afternoon we had made so little way against the wind and current, and were pitching and 
rolling so greatly, that Captain Heron determined to put back and make for Aden again. The 
expedition at the outset thus encountered annoying delay, for we remained in Aden harbour 
until the morning of February 6, when again the ' Seagull ' left for Socotra. Heavy weather 
kept us back, on this our second attempt, and it was not until the morning of the 11th that 
we sighted Socotra. 

" I desired to land at Hadibu, the chief village of the island, where the Sultan has his 
Court ; but as much coal had been expended on the voyage, and the anchorage at Hadibu 
being reported unsafe, Captain Heron deemed it advisable to anchor in Gollonsir Bay, a bay 
considered the safest round the island, and at its north-west end. 

" From the village sheikh we learned that the Sultan was living at his hill residence, some 
miles from Hadibu. We therefore sent by messengers the letter of recommendation furnished 
to us by the Aden Government. But it was not until February 16 that an answer arrived at 
Gollonsir — an answer of a very satisfactory kind, allowing us to go where we pleased, and 
charging the village sheikh and the people of the neighbourhood to aid us if possible. Whilst 
waiting for news from the Sultan, our tents, stores, and baggage were landed from the ' Seagull,' 
and our first camp was formed on the slope of a hill N.E. of the Gollonsir village, and we 
entered on our work. 

" The ' Seagull ' left on February 16. 

" Making in the first instance Gollonsir our headquarters, we explored the adjacent country 
to the S. and S.W., until the 25th inst., when we struck tents, and sending our heavy baggage 
and stores by sea, started to march to Hadibu. We took four days to accomplish it, reaching 
Hadibu late on the night of the 28th inst. 

" Having communicated to the Sultan the fact of our arrival, he came to Hadibu on March 1, 
when we had an interview. 

" Establishing our depot now on the Hadibu plain, about a mile from the town, we spent 
the time until the 7th inst. investigating the magnificent Haggier range of hills shutting in on 
the south the Hadibu plain. 

" On March 6, leaving a tent Lascar in charge of the depot at Hadibu, we started upon a 
trip to the eastern end of the island, going eastward along the northern side and returning 
westward by the southern side of the island. During this trip we reached Ras Mome, the 
extreme eastern headland. Camp at Hadibu was again entered on March 18. 

" As yet we had not seen much of the southern parts of the island, so on March 22 we left 
Hadibu on our last excursion. Crossing the Haggier range we emerged upon the southern 
shore at Nogad, traversed the coast line for some distance, and then recrossed the island, so as 
to come down upon Kadhab village on the north side. We regained Hadibu on the 27th. 

" March 28. — The ' Dagmar ' arrived this morning, having been sent specially for us by the 
Resident. We were not sorry to see her, as our camp was now very sickly — Scott was down 
with fever, one coolie had had sunstroke, and the other servants were all suffering badly from 



PEEFACE. 



Xlll 



fever — so much so that for some time previously hardly one of them could work, and we had 
been compelled to hire some of the Sultan's men. 

" Having shipped our collections and gone on board the ' Dagmar,' she left Socotra on 
March 30, and after a smooth but tediously slow passage reached Aden on April 3. 

" Here on our return we experienced as much kindness as before. General and Mrs Loch 
extended to me their hospitality at the Residency. Our collections were overhauled and 
finally packed for transmission to Britain by the P. & 0. steamer ' Deccan,' which reached 
Aden early on April 10. By this steamer I also took passage, and travelling to Brindisi, 
arrived in London on the 21st. Alexander Scott went by the ' Deccan' to Southampton, which 
brought him to England with the collections early in May. Lieutenant Cockburn rejoined 
his regiment at Aden. 

" Collections of specimens in all branches of Natural History were made. As may be 
supposed, I devoted particular attention to the Botany of the island, and there are dried 
specimens of between 500 and 600 species of flowering plants in the collection, besides some 
Cryptogams. A certain number of specimens were brought to England alive, amongst them 
being such interesting plants as the Dragon's-blood tree and the true Aloe. A misfortune 
deprived me of a number of living plants, and on this wise : — Having selected the majority of 
the more delicate living plants I purposed to bring them with me to London, as thereby 
they would arrive a fortnight earlier than by going to Southampton. At Brindisi, however, 
the Custom House officer seized the plants and insisted on their being taken back to the ship, 
not allowing me even to book them by another steamer which would have taken them more 
directly to England. Consequently the plants had to travel up to Venice and thence back to 
Suez before they could be forwarded to Britain. 

" Specimens of the gums produced on the island and used in commerce have been brought 
home. In the zoological collections there are a few snakes and lizards, some birds, freshwater 
fish, Mollusca, Crustacea, and Insecta of various kinds. 

" Some of the land Mollusca have come to this country alive. Two living civet cats I was 
bringing for the Zoological Gardens died on the way home. 

" Illustrative of the geology of the island are about 500 specimens of rocks and minerals 
from various localities on the island. Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are all 
represented. 

" I regret that I was unable for some time after my return to turn my attention to the 
distribution of the collections for examination. I have recently, however, done so, and the 
following gentlemen have kindly consented to examine certain groups : — 



Zoological. 



Geological. 



Botanical. 



f Birds, .... 

I Land shells, 

i, Crustacea, .... 
Remaining Zoological collections, 



I 



{Igneous and metamorphic rocks, 
Sedimentary, 
f Algae, .... 
| Fungi, .... 
^ Mosses and allies, 

Phanerogamic and Vascular 
L. Cryptogamic plants, 



Mr Sclater and Dr Hartlaub. 
Col. God win- Austen. 
Prof. Huxley. 

Dr Giinther and Zoological staff of 
British Museum. 

Professor Bonney. 

* * * 

Dr Dickie. 

Dr M. C. Cooke. 

* * * 



j- Dr Bayley Balfour. 



" The agreement made with the Committee as to the final disposition of the specimens will 
be carried out, viz., the first set of specimens, zoological, to go to the British Museum ; the 



XIV BOTANY OF SOCOTKA. 

first set of specimens, botanical, to go to the collection at Kew ; a set of botanical to go to the 
British Museum. The remainder will be distributed variously. The publication of results is 
a matter for consideration by the Committee. 

" In the foregoing report I have confined myself to a narrative of the proceedings of the 
expedition. It is as yet too early to speak definitely of what the total results will be. But I 
think I may safely say, from what I have learnt regarding the birds from Mr Sclater, and 
regarding the land shells from Col. Godwin- Austen, as well as from what I know of the plant 
collections, that the results promise to be of exceptional interest. What has been done by the 
expedition is but a fragment of what there is to be accomplished. In exploring the island, I 
deemed it better, considering the short time of our sojourn, rather to attempt to cover as much 
ground as possible, with the view of obtaining a representative collection, than to examine in 
detail a limited tract of country. By doing this, much barren land was travelled over, and 
many rich and fertile spots were necessarily only superficially looked at. Especially amongst 
the hills of the Haggier range are there valleys which would well repay a careful and extended 
investigation. The expedition just completed ought to be considered only preliminary; I 
am assured a rich harvest awaits any collector who may visit the island. 

" If at any future time an expedition should be sent to the island, it would be well if the date 
of its arrival were timed so that it should have the last months of one and the first months of 
the following year upon the island. Our expedition reached the island too late in the year, so 
that before we left the heat was so intense as to prevent our doing so much work as we desired. 
Again, the inaccuracy of our knowledge of the geography of the island is a point to which the 
attention of future expeditions should be directed. The chart based on Wellsted's observations 
is the only available one, and that is so incomplete and incorrect as to be almost useless to 
any one moving about the island. 

" In conclusion, I desire to express my heart}^ thanks, and those of the other members of 
the expedition, to the Committee for their aid. Also to General Loch, C.B.; Major Goodfellow; 
Dr Hay ; Capt. Heron, R.N., and officers of H.M.S. ' Seagull,' and to the officers of the despatch- 
boat ' Dagmar,' for the very kind way they one and all co-operated to make the expedition 
successful." 



I must take this opportunity of further saying how entirely the expedition 
depended upon the assistance readily and willingly given by the India Office. 
By the kind intervention of Mr Thiselton-Dyer and Sir George Birdwood, I 
was enabled to have an interview with Sir Louis Mallet, who cordially 
interested himself in the objects of the expedition, and at once promised that 
everything should be done that could contribute to the attainment of them. 
His promise was amply fulfilled. 

Our collections were distributed in accordance with the statement in the 
Report above quoted, and I may add to what is mentioned there, that the 
geological specimens were sent to the British Museum, and the surplus 
botanical collections distributed amongst the chief herbaria on the Con- 
tinent. 

The list of those who have kindly examined and described our collections 
from Socotra, so far as these have been published, is — 



PREFACE. 



XV 



f Birds, 

I Amphisbaenians and Ophidians, 
Zoological. *{ Lizards, 

I Land Mollusca, 
(^Lepidoptera, 



Geological, 



Botanical. -( 



Diatomacese, 
Algse, . 
Lichens, 
Other Fungi, 
Muscinea3, . 



Mr Sclater and Dr Hartlaub. 

Dr Giinther. 

Mr Blandford. 

Lieut.-Col. Godwin- Austen. 

Mr A. G. Butler. 

Professor Bonney. 

Mr F. Kitton. 

Dr Dickie. 

Dr Jean Miiller. 

Dr M. C. Cooke. 

Mr Mitten. 



Phanerogams and Vascular Cryptogams ; I am myself responsible for these, 
but in several groups I have availed myself of the special knowledge of 
other Botanists, and their help is acknowledged under the respective 
groups. 

My gratitude is due to the above-mentioned gentlemen for their kind and 
valuable assistance. The examination of the botanical collections is completed, 
but I have not yet had reports upon all the zoological ones. 

Our 48 days' stay on Socotra and first scientific exploration of the island 
was soon followed up by a second exploration. In the spring of 1881, 
Dr Riebeck, accompanied by Drs Schweinfurth, Mantay, and Rosset, arrived 
at Aden with the intention of proceeding to Socotra. At Aden they received 
first intimation of our raid of the preceding spring. After a stormy passage of 
27 days from Aden in a buggalow, beating up against the north-east monsoon, 
during which they made landings at three different places, Schugra, Bolhaf, 
and El-Hami, upon the south coast of Arabia, the German expedition 
landed at Tamarida on 16th April, and formed a camp at a place Keregnigi, 
about 800 feet up the Haghier slopes. Thence during the succeeding six weeks 
excursions were made to different parts of the island, and the expedition left on 
18th May. Thus, after an interval of nearly fifty years, Socotra was visited 
in two successive years by scientific expeditions. 

The members of the German expedition devoted themselves largely to the 
study of the people and language, at the same time that they collected in various 
branches of natural history. Their zoological collections have been worked 
up by various authorities. Dr Hartlaub has examined the birds, Prof. Peters 
has taken the lizards, the Crustacea fell to Prof. Hilgendorf, and Dr 
Taschenberg* took the insects, while upon Prof. Von Martens devolved the 
work of determining the land-mollusca. The collection of crania, from which 
most interesting information may be expected, was placed in the hands of 

* Prof. Taschenberg has published, I am informed by Dr Schweinfurth, under the title " Beitrage 
zur Fauna der Insel Socotra," an account of the zoological results obtained by the German expedition, 
but I have not been able to find the paper. Dr Hartlaub's and Von Marten's results are referred to on 
pages xxxi and xxxiii of the Introductory Chapter. 



XVI BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Prof. Welcker. Dr Schweinfurth investigated the botany of the island. 
On learning that he was on his way to Socotra, I sent him a catalogue of 
our plant-gatherings, and he was thereby, he states, enabled to give particular 
attention to filling up gaps in and adding to what we had collected. "With a 
generosity which is pleasing as it is rare, he subsequently sent his collections 
to me in England, in order that the whole flora might be worked out in one. 
I have already had opportunity to express publicly my lively appreciation of 
this act of friendship and self-abnegation, and I wish here to put the fact again 
on record, and to say how much Dr Schweinfurth's specimens have contributed 
to the satisfactory working out of the details of the flora. The value of his 
collection must not be measured either by the number of the species or by 
the species he found which we had not gathered. In the excellence of his 
specimens and their completeness, and in the way in which they so frequently 
supplemented, in flower and fruit characters, deficiencies in ours, — therein lay 
the value of Schweinfurth's plants, and I cannot appraise it too highly. 

The following pages are intended to give a description of the Flora of 
Socotra as it is known now — the knowledge being derived from the explorations 
and collections made by Dr Schweinfurth and by the members of our expedi- 
tion. Specimens from the former source are indicated by " Schweinf." with 
his collecting number; those from the latter by " B.C. S."— Balfour, Cockburn, 
and Scott — with our collecting number. Before our expedition no plants were 
known with certainty from the island save the Aloe Perryi, which Mr Baker 
had described from fragmentary specimens brought by Commander Wykeham 
Perry and Mr Collins ; but in course of working up our collections I have 
discovered several specimens which had been previously brought from the 
island, and in the descriptive portion of the flora I have noted the collector's 
or sender's name. In almost every case such plants have been also found 
by the later expeditions. I may tell here the history of these former 
collections. 

We have identified all the plants mentioned by Wellsted in his Memoir on 
the Island (see page xxi), and I have referred to his description under the 
several species. One plant only, Romulea purpurascens, var. edulis, which he 
does not mention in his Memoir, is recorded in Kew Herbarium as having been 
brought by him from the island. 

A number of plants are marked as collected by " Nimmo." These belong to 
a set in the Kew Herbarium, marked in Sir William Hooker's writing, " Shores 
of the Red Sea." By the kind assistance of Sir Joseph Hooker, I have found, 
in Sir William Hooker's correspondence preserved at Kew, that these plants 
were sent home by Mr Nimmo * from Bombay. Many of the specimens in the 

* Of Mr Nimmo I have not been able to find out many particulars. He, as Prof. Oliver points out, 
completed, from the 200th page, Graham's " Catalogue of Bombay Plants." 



PREFACE. xvii 

collection were obtained from Socotra during the period of its occupation 
by Indian troops (1834-39). Whenever a plant of this collection is identical 
with a Socotran one known from no other locality, I have had no hesitation 
in assuming that the specimen was brought from Socotra; in this way several 
species are taken out of the tropical African flora. 

A few plants have the name ' Boivin ' attached. Louis Hyacinthe Boivin 
was botanist on board the ' Duconadec,' under Captain Guillain, during the 
exploration of the east coast of Africa (1846-52), and in 1847 the ship was at 
Socotra for a few days, and Boivin obtained some plants. I have only seen three 
plants of his collecting, but one of them, Lagarosiphon Roxburghii, has been 
brought from Socotra by no other collector. Possibly in the herbarium at 
Paris there may be more specimens of Boivin's collection. 

Some of the species have the name ' Hunter ' attached. These are species 
which occur in a small collection made by Captain (now Major) Hunter, 
Assistant Political Resident at Aden, who visited the island in his official 
capacity in 1876, and presented to the herbarium of the Royal Botanic Garden, 
Edinburgh, in 1878, by Dr George Hay, Port-Surgeon at Aden. 

' Perry ' is attached to some species, and refers to plants brought by Com- 
mander Wykeham Perry from Socotra in 1876 ; the chief one being the aloe 
which is named after him. 

' Collins ' refers to Mr James Collins, who was Curator of the Museum 
of the Pharmaceutical Society, and went out many years ago, as Mr Baker 
informs me, to Singapore to superintend india-rubber plantations. On his 
way home he obtained the Socotran aloe. 

In the introductory chapter, which is in its greater part the address 
I delivered to the Society, at the invitation of the Council, on 4th July 1881, 
I have briefly summarised what we know of the history, people, geology, and 
zoology of the island, giving references to literature where further infor- 
mation may be obtained. Upon the botanical features of the island I have 
dwelt at greater length. But after all that is said what we know is but a small 
portion of what there is to know. Besides the many interesting points in the 
botanical, zoological, and geological features that still await investigation, there 
is the fascinating problem of race and language yet to solve. Our expedition 
was, as I have elsewhere said, merely a raid, during which as much informa- 
tion and as large collections as possible were accumulated. My want of know- 
ledge of Arabic and kindred tongues made it difficult for me in the time, and 
with the means at my disposal, to make satisfactory inquiries into questions 
which might conduce to the clearing up of the mystery that at present surrounds 
the origin of the people and their speech. In the case of the German expedi- 
tion, which was fortunate in being accompanied by so competent an explorer 
as Dr Schweinfurth, the sojourn on the island was so short that researches 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN, VOL. XXXI. C 



XV1U BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

could not be carried out to the satisfactory conclusion they might otherwise 
have reached. 

Thus it happens that at present in this island, over which Great Britain 
has now openly declared a protectorate, and within but three weeks' journey 
from England, there dwells a people whose origin is still involved in myth, 
and of whose speech the true relations are undetermined, who, according 
to received records, having attained to some degree of civilisation and em- 
braced Christianity, have gone back from their advanced position to the lower 
state in which we now find them, and thus present to us a feature of 
exceptional interest in the history of mankind. We must probably wait for 
materials for a full knowledge of the origin of the Socotrans. until explora- 
tion has revealed to us something definite of the people who inhabit the 
inner and hill-regions of southern Arabia opposite, and then too it will 
probably be found that the natural-history features of Socotra possess many 
more points in common with the Arabian mainland than is at present evident. 
But there is now on Socotra alone a wealth of material for exploration and 
investigation which would amply reward the work of another expedition; and 
the island can be visited in any year and at no great expense. When the 
exploration of south Arabia will be made must depend upon a variety of 
circumstances. It is difficult to get into the country, but such difficulty as 
there is should not be insurmountable to a gifted Arabic scholar, and to no one 
else is an exploration of the region possible. The region contains the key to 
so many of the problems that puzzle us in connection with the history of the 
progress of mankind, that one may hope that ere very long it will be added to 
the realms which are known to us. 

I must not end this Preface without expressing the great obligation I am 
under to Sir Joseph Hooker and Mr Thiselton-Dyer for the privilege of 
working up the Socotran collections at Kew. Without this the flora could not 
have been written, and I have made full use of it. I have besides to thank 
Professor Oliver and his colleagues in the herbarium for the steady help and 
uniform kindness with which all my applications for assistance have been met. 
Dealing with a flora presenting so many peculiarities, the advantage of 
consulting with them and benefiting by their experience has been fully 
appreciated. To the late Mr Bentham, as well as to Sir Joseph Hooker, I am 
indebted for opinions upon the new genera. Finally, to Mrs Thiselton-Dyer, 
Miss Smith, and the Messrs Fitch my thanks are due for the trouble they 
have taken with the drawings of what were often fragmentary specimens. 

The map accompanying this flora is little more than an outline sketch 
showing the line of our traverses. Haines and Wellsted's chart of the island 
is very inaccurate, and of no value to any one moving about the island, so that 
one of the first desiderata in connection with Socotra is an accurate survev. 



PREFACE. xix 

The Index to the volume has been made by Dr Selmar Schonland, Sub- 
curator of the Fielding Herbarium, Oxford. 

It is now seven years since I returned from Socotra, and some apology to 
the Fellows of the Society would appear to be needed for the tardy production 
of this chief result of our expedition. The examination and description of 
specimens was completed so long ago as 1883, and in the spring of that year 
my account of the phanerogamic vegetation of Socotra was submitted to and 
accepted by the University of Edinburgh as a thesis for the degree of M.D. 
By the end of 1883, as the Council of the Society is aware, the descriptive part 
of the flora dealing with Dicotyledones was printed, and the remainder was in 
type shortly afterwards ; but delays in connection with the production of the 
plates, which I need not here further particularise, have prevented the issue, 
until now, of the volume in its completed form. Late as it is, I hope its 
pages will be received by the Society as not an altogether unsatisfactory record 
of a brief botanical investigation of the island of Socotra. 

ISAAC BAYLEY BALFOUR. 



Oxford, 1887. 



INTKODUCTOKY CHAPTER.' 



Geographical Position, Physical Features, and Geology, f 

The island of Socotra lies off the north-east corner of Africa, in lat. 12° 19' 
to 12° 42', and long. 53° 20' to 54° 30'. Its extreme length from east to west 
is about 72 miles, and its breadth about 22 miles. From Cape Guardafui 140 
miles, it is a little more distant from the Arabian coast (about 500 miles 
from Aden), and still further away from the Indian Peninsula. It is the most 
easterly elevation of land on a coral bank lying to the north-east of Africa, 
upon which, between it and Cape Guardafui, other islands (Abd-al-Kuri, 
Kal Farun, Samneh and Darzi — known commonly as The Brothers — and 
Saboynea) of smaller size occur. On no part of this bank is the depth of 
water over 200 fathoms, but between it and the African coast is a channel 
reaching 500 fathoms. Around Socotra is a narrow coral reef. 

The surface features of Socotra at the present time are those of a mountainous 
island. The shore line on its southern aspect is, as the map shows, a tolerably 
continuous one, unbroken by deep inlets or bays. On the northern side occur 
a few shallow bays at the mouths of the streams, which afford the only 

* For general accounts of the island of Socotra, see- 
Isaac Bayley Balfour: On the Island of Socotra, in Report of the British Association, 1881. 

Id. : The Island of Socotra and its Recent Revelations, in Transactions of the Royal 

Institution of Great Britain, 1883, 
H. Capitaine, in L'Explorateur, vol. iii. p. 265. 
Guillain: Documents sur l'Afrique Orientale, Paris. 
Heuglin, in Petermann's Mittheilungen, 1861. 
P. M. Hunter: Socotra, in Bombay Gazette, May 18, 1876. 
51 R. Ravenstein: The Island of Socotra, in Geographical Magazine, vol. iii. (1876), pp. 119-124, 

with map. 
Phil. Robinson : Socotra, the New Field for Missionary and Commercial Enterprise. London, 

Clowes & Son, pp. 1-12, with map. 
Georg Schweinf urth : Ein Besuch auf Socotra mit der Riebeckschen Expedition. Freiburg, 

i. B., 1884. 
Alexander Scott: Remarks on the Natural History of Socotra. Edinburgh, 1881. 
J. R. Wellsted: Memoir on the Island of Socotra, in Journal of the Royal Geographical 

Society, vol. v (1835), pp. 129-229. 
Also see Articles in Transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society, vols, vi., vii., xv. 
f T. G. Bonney: On a Collection of Rock Specimens from Socotra, abstract in Proc. Roy. Soc, 

No. 221 (1882), pp. 145-148. Id.: On a Collection of Rock Specimens from the 

Island of Socotra, in Phil. Trans., 1883, pp. 273-294, with plates vi., vii. 



XX11 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

anchorage to be obtained around the island, but no one of them is safe at all 
seasons of the year. On all sides the hills rise with considerable abruptness 
over a wide area, forming bold perpendicular cliffs of several hundred feet in 
height, whose base is washed by the waters of the Indian Ocean ; but at other 
places they leave plains varying in breadth up to as much as five miles between 
their base and the shore. On the south side of the island is the largest of these 
shore plains — Nogad, — which, extending nearly the whole length of the island, 
is for miles covered with dunes of blown sand. On the north, plains occur 
chiefly at the mouths of the streams, and are the sites of the only places which 
can be called villages. 

The internal hilly part of the island may be roughly and shortly described 
as a wide undulating and intersected limestone plateau of an altitude averaging 
1000 feet, which flanks on the west, south, and east a nucleus of granite peaks 
over 4000 feet high. The whole of this hilly region is deeply cut into by 
ravines and valleys. These in the rainy season are occupied by roaring torrents, 
but the majority of them remain empty during the dry season. There are, 
however, many perennial streams on the island, especially in the central 
granitic region, where amongst the hills the most charming bubbling burns 
dashing over boulders in a series of cascades, or purling gently over a pebbly 
shingle, make it hard to believe that one is in such proximity to the desert 
region of Arabia. Most of the perennial streams are, in the dry season, fiumaras. 
The eastern end of the island is most destitute of water; there in the dry 
season are no streams, and, springs being rare, it is the most arid region. 

In its climate Socotra contrasts favourably with the adjacent shores of 
Arabia and Africa. During the N.E. monsoon, from October to April, it is 
cool. January and February are the most pleasant months. Hain falls twice 
in the year, at the changes of the monsoons, at which time the stream-courses 
are filled with mighty torrents. The temperature, of course, varies much with 
the altitude, and one may pass in the course of a few hours from the tropical 
heat of the shore-plains to the cool temperate air of the mountain-ranges. 
The average temperature on the plains in Jannary is said to be about 70°, but 
in the hotter months is as much as 86°. On the plateaux the temperature 
often goes down at night to 52°. The higher peaks are, at least in the 
cold season, frequently enshrouded in mists, and at night heavy dews fall. 
The hills are healthy ; but on the plains, especially at the changes of monsoons, 
fever is prevalent. 

The fundamental rocks of Socotra are gneisses, both hornblendic and 
granitoid, belonging, like those of north-west Scotland and of north-east 
America, to the earliest archsean age. These crop out on the hill slopes and in 
the valleys, but do not as a rule form the exposed higher parts of the island. 
Through this fundamental mass cut felspathic granites of varying texture and 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. XXlii 

containing little besides quartz and felspar which form the central nucleus of 
fantastic peaks, the highest part of the island. Cutting through both the fore- 
mentioned series we have other granitic rocks, such as minette, felsite, rhyolite, 
and also basalt and diorites, in many places forming large dykes, and in others 
extensive lava-flows. The centres of ejection of these rocks we were not 
able to determine, and possibly many of them, as in the case of the tertiary 
volcanic rocks of east Hindostan, have been discharged, not from cones, but as 
outflows from fissures. Towards the south-east end of the island they are found 
in greatest abundance, and there they exhibit a very fluidal character. The date 
of the eruption of these rocks was certainly pre-miocene. An indurated shale 
(argillite) is found in some localities, notably on Hadibu plain, and with it a 
little sandstone of uncertain date, but probably representing the well-known 
Nubian sandstone of carboniferous age. Over all comes a capping of limestone, 
forming plateaux over wide areas, rising in abrupt cliffs two or three hundred 
feet high. It is generally of a yellowish or whitish colour, compact, and some- 
times slightly dolomitised. It contains numerous Foraminifera, which prove 
it to be probably of middle tertiary age, or rather later than that of Sinai and 
the Arabian shores of the Red Sea. The surface of the limestone over 
extensive districts is rotted and broken into a jagged surface, over which 
progression is by no means easy, whilst at other spots it forms broad smooth 
slabs. Subsequent to the laying down of the limestone there occurred further 
volcanic disturbance, and the limestone is cut through by dykes of basalt and 
compact trachyte of late tertiary age. 

"We have in Socotra, it seems to me," writes Prof. Bonney, from whose 
account of our collections I have derived the information just given, " evidence of 
rocks of an immense, and a land surface of a very great, antiquity. Excepting this 
argillite of uncertain age and limited extent, and perhaps some sandstone (also 
local), there is no evidence in the specimens before me to show that this island 
was submerged during any part of the palaeozoic or mesozoic period. During 
the kainozoic it undoubtedly shared in the downward movement which affected 
so large a portion of the globe in and about the north African and Mid- 
Asiatic districts ; but I should infer that the invasion of the sea commenced 
much earlier in the Sinaitic peninsula, and think it possible that the topmost 
peaks of the Haghier mountains were at no time wholly submerged. As it 
again rose from the waves, perhaps being for a while connected with the 
African continent, the meteoric forces resumed their work of sculpture, and the 
waves began their work of insulation. Since then the fauna and flora have 
undergone their own modifications, but in the Haghier hills we have probably 
a fragment of a continental area of great antiquity, and of a land surface which 
may have been an ' ark of refuge ' to a terrestrial fauna and flora from one of 
the very earliest periods of this world's history." 



XXIV BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

The soil resulting from such penological conditions is correspondingly 
varied, correlated with which is a varying character in vegetation and scenery. 

In the valleys on the banks of the streams, especially in the granitic region, 
a deep rich red soil is found, and where there is water perennially it is covered 
by a luxuriant growth. As the limestone composes the greater part of its 
superficies, the plateau appears barren. Where, however, the limestone has 
rotted, a series of nooks and crevices occur, in which, where a soil has collected, 
an Aloe, Kalanchoe, or other succulent finds a congenial habitat. But upon the 
limestone plateau, especially at the eastern and western ends of the island, 
occur depressions varying in width from some hundred yards up to a mile or 
more, girt on every side by a cavernous limestone-cliff, with perhaps a narrow 
outlet through it at one or more points ; these, which have all the appearance 
of lagoons, or at least of enclosed water-basins, are floored now by a rich red 
soil on which a crop of coarse grass, small herbs, and low trees vegetates. On 
the shore-plains the soil is light and sandy. 

History, Government, and People.* 

Socotra was known to Europeans at an early period under the name of 
Dioscoris or Dioscorida. This name was apparently applied at first, not to the 
one island we now know as Socotra, but to the whole archipelago of which it is 
a member. But possibly there is an old reference to the island under another 
name. On the Deir-el-Bahari monument at Thebes, erected by Queen Hatasou 
in the eighteenth dynasty, there are representations showing the commissioner of 
the queen going over the sea to the country of ' Poun ' and of ' To Nuter/ and 
bringing back therefrom amongst other things plants bearing 'Ana,' which is 
shown as a gum-resin in the form of tears on the stems of small trees. Mariette 
has identified the land of Poun — Pliny's country of the Troglodytes — with 
Somali-land, the name being preserved in the modern Bennah, and the To 
Nuter of the inscription is, in his opinion, the Sacred Islands of Pliny, and the 
modern archipelago including Socotra. 

The author of the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea refers to Socotra as a 
desolate island inhabited by a mixed population of Arabs, Indians, and 
Greeks, all speaking Greek, who had come thither in search of grain, and 
carried on a trade with the west coast of India and with Mokha. The island 
is frequently mentioned by the early Arab geographers, who account for the 
Greek population by the story, which Colonel Yule considers a myth, that 
Alexander the Great, acting on the advice of Aristotle, settled an Ionian 
colony there, in order to cultivate the aloe. They further state that the 

* See, besides general accounts mentioned in note on page xxi : — 

Georg Sckweinfurtk : Das Volk von Socotra, in Unsere Zeit., 1883, pp. 657-669. 
F. M. Hunter : Notes on Socotra, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, vii. (1877), 
pp. 364-372. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. XXV 

Greeks and other inhabitants were converted to Christianity, and that clergy 
from Persia regularly visited the island. The population at this time, a few 
centuries after the Christian era, is put down by some at as much as 10,000, 
the majority of whom are described as Nestorian Christians and pirates. 

In the time of Marco Polo, towards the end of the thirteenth century, the 
island was a metropolitan see of the Nestorian Church. Many ships visited 
the island, all vessels for Aden touching there, and the trade was mainly in 
ambergris, cotton stuffs, and salt fish. The people had the reputation of being 
enchanters, able at will to raise the wind, to bring back ships, and to produce 
storms and disasters. 

Although so mixed a population lived on Socotra, yet from the earliest 
times it appears to have been under the rule of the Mahri tribe, dwelling on 
the opposite coast of Arabia, whose sultan or sheikh lived at Keshin. 

In 1503 Fernandez Pereira discovered it for the Portuguese, at which time 
an Arab sheikh lived in a fort at Zoko (modern Suk), then the capital of the 
island; but it was not until 1507 that Tristan daCunha and Albuquerque captured 
the island for the Portuguese. After four years' occupancy the Portuguese 
retired from the island, leaving abundant traces of their presence. The remains 
of a fort on Haclibu plain, and at various places on the south and south-west 
sides of the island, are most substantial ruins. Their influence is possibly also 
seen in such names of places as Derafonta and in Feraigey one of the ruined 
forts ; indeed the dialect of Socotra, it is thought by some, may owe part of its 
peculiarity to a Portuguese basis. At the present time a large section of the 
inhabitants of the hill-region of the island claim direct descent from the 
Portuguese. About the date of the Portuguese occupancy the character of 
Christianity had somewhat changed, and the doctrines of the Jacobite sect 
were professed. 

The evacuation of the island by the Portuguese allowed a return of the 
Sultan of Keshin, and in his hands it has ever since remained, with the exception 
of a short occupancy on three several occasions by a foreign race — in 1538 by 
the Turks, in 1800 by the Wahabbees, and by the British from 1835 to 1839. 

Although the ships of the East India Company frequently called at the 
island during the seventeenth century, — some meeting with a friendly reception, 
others finding the reverse, — and carried on a small trade in aloes and dragon's- 
blood, it was not until the year 1800 that affairs in the East directed the 
attention of the British Government to Socotra as a desirable possession, and 
the commander of the naval station in that region was directed to seize it. 
This was not done, and it was only the necessity for a coaling station that 
induced the Indian Government in 1834 to survey the island. This was 
accomplished by Captain Haines and Lieutenant Wellsted, and the result of 
the survey being satisfactory, the Government attempted to buy the island, but 

TRANS. ROY. S0C. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. d 



XXVI BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

failing to do so it was seized in 1835 by Indian troops, who formed an encamp- 
ment on Hadibn plain, the trenches around which are still visible. The occu- 
pation was of short duration. Aden having been taken in 1839, and being 
more suitable as a coaling depot, Socotra was abandoned. 

The exploration of the island by Wellsted supplied us with the first and 
indeed until now only detailed account of the island, its people, and produc- 
tions ; the only available chart at present is the one made during this explora- 
tion, and it is most imperfect. 

After its abandonment by the British in 1839 there are few records of 
Europeans visiting the island. In 1847 the French exploring brig, " Duconadic," 
under Captain Guillain, and with the French collector Boivin on board, touched 
at the island for a few days ; but except for an occasional shipwreck bringing 
it into notice, one reads nothing about the island until 1876, when a prospect 
of its being occupied by another European nation caused the British Govern- 
ment to turn attention to Socotra, with the result that in that year a treaty 
was concluded with the Sultan, by which he binds himself, and his heirs and 
successors, " amongst other things, to protect any vessel, foreign or British, 
with the crew, passengers, and cargo, that may be wrecked on the island of 
Socotra or its dependencies, and he receives an annual stipend of 360 dollars 
for this."* The "other things," it is understood, include a promise never to 
cede Socotra to a foreign power, or to allow a settlement on it without consent 
of the British Government. Thus the Sultan is a feudatory of Britain. 

The attention of naturalists had long been directed to Socotra as a field for 
investigation whence rich results might be obtained, and Major Hunter, who 
visited the island in connection with the concluding of the treaty just 
mentioned, brought back such encouraging accounts, that Dr Sclater in 1878 
laid the matter before the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
as is mentioned in the Preface, and eventually I was intrusted with the 
scientific exploration of Socotra. A year later, Dr Riebeck, ignorant of our 
expedition, arranged for and carried out another expedition to the island, 
particulars of which will also be found in the Preface. 

The government of Socotra is in the hands of the Sultan of Keshin and 
Socotra. At present two brothers are joint Sultans, and one lives at Keshin, 
the other resides in Socotra. They are nephews of the one who, in 1834, 
refused to sell the island to the British. The Sultan has complete sway in 
Socotra. He has a residence on Gharriah plain, at the base of the Haghier 
hills, and has also a palace in Tamarida, where he dispenses justice. Under 
him, each of the large villages has its sheikh or head, and the island is divided 
into four sections, each of which is in charge of a ranger. The Sultan alone 

* F. M. Hunter : An account of the British Settlement of Aden in Arabia. London, Triibner and 
Co., 1877, p. 158. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. xxvii 

lias power to inflict punishment. In each section the land is let out to the 
various tribes of Bedouins, both for pasture and for the collection of gum, 
payment therefor being made in ghi. The Sultan reserves for himself oue 
portion of land for the collection of dragon's-blood. 

The trade of the island at present is small, ghi being the chief export. It 
is carried on by buggalows from the Arabian coast. Major Hunter* says — 
"These arrive in the first months of the year with coffee, rice, and other articles, 
which they exchange for ghi, aloes, orchella weed, &c, which they take to 
Zanzibar, and, on their return, they bring coco-nut, bombe, and American piece- 
goods. They dispose of as many of these as possible, and take outwards ghi, 
aloes, dragon's-blood, blankets, &c, and return to Arabia. Pearl-fishers from 
the Persian Gulf at times visit the island and dispose of their pearls. The 
Sultan takes tithe of all exports. From ghi his revenue is about 500$, aloes bring 
him 250$, edah gives 80$, and other sources bring it up to 1000$ a year, which 
with his stipend of 360$ from the British, makes him a comparatively rich man 
in this region." 

The extent of the population it is impossible to estimate, as so many people 
live in caves, and one only occasionally comes across the wandering inhabitants 
of the hill region. The number has been set down as low as 4000 and as high 
as 10,000. 

In speaking of the people, the dwellers on the shore must be distinguished 
from those on the hills. The former, who are a mixed population of Arabs, 
Indians, and Africans of various tribes, live in small villages. Of these the 
chief one is Tamarida, on the extensive Hadibu plain at the base of the 
Haghier range of hills. It is the capital of the island, and consists of a number 
of stone-and-lime houses, of the ordinary construction seen in Arabia, all 
plastered outside of a dazzling white, and surrounding a large one, which is the 
Sultan's palace. Around the town is a dense date-grove. There is a mosque 
and well-filled cemetery in the centre of the town. The number of inhabitants 
is set down at about 400. Kadhab is another village, lying on a sandy spit 
east from Tamarida. The houses here are of the same character as at Tamarida, 
and there is a mosque. Gollonsir, at the west end, is a penal settlement, and 
has but few houses. Formerly, the capital of the island was Suk, at the east 
edge of the Hadibu plain, but it was destroyed. There are numerous small 
villages all along the coast line, but the three mentioned are the chief. 

The chief occupation of the residents in these villages is fishing. They 
cultivate small tracts of ground near their houses, but are, as a rule, idle. The 
population too is somewhat changing, many going off in trading buggalows to 
Zanzibar or the Arabian coast. 

* I am indebted to Major Hunter's Manuscript Journal, which he very kindly placed at my 
disposal, for the information which is quoted from him. 



Xxviii BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

The inhabitants of the hills, ' Bedouins,' as they are called, are very different 
people. They are regarded as the aborigines of the island, the true Socotrans, 
and alone possess any great interest ethnologically. They are mostly troglo- 
dytes, but here and there live in small huts, with stone-and-lime walls and 
roofed with date-palm leaves. They are a most peaceable race of people, and 
are divided into numerous families belonging to a few principal tribes. A 
study of these tribes would well repay the time and trouble spent upon it. 
Major Hunter says:— "The 'Karshin,' who inhabit the western end of the 
island, claim to be descendants from the Portuguese. The ' Momi,' who reside 
in the eastern end of the island, are said to trace descent from the aborigines 
and the Abyssinians ; whilst the ' Camahane,' who live in Haghier and the hills 
above the Hadibu plain, claim to arise from the intermarriage of the abo- 
rigines with the Mahri Arabs from the opposite coast. Whatever be their 
origin, certain is it that the hill-people have a very distinct appearance. 
Many of them are tall and finely made, the men with broad shoulders, lean 
flanks, and stout legs, reminding one very forcibly of the European build. 
Thin-lipped and straight-featured, they have straight black hair. The women 
are many of them very good-looking, somewhat resembling gipsies, but they 
have rather large hands and feet." 

Schweinfurth, like Vicenzo in the seventeenth century, recognises two races in 
these hill-people,— a darker with curly hair, and a lighter one with straight hair. 
In addition he finds an apparently Semitic type, which he thinks may be traced 
to a Greek source, characterised by small head, with long nose and thick lips, 
straight hair and lean limbs. The Socotran is generally, he says, of average 
height and size, with a quick intelligent eye, and of quite a different type from that 
of the Somali, Galla, Abyssinian, south Arabian, and coast Indian. From the 
little known of the Mahri and Qara tribes which inhabit the hill region of middle 
south Arabia opposite, Schweinfurth is inclined to consider the Socotran as 
resembling them most nearly. 

The men wear a loin-cloth, one end of which is commonly thrown over the 
shoulder, usually with a knife stuck in the waist, and they invariably carry a 
stick. The woman have the ordinary Arab blue skirt, in most cases kilted at 
the knees and confined round the waist by a girdle. In some cases, however, 
they improvise a petticoat of the coarse blankets they themselves weave, and 
wear on the upper part of the body a loose tunic with short sleeves. They go 
unveiled. The women wear the hair done up in two plaits which hang down 
their back, but in front the hair is cut to form a short fringe on the forehead. 
Their ornaments are few. The men often wear an armlet of silver. The women 
have necklets of amber, glass beads, dragon's-blood tears, or in some cases 
rupees, and have also the ordinary Arab silver armlet and ear-rings. 

The occupation of these people is chiefly pastoral. Their herds and flocks 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. XXIX 

are extensive. From the milk they make quantities of ghi by a simple process 
of churning — merely continuous jerking of the skin-mussocks— and they sell it 
to the Arabs of the coast, or exchange it for rice, dates, or other necessaries. 
They collect also dragon's-blood and aloes, but the latter only in great amount 
when pasturage fails them. The women spin a coarse thread from the sheep's 
wool, which they weave into blankets. 

Old voyagers speak of horses being used, but there are none now. The cattle 
are small, and have no hump. Immense herds are found at the eastern end of 
the island. The sheep are all fleeced, but there are none of the Berbera kind. 
Of goats there are some in a wild condition. The camels are much smaller 
than those at Aden and elsewhere in Arabia, and are able to climb like goats ; 
many are kept for milking. Asses roam wild in herds all over the island. 

Of plants cultivated on the island the most important is the date-palm. 
Every stream on the island is lined by groves of them, and the fruit is used, 
both ripe and unripe. Melons are grown, as also small onions. Little cereal 
culture is indulged in. Here and there on the hills beside a stream, a small 
enclosure of 'bombd' (jowari) may be seen, but the inhabitants are too lazy 
to cultivate to any extent, the watering requiring too much labour. Only in 
one spot did we observe an attempt at irrigation. 

The hill-people live very miserably. Milk forms a large portion of their 
diet. Bombe" is used when grown. Rice is obtained from the coast Arabs. 
Date is a staple of food. On great occasions a sheep or a kid is killed. 

The furnishing of their dwellings is very meagre. Blankets are their 
couches. Goat-skin mussocks are used for water and milk. They have also 
earthenware pots, moulded by the hand out of the clays and lime of adjacent 
rocks. 

Their language is peculiar. Major Hunter says of it — "I could trace no 
affinity to any of the languages of the neighbouring coasts. It sounds a little like 
Ki-swahili, but not so soft. It is not Mahri, for the Sultan said it in no way 
resembled it. The sound is not so guttural as Arabic, and seems to require 
less effort in enunciation." Schweinfurth, on the other hand, noting the many 
foreign elements the language contains, especially in the names of plants and 
animals, many of which have a thoroughly Greek sound, says that it resembles 
the Mahri dialect, and that a comparison of the vocabulary he made of Socotran 
words with the results of Von Maltzahn's study of Mahri shows analogies. 

"Religion sits lightly on a Bedouin. All are Mussulmen, but they only 
pray when they have an audience, and even in the very act of prostration 
they will turn round and join in the conversation, and again continue their 
devotions until the requisite outward observances have been completed." 

The fact that the Wahabbees visited the island accounts probably for 
the absence of the many churches, or traces of them, said to exist in ancient 



xxx BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

times on the island. Wellsted observed some ruins, believed to be of a church. 
There are, however, still evident the ruined forts of the Portuguese. The 
largest of these is at Feraigey. No written records have been found ; possibly 
such would disappear along with the churches. Wellsted speaks of inscrip- 
tions on the rocks being visible. None of these were seen by us. But on 
the Kadhab plain there occurs a broad slab of limestone, about 50 yards long 
by 25 to 30 yards broad, whereon numerous hieroglyphics are cut. The 
figures are not in line, and they lie at all angles to one another and at varying 
distances. Some resemble foot-imprints, others distinctly represent a camel, 
or are like St Andrew's cross; Schweinfurth traced in some of them combina- 
tions of Greek characters. 

Zoology. 

Of zoological features one of the most striking is the paucity of indigenous 
mammals. The antelopes and rodents of the adjacent continents are absent 
from Socotra, and there are but two mammals indigenous : a bat — of which, 
unfortunately, we did not obtain a specimen — and a civet cat, a type widely 
dispersed in south Asia and tropical Africa. Eats and mice occur in the 
villages, but are probably introduced. Birds are plentiful, so are lizards, and 
there are some snakes. The rivers are stocked with fish, and in them crabs 
are also found in abundance. Land-mollusca are, as might be expected, 
frequent, and the whole island teems with insect life. 

Considerable interest attached to an investigation of the avifauna of 
Socotra. It is well known that in several Indian Ocean islands, large so-called 
wingless birds formerly existed, several of which have become extinct within 
recent historical time. The Epiornis of Madagascar, the Dodo of Mauritius, 
the Solitaire of Rodriguez are examples. Vague rumours credited Socotra 
with the possession of a didine bird of like character ; Wellsted in his account 
of the island speaks of it as a cassowari. Of such a bird no traces exist at 
present, nor could any legendary reference to such a bird be discovered. 

As at present known, the avifauna includes forty-three species. On the 
shores we find gulls and herons, on the streams wild-duck and plovers ; the 
date-groves are tenanted by doves and pigeons ; whilst all over the island 
weaver birds, chats, shrikes, sunbirds, and sparrows abound. Cuckoos and 
falcons are occasionally met with, whilst in the vicinity of habitations the 
scavenger-hawk of the East and a carrion crow are ready to perform their 
ollices. A few quail occur on the plains. All the birds except the Passeres, 
1'icarieso, and Columbse, are of wide distribution. The Passeres are the most 
numerous of all, and include seven species not known from other regions, and 
two of these belong to a new type of sparrow — Rhynchostruthus — characterised 
by the massive form of its bill. The sunbird, as might be expected, is new, 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. XXXI 

and is of interest from having no metallic colouring on its plumage. A small 
lark on the plains has a peculiar plaintive note, but the song-bird of the island 
is a new starling, its melody equalling that of a thrush. 

Mr Sclater and Dr Hartlaub,* writing about our collection of 36 species — 
which it may be noted in passing was added to by seven species by the German 
expedition, one of the species brought being a second one of the new genus 
Rhynchostruthus — say : " The collection shows at once that, so far as one can 
judge of it by its birds, Socotra, as might have been anticipated, belongs to the 
same fauna as north-eastern Africa. The island has, however, been suffi- 
ciently long separated from Cape Guard afui to allow of a certain number of 
species becoming differentiated, unless indeed, as is not improbable, these 
shall be hereafter found to exist also in Somali-land, the ornithology of which is 
still very imperfectly known to us. Our impression is, that Rhynchostruthus 
will yet be found on Cape Guardafui." 

The AmphisbaBnians and snakes of Socotra, though few in number, are of 
considerable interest. Dr Gtinther writest — "We might have expected, from the 
geographical position of Socotra, that the species would show a close affinity 
to, if not identity with, those of the nearest portion of the mainland of Africa; 
but, in fact, this affinity is overbalanced by that to the Arabian fauna, at least 
so far as the few species enumerated here are concerned. The most singular 
fact is, that three out of the four species seem to be peculiar to the island, two 
being so much differentiated as to deserve generic distinction. 

1. The Amphisbsena belongs to a distinct genus, the nearest allies of which 
inhabit eastern and western tropical Africa. 

2. The Coronelline snake, Ditypophis, belongs to a distinct genus, apparently 
approaching the Circum-Mediterranean Tachymenis vivax. 

3. The Socotran species of the Circum-Mediterranean or central Asiatic 
genus Zamenis is most nearly allied to the Arabian Z. elegantissimus. 

4. Finally, the viper of Socotra is identical with a species hitherto found in 
Arabia and on the shores of the Dead Sea." 

Of the lizards ten species are known from Socotra. Six of these, dis- 
covered by our expedition and examined by Mr Blandford, \ yielded three 
new species, and of the three known forms one is found at Muscat and at 
Bushire in the Persian Gulf, another is a Senegal and north Abyssinia form, 
and the third is reported from Madagascar. 

* P. L. Sclater and G. Hartlaub : On the Birds collected in Socotra by Prof. I. B. Balfour, in Proc 
Zool. Soc, January 18, 1881, pp. 165-175, with plates xv.-xvii. Dr Hartlaub's account of the 
birds collected by the German expedition will be found in Proc. ZooL Soc, London, 1881, p. 953. 

t A. Giinther: Description of the Amphisbaenians and Ophidians collected by Prof. I. Bayley Balfour 
in the Island of Socotra, in Proc. Zool. Soc, April 5, 1881, pp. 441-463, with plates xl. and xli. 

% W. T. Blandford : Notes on the Lizards collected in Socotra by Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, in 
Proc. Zool. Soc, April 5, 1881, pp. 464-469, with plate, xlii. 



XXXU BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Great interest always attaches to the land and fresh-water mollusca of a 
large and ancient island, and in this feature Socotra is not disappointing. 
Lieut. -Col. Godwin-Austen records forty-eight species in our gathering from 
Socotra, and of these a large portion are endemic. Amongst the land-shells 
some of the genera have very instructive distribution. Thus Otopoma is 
restricted to the east African islands and Arabia ; Lithidion has the same area, 
but extends to India; Cydotopsis is represented outside Socotra only in India 
and the Seychelles ; whilst Tropidophora is known from Madagascar alone. 
Writing of the land-shells, Lieut.-Col. Godwin- Austen says:" — "Judging from 
the land-molluscan fauna of Socotra, there is strong evidence that the island was 
once directly connected with Madagascar to the south. We know the great 
antiquity of that island; and it is not unreasonable to suppose that in Socotra, 
the Seychelles, Madagascar, and Rodriguez, we have the remnants of a very 
ancient more advanced coast line on this western side of the Indian Ocean, 
which line of elevation was probably continuous through Arabia towards the 
north. With an equally advanced coast on the Indian side, the Arabian Sea 
would, under these conditions, have formed either a great delta, or narrow arm 
of the sea, into which the line of the Indus and Euphrates drained. Such 
conditions would have admitted of the extension of species from one side to 
the other, which the later and more extensive depression of the area, as shown 
in Scinde, afterwards more completely shut off." 

And again he says,t when dealing with the fresh-water mollusca, — " The 
fresh-water shells we have before us have certainly more of an Indian character 
than an African one ; and, again, as I pointed out in a previous paper, they 
extend to Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands to the south. In fact, the 
only species in the present series that has an African habitat is the extremely 
wide-spread Melania tuberculata. Planorbis cockburni may be also African ; 
but it is a form of a group of that genus which has a greatly extended range 
in time and area. It seems remarkable that four fresh- water shells of common 
and abundant Indian species, only one hitherto known from Africa should be 
found isolated in Socotra ; and this, I think, is another point in evidence of 
the area of the Arabian Sea as far south as a line joining Madagascar and 
Ceylon having been once, to a great extent, dry land, receiving the drainage of 
the surrounding mountain-ranges, of which Socotra formed a portion of the 
western watershed and the limit of its fresh-water fauna, this watershed being 
then continuous with the Jebel Yafai and the highlands of Arabia." 

* H. H. GodwinAusten : On the Land-Shells of the Island of Socotra, collected by Prof. Bayley 
Balfour, — Part I. Cyclostomacese, in Proc. Zool. Soc, Feb. 1, 1881, pp. 351-258, with plates xxvii. 
and xxviii. ; and Part II. Helicacea, in Proc. Zool. Soc, June 21, 1881, pp. 802-812, with plates 
lxviii. and lxix. 

t H. H. GodwinAusten : On the Fresh-water Shells of the Island of Socotra, collected by Prof. 
Bayley Balfour, in Proc. Zool. Soc, January 16, 1883, pp. 2-8, with plates i. and ii. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. xxxiii 

Prof. Von Martens,* who worked out the land-mollusca collected by the 
German Expedition, questions the identifications upon which Godwin- Austen 
bases his view of the connection of Socotra with Madagascar. Upon this 
Godwin- Austen remarks (I.e., p. 3) : — " Herr Von Martens, the recorder of 
the molluscan portion of the Zoological Record for 1881, does not quite agree 
with me in connecting Socotra with Madagascar, considering the species I 
placed in Tropidophora to belong rather to Lithidion. On looking again at 
these shells, the form of the operculum of T. socotrana is certainly similar 
to that of Otopoma; but that of Lithidion is nearer to Cyclotopsis and 
Tropidophora (Arabia and Socotra)." 

In speaking of the Lepidoptera collected by us on Socotra, Mr A. G. 
Butler t points out that the twenty-four specimens are " referable to thirteen 
species, of which eleven are Rhopalocera ; seven of the species are new to 
science. Of the known forms in this series one is cosmopolitan, two are found in 
Europe, Asia, and Africa, one throughout Africa, one in south-west Africa and 
Abyssinia, and one (with trifling differences) in south Africa. Of the new 
forms five are allied to previously recorded types from the following localities : — 
one from the Comoro Islands, one from south-west Africa, one from Zanzibar, 
and two from Arabia. Without the help of these last two, it would therefore 
be impossible for any one not acquainted with it to guess at the locality from 
which this collection had been obtained." 

We have not a sufficiently extensive knowledge of the fauna of Socotra or 
of that of the adjoining mainlands to enable us with advantage to discuss in 
detail the affinities. It is probable that there is a considerable endemic 
element, and what we do know indicates in some groups strong north-east African 
connections, in others relations with the faunas of other islands in the Indian 
Ocean ; whilst in other groups a preponderance of Arabian and south- 
west Asiatic forms is visible, as well as a distinct strain of Indian and 
Eastern resemblances. 

Vegetation and Flora. 

The vegetation of Socotra varies greatly in aspect with the character of the 
rocks. Starting from the shore one finds no representative of a marine phanero- 
gamic vegetation, although in the stagnant brackish waters at the mouths of the 
streams naiads occur. The coast is not favourable for seaweeds, being too 
shingly and sandy. 

* E. von Martens : Land Schnecken von Sokotra, in Nachrichtsbl. d. deutsch. Malekol. Gesellschaft, 
No. 10 (1881);— Id. : Mollusken von Sokotra, Conckologische Mittheilungen, Bd. ii. pp. 140-152, 
tt. 28-29. 

t A. G. Butler : On tlie Lepidoptera collected in Socotra, by Prof. I. B. Balfour, in Proc. Zool. 
Soc, January 18, 1881, pp. 175-180, with plate xviii. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. & 



xxxiv BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

On the dry sandy plains the vegetation typical of the desert regions on the 
mainland reigns. We have, for example, dwarfed undersbrubs, with hard woody 
short stems and densely -set short branches, often quite white with down and 
hairs, and ending frequently in hardspinose points, such as Breiveria fastigiata, 
Indigo/era intricata, Neur acanthus aculeatus, Ochradenus baccatus, Pulicaria 
stephanocarpa ; or herbs with hard-wooded stock deeply rooting and with main 
branches gnarled and clustered in masses on the surface of the ground, from 
which perhaps a few long twigs shoot up stiff and erect, or straggle over the 
adjoining soil, as in Lndigofera nephrocarpa, species of Heliotr opium, Lavandula 
Nimmoi, Diceratella incana, Farsetia longisiliqua, Barleria tetracantha, and 
others ; or undershrubs or herbs with prickles or spikes of some kind, as in 
Capparis spinosa, Fagonia cretica, Balsamodendron Mukul, Crolalaria spinosa, 
Acacia socotr ana, Lycium europaum, Blepharis spiculifolia, Barleria tetracantha, 
Neuracanthus acideatus and N. capitatus, Lasiocarys spiculifolia, Asparagus 
africanus, and others ; or fleshy plants with foliage scarcely developed, or itself 
fleshy, as in Capparis aphylla, Vitis subaphylla, Statice axillaris and S. cylindri- 
folia, Socotora aphylla, Boucerosia sp. ; or wiry annuals, such as Cleome tenella, 
Silena apetala, Linum gallicum, Polycarpcea sp., Linaria hastata, Oldenlandia sp. 
Aromatic odours are a marked feature in many plants, as in Plectranthus 
sp., Lavandula Nimmoi, Balsamodendron sp., Cleome sp., and others ; and also the 
occurrence of gums and gum-resins, which in some cases appear as natural 
exudations in the form of tears, as in Acacia socotr ana, Jatropha unicostata, 
Euphorbia obcordata, Balsamodendron sp., Dorstenia gigas. Over all, and giving 
quite a character to the whole landscape, is the glaucous-grey colour, due either 
to a waxy bloom on the more leathery and fleshy forms, as Mcerua angolensis, 
Vitis subaphylla, Osyris arborea, Vogelia pendula, and others, or to the more 
common presence of a hairy covering of some kind. Quite the larger number 
of the plants have such clothing, and thus the vegetation is characteristic of 
desert regions. The flora of these tracts is that of the Arabo-Saharan district, 
such genera abounding as Farsetia, Cleome, Fagonia, Corchorus, Heliotropium, 
Indigofera, Crotalaria, Breweria, Balsamodendron, Anticharis, and others. The 
effect of the plain (desert) -climate and conditions upon the habit of plants is 
particularly well exemplified in some species upon the island which are found 
growing both on the plains, and also on localities upon the hills in circumstances 
of a less rigorous character, for example, in Vernonia Cockburniana, Aerua 
microphylla, Lavandula Nimmoi, Dirichletia obovata, Placopoda virgata, and 
others ; in the former position they have the characteristic desert-type, in the 
latter they lose the hardness in their wood, and the gnarled feature of the 
branches also disappears, flexible twigs, with large and delicate leaves, tend 
to develop, and glaucousness lessens. 

Leaving the plains, and passing to the hill-slopes and valleys, plant-life is 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. XXXV 

more vigorous, but in no place sufficiently so to call for the designation of forest, 
nor is there anything in the way of fine timber. But in the valleys, wherever 
there is any degree of moisture, small trees of some 20 to 25 feet, with smaller 
shrubs packed so densely as to exclude the light from above, linked together by 
far-reaching lianes, and underlain by a thick under-scrub of fern and herb, 
make an almost impenetrable thicket, and produce a verdure quite tropical in 
its luxuriance. In this district the flora is of a tropical old-world type, having 
representatives of such genera as Elceocarpus, Grewia, Boswellia, Ormocarpum, 
Dirichletia, Musscenda, Sideroxylon, Euclea, Jasminum, Secamone, Porana, 
Orthosiphon, Clerodendron, Lasiosiphon, and various genera of Acanthacege. 

Once out of the valleys and upon the plateaux the scene is essentially 
different. Wide barren stretches of grey limestone, or undulating prairie-like 
downs, extend on every side unrelieved, save by an isolated Dracaena, or tree- 
euphorbia of stiff erect habit, looking like the remnant of the vegetation of 
of some old geological epoch, or where a lake-like depression, with its brown 
earth sparingly coated with green herbage, often of rank luxuriance, intervenes. 
And when we reach the higher altitudes on the granitic range, the vege- 
tation impresses one at once with its sub-temperate character. The arborescent 
type has almost entirely disappeared. Shrubby composites, such as species of 
Psiadia, Pluchea, and Euryops, and succulent forms of Senecio are found, also 
crowds of Helichrysum many of them strongly aromatic, and scenting the air 
under the stimulating sun-rays ; and quaint types, such as those of Thamnosma, 
Nirarathamnos, Graderia, Cephalocroton, Cocculus Balfourii, and others, are 
frequent ; twiggy narrow-leaved herbs form a dense deep carpet on the soil, 
interrupted here and there by a protruding lichen-covered boulder, and for all 
the world like the covering of heather on a northern moor ; whilst within the 
shade of the boulders, or in the moisture of the overhanging cliffs in the 
ravines, bright green herbs, such as species of Galium and Gypsophila, nestle 
in beds of liverwort and moss. 

The flora, as we know it, is a pretty extensive one, much more so than was 
anticipated. It comprises 828 species, and of these 575 are Phanerogams and 
253 are Cryptogams. 

Of the 575 Phanerogams, the ten following plants, which had been evidently 
planted where they were found or were only recent escapes from cultivation 
in the vicinity of habitations, may be deducted from the total before making 
a further analysis, viz., Gossypium barbadense, Ruta graveolens, Citrus Auran- 
tium, Indigo/era tinctoria, Tamarindus indica, Fceniculum vulgare, Ocimum 
canum, Ricinus communis, Phoenix dactylifera, Borassus Jlabelliformis. Amongst 
the remaining 565 species of Phanerogams are many which are undoubted 
introductions and weeds of cultivation ; but as they are to a greater or less 
degree established on the island, and may in time form important constituents 



XXXVI 



BOTANY OF SOCOTEA. 



of the vegetation, I do not exclude them from the total for analysis. In the 
descriptive flora which follows, all plants introduced as well as indigenous which 
were found are recorded. The following table indicates the distribution of 
Socotran plants amongst the several groups of the vegetable kingdom : — 



Table showing the general composition of the flora of Socotra. 





Total Species 

known from 

Socotra. 


Endemic 
Species. 


Total Genera 

known from 

Socotra. 


Endemic 
Genera. 


Orders. 


Phanerogamne 

Dicotyledones Polypel 
,, Gamop 
,, Monoel 

Monocotyledones 
Cryptogama? Vasculares . 
MuscineiB . 

Musci 

Hepaticoe 
Chavacerc 
Fungi 

Basidiomycetes 

Uredinea? 

Ascomycctes Lichenes 
,, Pyrenom 
,, Discomy 

Phycomycetes 
Alga 

RhodophycesB 

Phreophyceae 

Chlorophycese 
Schizophyta 

Cyanophycece 

Scliizomycotes 
Diatomaceae 


alse 

3talfe 

damydc 

ycetes 
cetes 


X 




565 

19 

16 

"3 

157 

22 

"h 

"25 


189 
213 

63 
100 

19 

11 
5 
3 

13 

1 

130 

10 
2 
1 

"5 
8 
9 

9 

2 

25 


206 

2 

8 

1 

80 

"l 

"l 


61 

105 

24 

16 

2 

6 
2 
1 

2 
1 
69 
6 
2 

1 

' 1 


314 

12 
14 

1 

68 

14 

"6 

14 


100 

125 

36 

53 

12 

10 
4 
1 

11 
1 

47 
6 
2 
1 

4 
5 
5 

"4 

2 

14 


20 
1 


5 

12 

2 

1 

1 




81 


33 
25 
12 
11 










817 


817 


299 


299 


443 


443 


21 


21 







The flora of a continental island such as Socotra is in the main interesting in 
connection with the geographical distribution of plants and the working out of 
the history of their migrations over the face of the globe. But there are a 
number of special features in individual Socotran plants well deserving of 
attention, and I may briefly notice some of them. 

Of plants striking as having brilliant flowers may be noted the Adenium, 
from which Aden is said to derive its name ; a bulbiferous Begonia, which has 
been introduced into horticulture; a fragrant Crinum also in cultivation; species 
of Exacum, one of which, a lovely little annual, has been successfully grown in 
Europe; bright-coloured species of Ruellia, Jasminum, &c. 

On morphological grounds there falls to be noticed in the first place Den- 
drosicyos socotrana, known to the inhabitants as the camhane, gamhen, ovgamka, 
a new genus of Cucurbitacese. This plant differs from all previously known 
members of the family in being a tree with a stem often four or five feet in 
diameter at the base, rapidly tapering, and forming a very soft juicy wood, 
crowned at the summit with a tuft of twisted and straggling branches. Nor 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. XXXvii 

is it alone in its swollen gouty stem. In Adenium multiflorum and Dorstenia 
gigas it finds fitting companions in its weirdness. Cocculus Balfourii is another 
plant which in habit vies with the preceding in peculiarity. In place of the 
twining lianes of most species of the genus, we find here an erect hard-wooded 
undershrub, with branches ending in spines, and bearing hard spinose claclodes. 
In Punica protopunica we have a plant which in interest surpasses most of 
the others in the flora, — a pomegranate with a single row of carpels, evidently re- 
presentative of the stock from which the pomegranate of cultivation is sprung. 

I only mention a few of these more conspicuously noteworthy plants, as they 
are again referred to in this introductory chapter, and fuller details regarding 
them are given in the descriptive part of the flora. But I must now say a word 
regarding plants interesting for their products, of which we have several 
in Socotra. And first mention may be here given to the dragon's-blood tree, 
Dracama Cinnabari. The greater part of the dragon's-blood of commerce at the 
present time is the product of Calamus Draco of Sumatra. But the Socotran 
gum-resin is the old Kiwafiapi mentioned by Dioscorides. It is known on the 
island as edah ; amongst the Arabs it is Mtir. The plant is endemic, and nearly 
allied to the D. Draco of Teneriffe. From the other gum-resin-producing 
species, D. Ombet of Abyssinia and D. schizantha of Somali-land, of which we 
have as yet but imperfect knowledge, it is apparently quite distinct. The 
gum-resin exudes in tears from the stem of the tree, and is collected after the 
rains, the gatherer chipping off the tears into goat-skins. There are three 
forms in which the gum-resin is exported. Of these edah amsello — the tears as 
they exude from the tree — is the purest and most valuable form; 2\ lbs. 
fetch one dollar. The second best kind is called edah dukkah. It consists of 
the small chips and fragments of the tears which have been broken off in 
separating the gum-tears from the tree, or by attrition ; it sells at one dollar 
for 4 lbs. The cheapest is the edah mukdehah, which brings a dollar for 5 lbs., 
and is very impure. It is in the form of small flat-sided masses, and consists 
of fragments of gum-resin and refuse of the gatherings melted together into a 
flat cake, and then broken up into smaller portions. 

Of other gum-resin-producing trees on the island, the frankincense and 
myrrh-trees must be noticed. I have already referred to the discussion that 
has taken place regarding the incense-country of the ancients. The Hadra- 
maut country is the chief incense-region, and to its kings Socotra is said to 
have been subject. But Socotra, as I have already mentioned, is identified 
on ethnological grounds by Mariette as the 'To Nuter' of the Theban 
monuments; and we find the genus Boswellia, which yields frankincense, 
represented in Socotra by no less than three species, all of which are endemic, 
and possibly there is a fourth ; as there are only three other known species 
of the genus, all of which save one are Somali-land plants, the proportion 



XXXVlii BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

occurring in Socotra is very large. The commonest frankincense in the island 
is the ameero, but it is not much exported. 

Of myrrh-plants Socotra possesses no less a share. Besides the Balsamo- 
dendron Makul which yields the Indian ' bdellium ' — the googul or mukul of 
the Arabians, — there are probably five other species of the genus on the island. 
Possibly one of these is the Arabian B. opobalsamum, the true myrrh-plant. 
The myrrh collected is termed leggehen, and is said to be exported. 

So far then as the occurrence of frankincense and myrrh-producing trees 
is evidence, Socotra may well be the To Nuter of Theban monuments ; for 
no area known to us of equal extent has so many peculiar forms. 

The most important plant of the island, so far as products are concerned, 
is the Aloe Perryi, which yields the ' Socotrine aloes ' * of commerce. The gum 
is known as tdyef by the natives; the Arabs call it sobr. Although this kind 
of aloes has been so long known, and has the reputation of being finer than 
either Barbadoes or Cape aloes, it is only within the past few years that the 
character of the plant has been made known. It grows abundantly on the 
island, especially on the limestone plateaux. The collection of the gum is a 
very simple process, and can be accomplished at any season. The collector 
scrapes a slight hollow on the surface of the ground in the vicinity of an aloe- 
plant, into which he depresses the centre of a small portion of goat-skin spread 
over the ground. The leaves of the aloe are then cut and laid in a circle on 
the skin, with the cut ends projecting over the central hollow. Two or three 
layers are arranged. The juice, which is of a pale amber colour, with a slightly 
mawkish odour and taste, trickles from the leaves upon the goat-skin. After about 
three hours the leaves are exhausted; the skin containing the juice is then 
removed from beneath them, and the juice is transferred to a mussock. Only 
the older leaves are used. The juice thus collected is of a thin watery character, 
and is known as tdyef rhiho, or watery aloes. In this condition it is exported 
to Muscat and Arabia, and sells for three dollars the skin of 30 lbs. By keep- 
ing, however, the aloes changes in character. After a month the juice, by loss 
of water, becomes denser and more viscid ; it is then known as tdyef gesheeshah, 
and is more valuable — a skin of 30 lbs. fetching five dollars ; whilst in about 
fifteen days more — that is, about six weeks after collection — it gets into a 
tolerably hard solid mass, and is then tdyef kasaliul, and is worth seven dollars 
a skin of 30 lbs. In this last condition it is commonly exported. 

There is, as I have said, no forest on the island, and yet there is one small 
tree, or large shrub, which may be of some value commercially. It is the 
metayne, a kind of box-tree, Buxus Hildebrandti. It was first found by 
Hildebrandt on the Somali-land hills. It forms a hard, compact wood, and, I 
doubt not, might be used for many of the purposes for which boxwood is so 

* For explanations of this term see Appendix, note under page 292. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. XXxix 

valuable at the present time. It is abundant on the island, and Hildebrandt 
reported it very common in Somali-land. I did not bring. home sufficient 
specimens to allow of an experimental trial of this as a material for wood- 
cuts or other purposes. I learn from Dr Schweinfurth, that he has sent some 
to Berlin to be tried in this way. 

Many plants are used on the island for the purposes of dyeing — Gaillonia 
tinctoria, Taverniera sericophylla, Indigo/era tinctoria, Roccella tinctoria. The 
last-named occurs in abundance, and was formerly exported in great quantity. 
It is known as shennah. 

Surveying the flora from the point of view of its relations and development, 
we shall consider the Phanerogams in the first instance ; — and I must state 
that in making any statistical estimates of the relations of the flora the 
numbers must be regarded as approximative only. I have already mentioned 
that the species brought home by the English and German expeditions are but 
a small part of those that exist in the island. The collections give a fairly 
representative sample of the flora, and of the more generally distributed plants 
they contain, I think, a large proportion ; but of the vegetation in the many 
rocky ravines at high altitudes which sculpture the central granitic region of 
the island, that from which several of the most interesting of our plants were 
obtained, we have a comparatively fragmentary gathering. Besides, it has to 
be remembered that we know comparatively little of the flora of the adjacent 
mainlands, and that future exploration of these will doubtless necessitate 
changes in the estimate it is now possible to make. Already an illustration of 
this is afforded, for since the descriptive part of this flora was printed, the list 
of plants collected by Mr H. H. Johnston on Kilima Njaro and adjacent parts 
of tropical Africa has been published, and his discoveries modify in a slight 
degree the distribution of some of the Socotran forms. Reference to these will 
be found in the Appendix. 

In the phanerogamic flora the 565 species belong to 314 genera, and are 
included in 81 orders — giving thus about 7 species to each order and 4 to each 
genus. Monocotyledones comprise 100 of the total species, or 17 '61 per cent.; 
the ratio of Monocotyledones to Dicotyledones being therefore as 1 to 4*6. This 
proportion is about the same as in the Indian Ocean islands. It is largely 
determined by the number of Graminese and Cyperaceae, which together 
comprise nearly two-thirds of the Monocotyledones, but the number of 
Monocotyledones belonging to other groups will, I am confident, be largely 
increased by future exploration. Both the English and the German expeditions 
were on the island at the time when few bulbous monocotyledonous plants are 
in flower, and consequently the occurrence of many species of these is not yet 
recorded. The gamopetalous species of dicotyledonous plants only exceed the 
polypetalous by 24 species, which is a small excess for such a flora. 



xl 



BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 



The ordinal composition of the phanerogamic flora may be grasped from 
the subjoined table : — 

Table showing the ordinal composition or the phanerogamic flora 

OF SOCOTRA. 



















1 
























Eh 


ta 


1* 


1j& 




Okdeiis. 


a 

a 

V 

O 
'a 


w5 

1 

CO 


a 

6 

a 

a 

T3 




w 

'a 

a) 

T3 


t3 C 
C O 

gcc 








o 


o 


a 


a 





H 






H 


H 


W 


W 


O 


O 




Acanthaceae, .... 


15 


27 


3 


21 


9 






Amarantaceae, . 








6 


10 




2 








Amaryllideae, . 








2 


2 




2 


2 


X 




Ampelideae, 








1 


3 




2 








Anacardiaceae, . 








2 


4 




3 


"l 






Apocynaceae, 

Aristolochiaccas, 

Asclepiadeae, 








3 

1 

12 


3 
1 

18 


i 

2 


1 

? 

8 


1 

7 


J 


/ Probably the species is endemic, 
\ but cannot be determined. 


Begoniaceae, 








1 


1 




1 


1 


X 




Bixineae, . 








1 


1 












Boragineae, 








5 


18 


i 


9 


2 






Burseraceae, 








2 


11 




6 


1 






Companulaeeae, 








2 


2 












Capparideae, 








5 


11 




i 








Caryophylleae, . 








4 


7 




2 








Chenopodiaceae, 








3 


3 












Compositae, 








24 


39 




22 


9 






Commelinaceae, 








2 


4 












Convolvulaceae, 








8 


19 




"7 


i 






Urassulacea, 








2 


5 




3 








Cruci ferae, 








5 


7 


i 


3 


2 






Cncurbitaceae, . 








6 


9 


l 


2 


2 






Cyperaceae, 








6 


33 












Dioscoreaceae, . 








1 


1 




i 


1 


X 




Ebenaceae, 








1 


5 




2 








Euphorbiaceae; . 








11 


27 




16 


5 


•M 




Ficoideae, . 








5 


5 




1 


1 






Gentianeae, 








2 


4 




3 


1 






Geraniaceae, 








3 


3 


i 


1 


1 






Gramineae, 








28 


51 


l 


5 


4 






Hydrocharideae, 








1 


1 












Hypericineae, . 








1 


4 




'2 








Illecebraceae, . 








2 


2 


"2 


2 


2 


X 




Irideae, 








2 


2 




1 


1 




t The non-endemic species is repre- 
( sented by an endemic variety. 


Juncaceae, 








1 


1 










Labiatae, . 








7 


14 




"7 


3 






Leguminosae, . 








25 


53 


i 


16 


7 






Liuaces, . 








7 


8 




6 


5 






Lineae, 

Loranthaceae, . 
Lythrarieae, 








1 
1 


1 
1 




? 




2 


1 Probably the species is endemic, 
















( but cannot be determined. 








3 


4 




1 


1 






Malpighiacea?, . 








1 


I 












Malvaceae, 








5 


17 




3 








Menispermaceae, 








1 


2 




1 








Myrsineae, 








1 


1 












Naiadaceae, 








3 


6 












Nyctaginese, 








1 


3 












Oleaceoe, . 








1 


1 




i 


"i 


X 




Onagrariese, 








1 


1 












Orehideae, 








1 


1 




i 


i 


X 




Orobanehaceae, 








2 


5 












Pa])averaceae, . 








1 


1 












Pudalinete, 








1 


1 












Pipcraceae, 








1 


3 












Plantaginoe, 








1 


1 












Pluinbagincae, . 








2 


4 




i 






t One of the species is represented 
( by an endemic variety. 


Polygalaceae, 








1 


3 










Polygonaceoe, . 








1 


2 




... 


— 




1 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 



xli 



Table showing the ordinal composition of the phanerogamic 
flora of Socotra — continued. 



Orders. 


g 

a 

a 

<v 

o 

o 
H 


'o 

m 

o 


a 

Fh 

CD 

a, 

O 

u 

a 

a 

H 


OQ 

<U 

'o 

m 

o 

a 

a 


^ a 

S3 o 
W M 

!« 


o 

c O 

W » 
o '3 

m g 

5 




Portnlacese, .... 


2 


3 












Primulacese, 










1 


1 












Resedaceae, 










2 


2 




i 


i 






Rhamneae, 










1 


2 








. .. 




Rubiaceae, 










9 


18- 


1 


li 


4 






Rutaceoe, 










1 


1 






1 


X 




Salvadoraceae, 










1 


1 












Santalaceae, 










2 


3 












Sapindacese, 










2 


3 






i 






Sapotaeeas, 
Serophularineae 










1 
12 


1 
13 


1 




l 

4 


X 




Selagine.ne, 










1 


1 


1 




1 


X 




Solanacesa, 










5 


8 












Stereuliaeese, 










2 


2 






i 






Tamariscineoe, 










1 


1 












Thymeleeaceee, 










1 


1 




i 


i 


X 




Tiliaceae, . 










3 


9 




4 


l 






Umbelliferse, 










4 


5 


i 


4 


3 






Urticacese, 










5 


7 




2 


2 






Valerianese, 










1 


1 




1 


1 


X 




Verbenacese, 










5 


6 


i 


3 


2 






Violarieae, 

Zygophylleae, 
Genus Anomalu 


m, 








3 
3 
1 


3 

4 
1 


i 


1 
1 


1 

i 




i One species has an endemic 

( variety. 












314 


565 


20 


206 


98 


11 



That Leguminosse should be the most numerously represented family is not 
surprising, and it owes the position to the large number of species of such 
genera as Indigo/era, which has nine species, Tephrosia, with six species, 
Crotalaria and Cassia, each with five species. A large number of the species 
— sixteen, or nearly one-third — are widely-spread weeds, many of which have 
doubtless been introduced, but there is an equal proportion of the species 
endemic ; and there is one endemic genus. There are some interesting points 
to notice in the plants of the order. Thus, Priotropis socotrana is an endemic 
species of a genus hitherto known in one species, P. ci/tisoides, Wight and 
Arn., a plant of the eastern Himalayas. Cylista scariosa, a member of a 
monotypic genus, has the remarkable distribution of ' Indian Peninsula and 
Mauritius.' The two species of Lotus, L. ononopsis and L. mollis, constitute 
along with L. Garcini, a plant of Nile-land, Persia, and Scindh, a section of the 
genus Lotus of quite exceptional character, and approaching Ononis. Arihro- 
carpum, the endemic genus, of the tribe Hedysareae, has close affinities with a 
group of American genera. Dichrostachys dehiscens violates the character 
of the genus in which it is included, and resembles closely some typical 
American genera. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. f 



xlii BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Graminese is almost as abundantly represented as Leguminosse, and three- 
fifths of the species are widely-spread plants in tropical regions. It is note- 
worthy, however, that a new Hordean genus Ischnurus occurs, having affinity 
with the Indian Oropetium; and another interesting plant is Rhynchelytrum micro- 
Stachyum, belonging to a little-known genus hitherto found in two species, one 
inhabiting Abyssinio, and one ^Ethiopia. There are in addition three endemic 
species of such widely-spread genera as Eriochloa, Panicum, and Lepturus. 

In Composite we have an order represented by species more than half of 
which are endemic, and not quite one-seventh are weeds of cosmopolitan 
tropical growth. Of the shrubby character which Composite of insular 
floras so frequently exhibit we have illustrations in Socotra. Vernonia 
Cockbumiana is the largest species, forming at times a small tree ; as small 
shrubs, or rather undershrubs, we have Psiadia Schiveinfarthii, Pluchea 
aromatica, Pluchea obovata, Pulicaria stephanocarpa, Pulicaria vierceoides, and 
Euryops socotranus. Of the distribution of the genera of these shrubs, it is 
noteworthy that Psiadia is essentially a genus of tropical Africa, Madagascar, 
and the Mascarene islands — but one African species extends into Arabia, and 
with this Arabian form our Socotran plant has close affinity ; and that Euryops 
is primarily a south African genus, with, however, a representative in Nile- 
land and one in Arabia (probably the same form in these localities). Pulicaria 
is a genus with maximum development in the Mediterranean region, but 
with outlying forms in south Africa and western Asia ; but I may note that 
the two Socotran undershrubs referred to here are included in this genus with 
some reserve, and may probably eventually be excluded from it. Vernonia 
is a general tropical genus with a Brazilian centre of greatest development. 
Upon the island these shrubby forms are, with the exception of the Vernonia 
and Pulicaria stephanocarpa, inhabitants of the higher lands in the central 
granitic region ; Vernonia, on the other hand, is widely distributed over the 
island ; and it is to be remarked that when the plant grows upon the dry 
unfavourable limestone plains of the higher regions, it does not assume an 
arboreous character, but forms a low, stunted, gnarled, and twisted shrub. 
Pulicaria stephanocarpa is the commonest undershrub on the plain about 
Gallonsir. The great development of Helichrysum is a characteristic feature 
in the flora ; no less than seven species, and all endemic, are known. They are 
natives of the highest peaks, and such as H. rosulatum, H. aciculare, H. 
suffruticosum, and H. Nimmoanum have the character of small undershrubs. 
Senecio Scotti, belonging to the Kleinia section of the genus, which is 
almost exclusively south African, is another interesting Composite. Its 
errant position finds a correspondence in that of Senecio longifiorus on the 
Abyssinian highlands. Dichrocephala chrysanthemifolia was only gathered on 
the top of the Haghier peaks, and is the plant found at the highest altitude. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. xliii 

Euphorbiacese, with about one-twentieth of the species of the flora, is not so 
well represented generically as the order just mentioned; ten of the species — 
seven being endemic — belong to Euphorbia itself. Four-sevenths of the whole 
species are endemic. The most noteworthy feature in this family on Socotra, 
is the occurrence of the fleshy leafless tree-euphorbia, E. arbuscula, which to 
some extent may be said to mimic the dragon's-blood tree, D. Cinnabari. It 
has a near ally in E. aphytta of the Canary Islands, along with which occurs, 
it is interesting to observe, the dragon's-blood tree of these islands, D. Draco. 
Euphorbia spiralis is another fleshy, leafless, and spiny form, with south 
African and Atlantic Island representatives. The presence of Hildebrandt's 
Somali-land box-tree, Buxus Hildebrandti, must not be passed over, nor the 
fact that there are four endemic species of Croton, and an endemic re- 
presentative of Cephalocroton, a genus hitherto known in two species — one from 
Mozambique and one from Nile-land. 

Acanthaceae is, in some ways, the order with the most remarkable de- 
velopment in Socotra. It comprises twenty-seven species, i.e., it forms nearly 
one-twenty-first part of the flora, and of these species all but six, or seven-ninths 
of the whole order, are endemic. Thus one-tenth of the endemic plants is 
acanthaceous. The twenty-seven species are included in fifteen genera, and of 
these three are endemic, and seven more are represented only by endemic 
species — one of them being tritypic and the other ditypic — so that over one- 
seventh of the endemic genera is acanthaceous. In this family are some of the 
prettiest flowering shrubs, such, for instance, as Ruellia insignis, Ruellia carnea, 
Barleria aculeata, and the species of Ballochia. The endemic genera Ballochia, 
Trichocalyx, Ancalanthus, have allies in genera of the adjacent continents. But 
in addition to this element of endemic genera, it is noteworthy that several of the 
endemic species referred to other genera show divergence from the characters 
ascribed to these. Thus Blepharis spiculifolia has several floral characters 
modifying those described, for Blepharis, and similarly the generic character of 
Barleria is affected by Barleria tetracantha and Barleria argentea, which have 
only one ovule in each cell of the ovary, quite an exceptional character in the 
order. Neur acanthus aculeatus and N. capitatus also differ in habit from the 
rest of the genus, and the hygroscopic inflorescences of the latter are peculiar. 
Justicia heterocai'pa is noteworthy on account of its diversely formed fruits 
and seeds. Anisotes diversifolius is an endemic representative of a genus 
known only by a single species in Arabia, and, since the description of the 
plant was written, by another from east tropical iVfrica, collected by Mr H. H. 
Johnston. Ecbolium striatum is also an endemic species of a genus elsewhere 
represented by one variable aud widely-spread species. 

There is not much noteworthy in Cyperacese as it forms part of the 
Socotran flora. Thirteen of the species belong to Cyperus, and Fimbristylis 



xliv BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

is responsible for other five. Most of the species, thirteen, are cosmopolitan 
tropical plants, and seven are widely spread in the tropics of the old world. 
One species, Ci/perus proteinolepis, is primarily an Arabian species, but a 
variety of it, which also occurs on Socotra, extends to upper Egypt ; and there 
is an endemic variety of Cyperus conglomeratus, a species with a geographical 
area extending from north-east Africa through Arabia to Beloochistan and 
Afghanistan. 

In Convolvulacese, forming more than three per cent, of the flora, there are 
seven endemic species, and of these the most interesting are the plants I have 
described as species of Breweria. Neither B. fastigiata nor B. glomerata adjust 
themselves to the generic character, but appear, especially the former, to share 
the features of more than one allied genus ; and a like remark applies to 
Porana obtusa, which I have included in what is a very polymorphous and at 
present unsatisfactorily-defined genus. 

Rubiacese, Asclepiadese, and Boraginese constitute each one-thirty-first part 
of the flora, and are deserving of special mention. 

Rubiacese is only about half as extensively represented as Composite?, which 
is noteworthy on account of the inverse relation prevailing in tropical Africa 
and the Mascarene Islands. More than half of the species are endemic, and 
there is one endemic genus. The most remarkable feature in the family is 
the great development of the genus Dirichletia, hitherto known in four species 
from tropical Africa, Madagascar, and Somali-land. The Somali-land plant 
occurs on Socotra and also three endemic species— one, D. obovata, being quite 
one of the commonest trees upon the shore-plains and hill-slopes. As might 
have been expected, the Socotran plants necessitate considerable emendation 
in the described generic character. Placopoda, the endemic genus, is a near 
alley of Dirichletia. Of other plants in the order, the endemic Musscenda 
capsulifera may be noticed on account of its capsular dehiscing fruit, in which 
feature it resembles the Nile-land M. luteola, already recorded as an aberrant 
form in the genus. 

Asclepiadeae is another order with a remarkable development in Socotra. 
Our material does not allow of specific determination of five distinct plants 
belonging to the order, and the species of another is doubtful; but of the 
twelve we have named eight are endemic, and two of them form monotypic 
endemic genera. The endemic genera Mitolejns and Cochlanthus belong to 
Periplocece, and have affinity with African genera. I have only described two 
endemic genera from the island, but it is not without violence to generic 
characters, as defined by Hooker and Bentham, that other species are placed 
in the genera to which they are assigned. Thus Secamone socotrana diverges 
from its generic type in the internal villous appendages to the corolla, and, like 
the Mascarene and Madagascar members of the genus, has sinistrorse aestivation 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. xlv 

and compact inflorescence. Both species of Ectadiopsis differ from the type of 
the genus in the form and relation of the corona-scales, and E. volubilis is 
unique on account of its twining habit. Vincetoxicum linifolium, another 
endemic species, has fiagelliform twining branches and narrow linear leaves, 
features only observable in some West Indian species of the genus. The 
distribution of Sa?'costemma Daltoni deserves notice. It is known with certainty 
elsewhere only in the Cape de Verde Islands, and the Socotran plant differs 
in trifling details alone from the form in these islands ; but it is likely that it 
ranges over the highlands of tropical Africa, some fragmentary specimens from 
these regions having the facies of the species, though identification is not 
possible. We have only been able to identify for certain one out of four 
Stapeliew from the island, which proves to be endemic. A second is probably 
the monotypic Abyssinian Echidnopsis. There are in our collection, besides 
the named forms and those referred to genera but not specifically known, 
portions of several asclepiadaceous species, and future explorers of the island 
will be able to increase greatly the number of known plants of the family. 

The Socotran Boraginese are chiefly remarkable because they comprise an 
endemic genus, Cystistemon, which has beautiful azure-blue flowers, and is 
well worthy of cultivation. Its affinity in the family is somewhat doubtful. 
Trichodesma Scotti, another of the endemic species — which are nine in all, or 
one-half the order, — has this to mark it, — its flowers are the largest of any in 
the genus. Heliotr opium, as might be expected, includes a large portion, one 
half, of the species of the order, most of them being scabrid plants of the plains. 
Cor diet obovata may have mention, because its succulent fruit is one of the few 
edible fruits on the island, — very poor as a fruit it is. 

In the Labiatse, of which nearly half the species are endemic, there is 
nothing requiring special mention except, perhaps, the occurrence of two 
species of Lasiocarys, a genus represented elsewhere in two south African 
and one Abyssinian species, and the remarkable mimicry between the foliage 
of Lasiocarys spiculifolia and the acanthaceous Blepharis spiculifolia. 

Scrophularinese in Socotra exhibits many features of interest. Its thirteen 
species are distributed in twelve genera, Striga being the only genus with more 
than one species; one-third of the representatives are endemic, and one constitutes 
an endemic genus. Seven of the species are indigenous annuals, and one of 
them is endemic. The endemic genus Xylocalyx is very peculiar on account of 
the increase in size, hardening, and lignification of the calyx after flowering ; 
its alliances are chiefly tropical African. Graderia fruticosa is an endemic 
member of a genus hitherto described as monotypic south African, but I have 
seen specimens of an undescribed Angola species. The endemic Campylanthus 
spinosus is another interesting geographical species. Only four other species 
of the genus are known, two being from Cape de Verde Islands, a third known 



xlvi BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

at Aden and reaching Scindh, and the fourth occurs in Scindh and Beloochistan. 
Camptoloma villosa is an endemic annual, and its occurrence in Socotra has 
great value, from a geographical point of view, as the only other species of the 
genus, C. rotundifolia, is found at Elephant Bay, in south Africa. That 
Schiveinfurthia pedicellata is only known elsewhere at Aden, and that Linaria 
hastata is entirely Abyssinian, are facts of distribution which swell the number 
of noteworthy points in this family. 

Capparideae and Burseraceae have an equally strong muster in Socotra. All 
the Burseraceae belong to the genera Boswellia and Balsamodendron. Of the 
eleven species recorded, two of Boswellia and two of Balsamodendron are 
unfortunately too imperfectly represented in our collection to admit of 
determination, and of the others, three are endemic species of Boswellia, and a 
like number are claimed by Balsamodendron. This, especially in the case of 
Boswellia, is a remarkable development, and well entitles Socotra to be ranked 
as a portion of the incense-country of the East. It is quite probable that the 
peculiar character of the incense-trees of Socotra may be to some extent lessened 
by the discovery of the species on the adjacent mainland of Africa and Asia. 

Amarantaceae, the next most numerously represented order, I only mention 
to bring out the fact that one of the Socotran endemic species, Aerua microphylla, 
was described so long ago as 1849, by Moquin-Tandon, in De Candolle's 
Prodromus, from " shores of the Ked Sea," as it was in the collection sent 
by Mr Nimmo to Sir William Hooker (see Preface, page xvi). 

Tiliaceae and Cucurbitaceae, with nine species each, demand attention to some 
of their features. The heterophylly in foliage-leaves, which is so marked a feature 
in the Mascarene flora, is not conspicuous in that of Socotra, but in the endemic 
tiliaceous Grewia bilocularis adventitious twigs have small cordate-deltoid hairy 
leaves with purple margins, quite different from the usual adult form of leaf, 
and the plant is therefore heterophyllous. Corchorus erodioides is another 
endemic tiliaceous species, which may be noted in passing for its difference in 
habit from the generic type, for a slightly diverse form of its leaves, and the 
recurving of the peduncles after flowering and consequent burying of the fruit. 
Cucurbitaceae possesses one of the most striking plants in the flora. It is the tree- 
cucurbit with thickly gouty stems, which I have named Dendrosicyos socotrana, 
the camhane, gamhen, or gamha of the inhabitants. It is quite a unique plant 
in the family. "We have not, unfortunately, material for a full analysis of the 
plant, and fruit and seeds are still unknown. The occurrence of an endemic 
species of Eureiandra is another fact which gives interest to this order, for only 
two other species are known — one from Angola and one from central Africa. 

Of Solanaceae and Liliaceae, which have an equal number of species, eight, in 
Socotra, I need only notice the latter here. I have previously mentioned reasons 
for the small number of petaloid monocotyledonous plants we have from Socotra, 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. ; 

x 
and amongst Liliacese there are only two bulbous forms, both new, one brought l 
the English and one by the German expedition. Of the eight species of Liliacet, 
known, six are endemic, and one of the other species is represented by an 
endemic variety. By far the most interest attaches in this family to the 
existence of Aloe Perryi, the source of the Socotran aloes, and to Dracaena 
Cinnabari, the Socotran dragon's-blood tree. Both are endemic plants. The 
alliance of the Socotran Dracwna with the Canary Island tree, with that of 
Abyssinia and with one recently found in Somali-land, is a fact of leading 
importance in geographical distribution. 

Cruciferse, Caryophylleae, and Urticacese come next in numerical import- 
ance. Cruciferse is chiefly remarkable for an endemic genus, Lachnocapsa, the 
affinity of which it is difficult to determine. In Urticacese we have another of 
the remarkable plants of the flora, namely, Dorstena gigas, which is a low-grow- 
ing plant, which possesses a thick gouty stem, from which a yellow viscid juice 
exudes. The occurrence of the south African Australina capensis is a curious 
fact of distribution in this family. 

Verbenacese, which, like Naiadaceae, has six species, half of them being 
endemic, has an endemic genus Coelocarpus, the affinity of which arrests 
attention. The closest relationship appears to be to Citliarexylmn, a tropical 
and subtropical American genus, spreading from Brazil and Bolivia to Mexico, 
and so close is the affinity that it is only in the andrcecium technical characters 
of separation are found. 

Of Crassulaceae, Ficoidese, Umbelliferse, Ebenaceae, and Orobanchacese, 
each with five species, Umbelliferte alone calls for mention here, and that 
because of its containing an endemic genus, Nirarathamnos, belonging to the 
affinity of Bnpleurum. It is an elegant woody undershrub, growing only on the 
higher peaks of the central granitic region of the island. 

Of seven orders which have each four representatives, — Hypericinese, 
Zygophyllese, Anacardiacese, Lythrarieae, Plumbaginese, Gentianeae, and Com- 
melinaceae, — Anacardiaceee and Gentianese have each three endemic species. 
In the first of these two orders, one of the endemic species, Rhus thyrsijiora, 
which is amongst the commonest tree on the island, has affinity amounting 
almost to identity with R. paniculata, a plant only known from Birma and 
Yunan; and the two others are species of Odina, one of which, O. asplenifolia, 
yields a false frankincense like the nearly related 0. obovata of Somali-land, 
the other being the ukshare, uksha, or eksche of the inhabitants, one of the 
largest trees of the island. In Gentianese there are three very pretty endemic 
species of Exacum, one of which, E. affine, has been introduced to cultivation in 
this country ; E. cceruleum, from the higher parts of the central granitic region, 
is however the prettiest species. Lythrarieae has only one endemic species, but 
that one possesses as much interest as any plant in the flora. Punica protopunica, 



ii BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

xlvi 

! its designation implies, may be regarded as representing the primitive stock 

a ^ 6£ the pomegranate. The gynaeceum consists of but a single whorl of carpels, 

k' the placenta being spread out over the floor of each carpel, and there is never 

any sign of the second whorl of the cultivated form. 

Geraniaceae, with three species on the island, presents us with an endemic 

genus, Dirachma, which is, as regards its affinities, somewhat puzzling. Tiliaceae, 

Sterculiaceae, and Samydaceae may all in some degree claim the genus, but the 

preponderance of characters seems to place it in Geraniaceae, and there its 

relationships appear to be with monotypic south American genera, and thus 

it is one of the forms from the Indian Ocean whose affinities are antipodean. 

Apocynaceae is another three-membered order which has features of interest. 

One species is endemic, and constitutes a new genus Socotora, which in all its 

characters shows strong individuality, and is a very exceptional one. Another 

species is Adenium multijlorum, one of the gouty plants from the island, and 

only known elsewhere in Mozambique. Santalaceae, which also has three species, 

may be mentioned here that I may point out the curious dimorphism in the 

staminate flowers of the endemic Osyris pendula, and that the Thesidium is 

probably an endemic species, but is indeterminable from our specimens. 

Of nine orders which have two species in Socotra I will mention here 

Menispermaceae, noteworthy on account of the cladodiferous and spinose 

Cocculus Balfourii; Illecebraceae, represented by two species, each the type of 

an endemic genus, — Haya allied to Illecebrum, and Lochia having affinity with 

Gymnocarpos ; Irideae, which has an endemic species of the south African genus 

Bdbiana, now in cultivation at Kew, and an endemic variety of Romulea 

purpurascens, the bulbs of which are said to be eaten in Socotra, and which it is 

recorded Wellsted brought from Socotra; and Amaryllideae, with a handsome 

and fragrant endemic Crinum, now in cultivation in Britain, and an endemic 

Hcemanthus, of which the very large leaves only are known. It will be observed 

that Illecebraceae and Amaryllideae are represented by endemic species alone, 

and that Irideae has one endemic species, and an endemic variety of its second 

representative. 

Twenty families have only one representative in Socotra, and in the case of 

nine the species is endemic, and one constitutes an endemic genus. Amongst 

these, Rutaceae is remarkable, for its representative Thamnosma socotr ana belongs 

to a genus which has only two other species, both of which are north American. 

Begoniaceae deserves mention on account of the beauty of its member Begonia 

socotrana, a plant now in cultivation in Europe, and peculiar in its bulbiferous 

character and orbicular leaves. Valerianella affinis of the Valerianaceae is an 

endemic annual. The selagineous plant constitutes an endemic genus Cock- 

burnia, nearly allied to Globularia, a genus of the Mediterranean region, central 

Europe, and the Canary Islands. Lasiosiphon socotranus, the endemic and only 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. xlix 

representative of Thymelseacese, differs conspicuously from the generic character 
in the want of perianth-scales, a feature in which it resembles an undescribed 
east African species collected by Hildebrandt. Orchidese has as its only species 
the endemic Habenaria socotrana, with an affinity in H. attenuata, a plant of the 
Cameroons. The single species of Aristolochiacese and of Loranthacese is in 
each case probably endemic, but our specimens are not sufficient to admit of 
determination. Acridocarpus orientalis, the only representative of Mal- 
pighiacese, although not endemic, is worthy of note, because it is elsewhere 
only known from the vicinity of Muscat. 

I must not omit to note here, at the conclusion of this brief survey of 
orders, the remarkable plant Wettstedia socotrana. It is placed in the system 
as an anomalous genus belonging to Bicarpellate Gamopetalse, but the order 
in which it should find a position is difficult to fix. Mr Bentham would 
place it in Verbenacese, but it has many resemblances with Boragineae. This 
question is discussed under the description of the plant. 

The endemic flora consists of 206 species — 17 being annuals — which fall 
into 136 genera, of which 20 are themselves endemic ; otherwise expressed 
this is : — 365 per cent, or more than one-third of the total species, are endemic, 
and 6 3 per cent, or just about one-fifteenth of the total genera, are endemic. 
This is a large proportion of endemic species, much greater than that in 
the Seychelles and Mascarene Islands, and about the same as in Madagascar, 
but the proportion of endemic genera is much less than in the latter island. 
In speaking of the orders, I have already referred to the more striking of the 
endemic species, and now I give the following list of them, adding a few 
remarks upon affinities or other noteworthy points :— 

List of endemic species in the phanerogamic flora of Socotra. 



MENISPERMACE.JE. 

Cocculus Balfourii, Schweinf., . 

CRUC1FER.E. 

Farsetia prostrata, Balf. fil. 
Brassica rostrata, Balf. fil. , 
* Lachnocapsa spathulata, Balf. fil. , . 

CAPPARIDEE. 

Cleome socotrana, Balf. fil. , 

Resedace^;. 
Reseda viridis, Balf. fil. , . 

V10LARIE.E. 
Alsodeia socotrana, Balf. fil. 

* Species of endemic genera are printed in italics. 
TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. Q 



Remarks, Affinities, &c. 
Remarkable for its cladodiferous shrubby habit. 



Annual. Allied to Brassica Tournefortii. Gouan. and B. fruticulosa, 
Cyr., Mediterranean and Oriental species. Has also an endemic 
hirsute variety. 

An endemic genus of doubtful affinity. 



/Annual. Allied to Cleome arabica, Linn., a north African and 
I Arabian species. 

f Allied to Reseda Auchcri, Boiss., a plant of Mesopotamia, Persia, 
1 and Scindh. 



I 



BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 



List of endemic species in the phanerogamic floka of Socotra — continued. 



CARYOPHYLLE2E. 

Polycarpcea divarieata, Balf. fil., 
,, caespitosa, Balf. fil. 

Hypericinejb. 
10 Hypericum scopulorum, Balf. fil., . 
,, tortuosum, Balf. fil. 

Malvace^;. 
Hibiscus Scotti, Balf. fil., 
,, stenanthus, Balf. fil. 
,, malacophyllus, Balf. fil. , . 

Sterculiaceje. 
Melhania muricata, Balf. fil. , . 

Tiliace^e. 

Grewia turbinata, Balf. fil. 
„ bilocularis, Balf. fil., 

Corchorus erodioides, Balf. fil., 

Elseocarpus transultus, Balf. fil., 

Geraniace^;. 
20 Dirachma socotrana, Scbweiuf., 

Rutace^e. 
Tbamnosma socotrana, Balf. fil., 

BURSERACEiE. 

Boswellia Ameero, Balf. fil. , . 

, , elongata, Balf. fil. , . 
, , socotrana, Balf. fil. 
Balsamodendron socotranum, Balf. fil., 
„ parvifolium, Balf. fil. , 

,, planifrons, Schwcinf. 

AMPELIDE.E. 

Vitis subaphylla, Balf. fil. 
,, paniculata, Balf. fil., 

Sapindaceje. 
30 Allopbylus rboidipbyllus, Balf. fil. 

ANACARDIACEiK. 

Rhus tbyrsiflora, Balf. fil., 
Odina ornifolia, Balf. fil., 
,, asplenifolia, Balf. fil., . 

Leguminosje. 
Crotalaria strigulosa, Balf. fil. , 
,, leptocarpa, Balf. fil. 
„ pteropoda, Balf. fil., 



Remarks, Affinities, &c. 



Annual. 



/ Has nearest allies in H. nanum, Poir. and H. cardiophyllum, Boiss. 
I from the Levant. 



( Allied to the Mozambique H. Kirkii, Mart, and the tropical African 
\ H. panduriformis, Burin. 

/ Remote affinity with H. gossypium, Thunb. of east and south 
I tropical Africa. 



Very near the Arabian and Scindh M. Denhami, R. Br. 



i Heterophyllous. Allied to O. bracteata, Roth., a plant of the Carnatie 
\ and Ceylon. 

{Differs in habit from type of genus. Its nearest allies are C. asplcni- 
folius, Burch. and C serrafolius, Burch., both south African. 
( Connects the Madagascar and Mascarene forms with the Indian. 
I The genus is absent from Africa. 

Endemic genus, with strong south American affinity. 

( Representative of an American genus which has only two other 
\ species. 

("Allied to the Abyssinian B. papyrifera, Ach. Rich, and the Somali- 
l land B. Carterii, Birdw. 

J Near B. Carterii, Birdw. and some forms of the Indian B. serrata, 
\ Roxb. 

("Allied to B. opobalsamum, Kth. from Arabia, Nubia, and Somali- 
{ land. 
Allied to B. pubescens, Stocks, a Scindh plant. 



Allied to the south African V. tetragona, Harvey. 



Almost conspecific with the Birmese R. paniculata, Wall. 
C Its nearest allies are the upper Guinea species 0. velutina, Balf. fil. 
\ and 0. Bartcri, Oliv. 

Allied to the Somali-land 0. obovata, Hook. fil. 



/Nearest affinity is C. triquctra, Dalzell and other species from tho 
I Indian Peninsula and Ceylon. 

Annual. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 



li 



List of endemic species in the phanerogamic flora of Socotra — continued. 



Legum i nos m — continued. 
Priotropis socotrana, Balf. fil., 

Trigonella falcata, Balf. fil. , 

Lotus ononopis, Balf. fil., 
40 ,, mollis, Balf. fil., . 

Indigofera nephrocarpa, Balf. fil. 

,, marmorata, Balf. fil. 
Tephrosia odorata, Balf. fil., . 

Taverniera sericophylla, Balf. fil. , 

Ormocarpum cseruleum, Balf. fil., 

Arlhrocarpum gracile, Balf. fil., 
Dichvostachys dehiscens, Balf. fil., . 
Acacia socotrana, Balf. fil. , 

,, pennivenia, Balf. fil. , 

CRASSULACE.E. 

60 Kalanchoe farinacea, Balf. fil. 
,, robusta, Balf. fil. 
,, abrupta, Balf. fil. 

Lythrarie^:. 
Punica protopunica, Balf. fil. , . 

CuCURBITACEiE. 

Eurciandra Balfourii, Cogn., 
Dendrosicyos socotrana, Balf. fil., 

Begoniace*. 
Begonia socotrana, Hook, fil., . 

FlCOIDEjE. 

Tetragonia pentandra, Balf fil., 

UMBELLIFERJ!. 

Nirarathamnos asarifolius, Balf. fil., 
Carum pimpinelloides, Balf. fil. , 

60 ,, calcicolum, Balf. fil., . 
Peucedanum cordatum, Balf. fil. 

Rtjbiace^;. 

Dirichletia venulosa, Balf. fil., 
,, lanceolata, Balf. fil., 

,, obovata, Balf. fil., 

Placopoda virgata, Balf. fil., 
Hedyotis pulvinata, Balf. fil. 
,, bicornuta, Balf. fil., . 
,, stellarioides, Balf. fil., 

Mussamda capsulifera, Balf. fil. , 
70 Gaillonia tinctoria, 



Remarks, Affinities, &c. 
( Only one other species is known in this genus, P. cytisoides, Wight 
1 and Arn. , a plant of the tropical eastern Himalayas. 
J Annual. Next to T. hamosa, Linn., a plant of Nile-land, Egypt, 
\ and south Africa. 

i Both allied to L. Oarcini, DC, a plant of Nile-land, Persia, and 
< Scindh. Those three species diverge so much from the generic 
' character as to form a distinct subgenus Ononidium. 

c The solitary axillary flowers are unusual in the section Brissonia, to 

\ which it belongs. 

r A trifoliolate species allied to T. lappacea, DC. from Nubia, and 

I T. Stocksii, Boiss. and T. spartea, DC from Beloochistan and 

l Persia respectively. 

( Probably nearest 0. Kirkii, S. Moore, an east tropical African species 

I reaching Somali-land. 

( One of the Hedysareae ; its generic alliance is with Ormocarpum, and 

\ some south American genera. 

Differs in important points from the generic character. 
J Has affinity with A. abyssinica, Hochst. of Abyssinia and A. 
\ nubica, Benth., a plant of Nubia and Arabia. 
/ Near A. arabica, Willd., an Arabian species, and A. Wightii, Baker 
l of the Indian Peninsula. 



f Second species of the genus, differing markedly in its gynaeceal 
I characters from the generic type. 

J Species of a genus only elsewhere represented by a species in Angola 
\ and one in central Africa. 
Unique in the family for its arboreous habit. 



Allied to the south African B. geranioides, Hook. fil. 



T. microptera, Fenzl. and T. echinata, Ait. south African species, 
are nearest allies. 



Allied to Bupleurum. 
( Annual. Has near alliance with 0. dicholomum, Benth. and Hook. 
\ from Marocco. 

Annual. 



J- These species entail some modification in the generic description. 
Allied to Dirichletia. 

Curious fruit. Perhaps not of this genus. 

Allied to E. Wallichii, Kurz, from Tenasserim and Nicobar. 
t Close to M. luteola, Del. from Nile-land. The capsular fruit is 
\ peculiar in the genus. 



lii 



BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 



List of endemic species in the phanerogamic flora of Socotra— continued. 



~RvBi\CKX.—coniinued. 

Gaillonia puberula, Balf. fil. 
thymoides, Balf. fil. 

VAI.EliIANE.fi. 

Vulerianella affinis, Balf. fil 

COMPOSIT.fi. 

Vernonia Cockburniaua, Balf. fil. 
Psiadia Schweinfurthii, Balf. fil., 

Pluchea glutinosa, Balf. fil. 

,, aromatica, Balf. fil. 

, , obovata, Balf. fil. 
Helichrysum rosulatum, Oliv. <fc Hiern. 
SO ,, spli«rocephalum, Balf . fil. 

,, arachnoides, Balf. fil., 

,, aciculare, Balf. fil. 

,, Nimmoanum, Oliv. <fc Hiern. 

,, suffruticosum, Balf. fil. 

,, gracilipes, Oliv. & Hiern., . 

Pulicaria diversifolia, Balf. fil., 

,, stephanocarpa, Balf. fil. , . 
„ vierxoides, Balf. fil, 

Senecio Scotti, Balf. fil 



90 Euryops socotranus, Balf. fil., . 

Dicoma cana, Balf. fil., . 
Lactuca rliynchocarpa, Balf. fil. 

,, crassifolia, Balf. fil. 
Prenanthes amabilis, Balf. fil. 
Launsea crepoides, Balf. fil. , . 

PLTJMISAGINEfi. 

Vogelia pendula, Balf. fil., 

SAPOTACE.S. 

Sideroxylon fimbriatum, Balf. fil, 

Ebenacejb. 
Euclea laurina, Hiern. 
,, Balfourii, Hiern., . . 

OlEACEjE. 

100 Jasminum rotundifolium, Balf. fil, 

Apoctnace*;. 
Socotora aphylla, Balf. fil., 

A8CLEPIADE.fi. 

Ectadiopsis volubilis, Balf. fil. , 

„ brevifolia, Balf. fil, 

Mitolepis intricata, Balf. fil. , . 



Remarks, Affinities, &c. 



Annual. Allied to the Spanish V. divaricata, Lauge and other 
Mediterranean species. 



/Allied to P. dodonaiafolia, Steetz from Zanzibar and Madagascar, 
4 which may be only a form of P. arabica, Jaub. and Spach., the 
v only Asian species. 



Annual. Belongs to section Leptorhiza of Euhelichrysum, which is 
south African; nearest ally is probably H. micropoides, DC. from 
south Africa. 



Annual usually. 
/Allied to P. petiolaris, Jaub. and Spach., a plant of Abyssinia, 
l Nubia, and perhaps Somali-land. 
Differs very markedly from the generic character. 
In habit differs from type of genus. 

Belongs to section Klcinia, which is essentially south African. 
Nearest ally in S. longifiorum, Oliv. and Hiern., a south and 
tropical African species. 
r Nearest ally is E, trifurcatus, a south African form. The genus in 
-J typically south African, but has a tropical African and an Arabian 
v representative. 
Has some affinity with the south African D. diacanthoides, Less. 



/ Near L. bellidifolia, Cass. , a species of Africa, India, and Mascarene 
I Islands. 



Resembles the south African V. afrieana, Lamk. 
Allied to S. diospyroides, Baker from Zanzibar. 



j Related to the south African E. ovata, Thunb. and E. divinorum, 
\ Hiern. 



Allied to /. mauritianum, Bojer from Mauritius and Seychelles. 
Without near affinity. 



Both differ considerably from the generic type. 
Allied to south African and Madagascar genera. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 



liii 



List of endemic species in the phanerogamic flora of Socotra — continued. 



Asclepiade^: — continued. 
Cochlanthus socotranus, Balf. fil., 
Secamone socotrana, Balf. fil., . 

Vincetoxicum linifolium, Balf. fil., 

Marsdenia robusta, Balf. fil. 
Boucerosia socotrana, Balf. fil., 

GeNTIANACEjE. 

110 Exaeum caeruleum, Balf. ill. 
,, affine, Balf . fil. , 

,, graoilipes, Balf. fil., . 

BORAGINEai. 

Cordia obovata, Balf. fil. , 

,, obtusa, Balf. fil. 
Heliotropium dentatum, Balf. fil., 

,, odorum, Balf. fil. , 

, , nigricans, Balf. fil. 

Trichodesma Scotti, Balf. fil. ' 

, , microcalyx, Balf. fil. , 

120 ,, laxiflorum, Balf. fil. 

Cystistemon socotrannm, Balf. fil., 

CONVOLVULACE^i. 

Ipomoea laciniata, Balf. fil. 
Convolvulus filipes, Balf. fil., . 

,, sarmentosus, Balf. fil. 

Porana obtusa, Balf. fil., 
Breweria pedunculata, Balf. fil. 

,, glomerata, Balf. fil. 

,, fastigiata, Balf. fil., . 

SOLANACE^. 

Withania Riebeckii, Schweinf , 

SCROPHULARINE*. 

130 Camptoloma villosa, Balf. fil., 
Campylanthus spinosus, Balf. fil., 

Graderia fruticosa, Balf. fil., 
Xylocalyx asper, Balf. fil., 

ACANTHACE.E. 

Ruellia insignis, Balf fil. 
„ carnea, Balf. fil. , 
Blepharis spiculifolia, Balf. fil. , 
Barleria aculeata, Balf. fil. 
,, tetracantba, Balf. fil., 
,, argentea, Balf. fil., 
140 Neuracanthus aculeatus, Balf. fil. 
, , capitatus, Balf. fil. , 

Ballochia amosna, Balf. fil., 

,, rotundifolia, Balf. fil., 
,, atrovirgata, Balf. fil., 
Justicia rigida, Balf. fil., 



Remarks, Affinities, &c. 

Allied to south African and Madagascar genera. 

Related to Madagascar and Mascarene species. 
( Differs in its flagelliform branches and twining habit from old world 
\ species. 

Allied to B. sinaica,T)cue. and B. Aucheriana, Dene., Arabian species. 



/Annual. Allied to E. petiolare, Griseb., a plant of the Indian 
I Peninsula. 
Annual. 



Allied to Cordia crenata, Del., a native probably of Arabia. 

J Annual. Allied to H. Ophioglossum Stocks from Scindh, Beloo- 
\ chistan, and also Somali-land. 
Allied to H. indicum, Linn., a widespread species. 



/ Allied to T. africanum., B. Br. , a tropical African and south-west 
I Asian plant. 

Allied to Borago. 



Allied to C. chondrilloides, Boiss., a plant of south Persia. 
Differs freely from type of genus. 

Differs markedly from generic type. 

A near ally of W. somnifera, Dunal, which also occurs on Socotra. 



Annual. Only one other species known ; it grows in south Africa. 

A small genus with sporadic distribution. 
( Only two other species in genus — one south African, the other 
\ Angolan. 

Allied to south African and Madagascar genera. 



Perhaps near B. Curori, T. Anders. , a west tropical African species. 
Differs slightly from generic type. 

J- Differ from generic type in ovarian characters. 
[• Differ somewhat from generic type. 

J- Near the monotypic Cameroon genus Oreacanthus. 



Nearest J. incaria, T. Anders. , a south African species. 



liv 



BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 



List of endemic species in the phanerogamic flora of Socotra — continued. 

Remarks, Affinities, &e. 



Acantiiack.'E — continual. 
Trichocalyx obovatus, Balf. fil., 
,, orbiculatus, Balf. fil., 

Anisotes diversifolius, Balf fil., 

Rhinacanthus scoparins, Balf. fil. 
150 Anca/anthus paiicifolius, Balf. fil., . 

Eobolinm striatum, Balf. fil., . 

Dicliptera effusa, Balf. fil. 
,, ovata, Balf. fil. 
Hypoestes pubescens, Balf. fil. 

Selagine.*. 
Cockburnia socotrana, Balf. fil., 

VERBENACEiB. 

Ucelocarpus socotranus, Balf. fil., 
Olerodemlron galeatum, Balf. fil., 
,, leucopliloeum, Balf. fil. 

Labiate. 

Orthosiplion ferrugineus, Balf. fil., . 
1G0 Lavandula Nimmoi, Bcnth., 
Leueas virgata, Balf. fil. 
Lasiocarys spiculifolia, Balf. fil. 
flagellifera, Balf. fil. 

Teucrium prostratum, Balf. fil., 

,, petiolare, Balf. fil., . 

Genus Anomalum. 
Wellstedia socotrana, Balf. fil., 

Illecebracfjb. 
Haya obovata, Balf. fil. , 

Lochia bracteata, Balf. fil., 

Amarantace^. 

Aerua microphylla, Moq. 
]70 ,, revoluta, Balf. fil. 

Thyme l«ace«. 
Lasiosiphon socotranus, Balf. fil. , 

Santalace*. 
Osyris pendula, Balf. fil., 

Eui'IIORBIAt'E*. 

Euphorbia leptoclada, Balf. fil. 
,, socotrana, Balf. fil. 

,, obcordata, Balf. fil. , 

,, Schweiufurthii, Balf. fil. 
,, oblanceolata, Balf. fil. 

„ arbuscula, Balf. fil., 



v Near Justicia. 

i Two other species known — one Arabian, the other east tropical 
\ African. The Socotran species has also a distinct variety. 

With some American affinities. 
I Only one other species known, which is widely dispersed in tropical 
I Asia and Africa, The Socotran species has also a distinct variety. 



Allied to the Mediterranean Globularia. 



With strong south American affinities. 

Allied to the African C. myr icoides and C. pilosus, Benth. and Hook. 



Perhaps allied to 0. somalensis, Vatke, a Somali-land plant. 
Allied to the Aden L. setifera, T. Anders. 



/Allied to T. Polium, Linn., a plant of Mediterranean and Oriental 
I regions. 
Has alliance with T. luxifolium, Schrcb., a south Spain plant. 



Quite aberrant genus. Allied to Verbenacese or Boraginese. 



Annual. Allied to the monotypic Tlleccbruin of Europe and north 
Africa. 
f Allied to Gymnocarpos, a monotypic genus, reaching from Canary 
\ Islands to Scindh. 



Differs markedly from generic type. 



Has curious dimorphism in staminate flowers. 



Allied to E. cuneata, Vahl from Arabia. 



( Allied to the Canary Island E. aphylla, Brouss. We have referred 
I another form to this as a variety. Possibly it is a distinct species. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 



It 



List of endemic species in the phanerogamic flora of Socotra— continued. 



EuPHORBiACE.fi — continued. 
Euphorbia spiralis, Balf. fil. 
180 Phyllanthus filipes, Balf. fil. 

Securinega Schweinfurthii, Balf. fil., 
Jatropha unicostata, Balf. fil. 
Croton sarocarpus, Balf. fil. 
, , sulcifructus, Balf. fil., . 

, , elseagnoides, Balf. fil., . 
,, socotranus, Balf. fil. 
Cephalocroton socotranus, Balf. fil., 

Tragia dioica, Balf. fil., . 

URTICACEfi. 

Dorstenia gigas, Schweinf. , . . . 
190 Ficus socotranus, Balf. fil., 

ORCHIDEfi. 

Habenaria socotrana, Balf. fil., 

iRIDEfi. 

Babiana socotrana, Hook, fil., . 

Aryllidaceje. 
Crinum Balfourii, Baker, .... 
Haemanthus grandifolius, Balf. fil. 

DlOSCOREACEfi. 

Dioscorea lanata, Balf. fil. 

LlLIACEiB. 

Aloe Perryi, Baker. 
,, squarrosa, Baker, .... 

Dracaena Cinnabari, Balf. fil., . 

Anthericum graptophyllum, Baker, 

200 Dipcadi Balfourii, Baker, 

Urginea porphyrostachys, Baker, 

GRAMINEfi. 

Eriochloa vestita, Balf. fil., . 
Panicum rigidum, Balf. fil. 

Rhynchelytrum microstachyum, Balf. fil., 

Lepturus tenuis, Balf. fil., 
206 Ischnurus pulchellus, Balf. fil., 



Kemarks, Affinities, &c. 



Allied to south European S. buxifolia, Mull. Arg. 



Allied to C. zambesicus, Mii.ll. Arg. from east tropical Africa. 
/ Has affinity with the south African C. gratissimus, Burch. and tli» 
I west African C. amdbilis, Miill. Arg. 

f Modifies the generic character. Only two other species known, 
I both tropical African. 

f Allied to the widely spread species T. involucrala, Jacq. and to tlm 
I tropical African and Arabian T. mitts, Hochst. 



Perhaps allied to D. radiata, Lamk., an Arabian plant. 
Near F. platyphylla, Caill., a Nubian species. 



/ Nearly related to H. attenuata, Hook, fil., a plant of the Cameroon 
I Mountains. 



Nearest to B. plicata, G., a south African species. 

i Nearest alliance with two Himalayan species C. amainum, Roxb. 
\ and C. longifolium, Roxb. 



Allied to the south African A. consobrina, Salm-Dyck. 
Allied to D. Draco, Linn, from Canary Islands, to D. Ombet, 
Kotsch. and Peyr. from Nubia, and to D. schizantha, Baker from 
Somali-land, 
f Allied to A. nubicum, Baker, a Nubian plant, and A. inconspicuum , 
I Baker from Somali-land. 
Allied to the Mediterranean D. serotinum, Medic. 
U. anther icoides, Steinh. , an Algerian plant, is its nearest alliance. 



Probably allied to the Indian E. punctata, Hamilt. 

( Annual. The Nubian R. grandiflorum, Hochst. and another species 
\ from Abyssinia are the only other ones in the genus. The 
( Socotran species has a distinct variety. 

{Annual. L. filiformis, Linn., a Mediterranean species, is an ally, 
and also the Australian and south Pacific L. repens, R. Br. 
Allied to the monotypic Indian Oropetima. 



Of the 136 genera to which the endemic species belong, the large number 
of 98 are represented by endemic species only ; and of the 20 endemic 
genera 18 are monotypic, — the exceptions being Ballochia, which is tritypic, and 



hi 



BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 



Trichonilji.r, which is ditypic. An analysis of the generic constitution of the 
endemic flora gives the subjoined table illustrating the geographical area of 



the several genera :— 



Table showing distribution of genera with endemic species in the 
phanerogamic flora of socotra. 



Genera. 



Cocculus, . 

Farsetia, 

Brassica, 

Lachnocapsa, 

Cleome, 

Reseda, 

Alsodeia, . 

Polycarprca, 

Hypericum, 

Hibiscus, . 

Melhania, . 

Grewia, 

Corchorus, . 

Elaeocarpus, 



Dirachma, . 
Thamnosma, 



Boswellia, . 

Balsamodendron 

Vitis, 

Allopliylus, 

Rhus, 

Odina, 
Crotalaria, . 
l'riotropis, 

Trigonella, 
Lotus, 
Indigofera, 
Tephrosia, . 

Taverniera, 

Onnocarpuin, 



Arthrocarpum, 
Dichrostachys, 



Acacia, 
Kalanchoe, 

Punica, 



T.* 
T 
1 



^2 






Chiefly African and Asian. 

Chiefly northern hemisphere. 
Affinities doubtful. 



Chiefly American. 

Scarcely represented in America. 

Temperate regions and hills in tropics only. 

Mostly African. Extending to Australia. 



Although absent from Africa, has some species in 
Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands, and is 
widely spread in the old-world tropics, south 
Pacific, and Australia. 

Allied to the south American monotypic genera 
Wcndtia and Balbisia. 

Has two species out of Socotra, one in California, 
and one in Texas. Besides Peganum is the only 
new-world genus of true rues. 



Chiefly American. 

The Socotran endemic species is almost conspecific 
with one in Birma. Not tropical. 

Attains a maximum in Africa. 
Has only one species out of Socotra which inhabits 
eastern tropical Himalayas. 

Temperate regions and hills in tropics only. 
Attains a maximum in tropical and south Africa. 
Attains a maximum in south Africa, and tropical 

and sub-tropical Australia. 
Extends from Nubia through Persia and Beloochis- 

tan to India. 
Small genus with two Mexican, one Australian, 

three tropical African, and one tropical Asian 

ami African species, besides the Socotran one. 
Allied to Ormocarpum, and to the American Chccto- 

calyx, Nissolia, and similar genera. 
Small genus with an Australian, an Australian and 

tropical Asian, and two or three tropical and 

south African species. 

Chiefly tropical and south African. , 

Has only one species out of Socotra, the pomegranate, 
supposed to be native of the region embracing 
Persia, Kurdistan, Afghanistan, and Beloo- 
chistan. 



Indicates large distribution in temperate regions. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 



lvii 



Table showing distribution of genera with endemic species in the 
phanerogamic flora of Socotra — continued. 



Genera. 



Eureiandra, 




Dendrosicyos, 

Begonia, 

Tetragonia, 




Nirarathamnos, . 
Carum, 
Peucedanum, 
Dirichletia, 


T. 


Placopoda, 
Hedyotis, . 
Mussosnda, 




Gaillonia, . 
Valerian ella, 
Vemonia, . 
Psiadia, 


T." 


Pluchea, 
Helichrysum, 




Puliearia, . 


t. 


Senecio, 




Euryops, . 





Dicoma, 

Laetuca, . . T. 
Prenanthes, . T. 



Launsea, 
Vogelia, 



Sideroxylon, 
Euclea, 
Jasminum, . 
Socotora, 
Eetadiopsis, 
Mitolepis, . 
Cochlanthus, 
Secamone, . 



Vincetoxicum, 

Marsdenia, 

Boucerosia, 

Exacum, 

Cordia, 

Heliotropium, 

Triehodesma, 

Cystistemou, 

Ipomo3a, 
Convolvulus, 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 



Has only two species outside of Socotra — one in 

Angola, one in central Africa. 
Unique on account of the arboreous habit. 

Attains a maximum in south Africa. Not known 

from the adjacent coasts of Asia. 
Allied to the cosmopolitan genus Bupleurum. 
Chiefly old world. 
Chiefly northern hemisphere. 
Only three species known outside of Socotra, from 

east tropical Africa and Madagascar. 
Allied to Dirichletia. 

Extending to the islands of the Indian and Pacific 
Oceans. 

Chiefly northern hemisphere. 
Chiefly Brazilian. 

Chiefly tropical and subtropical Africa, Mada- 
gascar, and Mascarene Islands. One species 

extends from tropical Africa to Arabia. 
Chiefly American. 
Chiefly south Africa, highlands of tropical Africa, 

Mascarene Islands, and Australasia. 
Headquarters in the Mediterranean region. One 

species is south African. 
The section Klcinia of the Socotran plant is chiefly 

south African. 
Almost entirely south African. One species is 

found in Arabia, and the same one probably 

also in Nile-land, and one grows on Kilima 

Njaro. 
Has headquarters in south Africa, with a few 

tropical African and one Indian species. 
Chiefly old world, 
Northern hemisphere, chiefly American. Though 

absent from Africa, found in Canary Islands, 

also Europe and northern India. 
Extends from Canary Islands through Mediterranean 

region, and occurs in south Africa and in India 

(Peninsula). 
Only three species. One is south African, one occurs 

in north-west India and Arabia, and reaches 

Socotra, forming an endemic variety ; the third 

is the endemic Socotran plant. 

Only south and tropical African. 

Chiefly old world. A few south American. 

Quite aberrant. 

A small east tropical and south African genus. 

Allied to south African and Madagascar genera. 

Allied to south African and Madagascar genera. 

Extends to Australia. The section of the genus 

represented in Socotra is Mascarene and 

Madagascar only. 
Habit of Socotran species resembles that of west 

Indian forms. 

Northern hemisphere. 
Chiefly in cooler regions. 
Chiefly American. 



Extending to Australia. 
Probably closely related 
genus Borago. 



to the Mediterranean 



h 



lviii 



BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 



Table showing distribution of genera with endemic species in the 

PHANEROGAMIC FLORA OF SOCOTRA — continued. 



Genera. 



Porana, 



Breweria, . 
Witliania, . 
Camptoloma, 

Campylanthus, 



Graderia, 



Xylocalyx, 

Ruellia, 

Blepharia, 

Barleria, 
Neuracanthus, 
Ballochia, . 



Justicia, 
Trichocalyx, 
Anisotes, . 

Rhinacanthus, 
Ancalanthus, 
Ecbolium, . 



Dicliptera, . 

Hypoestes, 

Cockburnia, 

Ccelocarpus, 
Clerodendron, 
Orthosiphon, 
Lavandula, 

Leucas, 
Lasiocarys, 

Tcucrium, 

Wellstedia, 

Haya, 

Lochia, 

Aerua, 
Lasiosiphon, 

Usyris, 
Euphorbia, 

1'liyllantlius, 

Securiuega, 

Jatropha, 

Croton, 

Ceplialocroton, 

Tragia, 
Dorsteiiia, 

Ficus, 
Habenaria, 
Babiana, 
Crionm, 



Remarks. 



A small genus of India and the Malay Archipelago, 
extending to Australia. Also Madagascar, but 
not African. 

Reaches the Canary Islands. 

Only one other species outside of Socotra, at 

Elephant's Bay, south Africa. 
Only four other species outside of Socotra. One in 

Aden reaches to Scindh, one occurs in Scindh 

and Beloochistan, and two grow in Cape de 

Verde Islands. 
Only two species known outside of Socotra ; one 

being south African, the other, undescribed, is 

from Angola. 
Allied to Graderia and adjacent genera. 
Headquarters in tropical America. 

Some American. 

More Asian than African. 

Tritypic. Allied to the monotypic Orcacanthus of 

the Cameroon highlands and other tropical 

African genera. 

Ditypic. Allied to the widely distributed Justicia. 

Has only two -representatives outside of Socotra — 
one Arabian, the other east tropical African. 

Reaches Madagascar. 

Allied to the Brazilian genus Schaueria. 

There is only one species of the genus outside of 
Socotra, and it is widely spread in tropical 
Asia and Africa. The Socotran plant has a 
distinct variety in addition to the specific form. 



Allied to Globularia, a genus of the Mediterranean 

region. 
Allied to the American genus Cilharexylum. 
Mostly Old World. 
Extends to Australia. 
Reaches Canaiy Islands on the west, and India 

on the east. 
Extends to Australia. 
Three species are known outside of Socotra — one is 

south African, and the two others are Abyssinian. 
Attains a maximum in Mediterranean region. 
Quite aberrant. 
Allied to the monotypic Illcccbrum of Europe and 

west Africa. 
Allied to the monotypic Gymnocarpos, which 

spreads from the Canary Islands to Scindh. 

Chiefly south African ; also Madagascar. 
Occurs in south Europe. 



Has only two species outside of Socotra — one in 
east tropical Africa, the other Nile-land. 

Chiefly American and tropical African. Two species 
are Asian, one in Arabia, and one in India. 



South African entirely. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 



lix 



Table showing distribution of genera with endemic species in the 

PHANEROGAMIC FLORA OF SoCOTRA — continued. 



Genera. 


u 

B 

m 

a 
W 


S 

C? 

i 1 

■ c 


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O 

3 ° 
_>^£ 

a? 
!S 


c 
o 

S 

S5 


c . 

Oj "Jo 

* t3 

12 5 

« 03 

"S — 


9 
< 
O 

a 
<3 
a 
'C 
< 


S3 

< 

O 
C 

-3 


C3 

a 
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Remarks. 


Haemanthus, 

Dioscorea, . 

Aloe, .... 

Dracaena, . 

Anthericum, 

Dipcadi, 

Urginea, 

Eiiocliloa, . 
Panicum, . 
Rhynehelytrum, 

Lepturus, . . T. 
Ischnurus, . 


X 

20 


X 

X 
X 

54 


X 
X 

11 




X 
X 


X 
X 

X 
X 






Essentially south African ; a few tropical African 
species. 

Headquarters south Africa, hut extending through 

tropical Africa, the Atlantic and Indian Ocean 

Islands. 
The section to which the Socotran species belongs 

is restricted to Canary Islands, Nubia, and 

Somali-land. 
Spread through Europe, Africa, America, but 

absent from Asia. 
Reaches Canary Islands on the west, and India 

on the east. 
Reaches Canary Islands on the west, and India 

on the east. 

Has only two species outside of Socotra ; one is 
Abyssinian, the other ^Ethiopian. 

Allied to the Indian monotypic Oropetium. 


1 


26 


13 


6 


5 



A glance at the features of the above table may not be without interest. 
Amongst the twenty endemic genera the near affinities of Lachnocapsa, Den- 
drosicyos, Socotora, and Wellstedia are obscure, and so much so in the case of 
the last-mentioned genus that its order is not certain, and it has to be treated 
as an anomalous gamopetalous genus allied to Boraginese or Verbenacese. 
Dirachma and Ccelocarpus have very close south American affinities ; and 
American relationships also appear in Arthrocarpum and Ancalanthus. Placo- 
poda, Mitolepis, Cochlanthus, Xylocalyx, and Ballochia find their nearest allies in 
south and tropical African and Madagascar genera. With genera of wide 
distribution Nirarathamnos and Trichocalyx claim affinity. Cystistemon and 
Cockburnia have Mediterranean relations, and the next-of-kin to Haya and 
Lochia are found in monotypic genera of Europe and north Africa, and of the 
region extending from the Canary Islands on the west to Scindh on the east 
respectively. Ischnurus has a monotypic Indian alliance. Whilst these are the 
undoubted endemic genera of the flora, it is to be remarked that a number of 
the endemic species which are included in genera of extra-Socotran distribution 
can only be so included by straining or modifying the characters of these 
genera as they are at present described ; and this variation from the generic 
character is an interesting feature in the plants of Socotra. The following 
genera, for instance, are modified in conspicuous features by Socotran plants : — 



lx BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Lotus, Dichrostachys, Punica, Dirichletia, Pulicaria, Ectadiopsis, Secamone, 
Blepharis,Barleria,Neuracanthus,Ladosiphon,&Ti& Cephalocroton. In some cases 
the aberration of the species are of no great extent ; in others the modification 
of the genus required is so great that it becomes a question whether or not the 
Socotran plants have sufficient individuality to form a distinct and new genus. 

Fifty-four genera with endemic species have a wide geographical area in both 
the old and new world. Most of them are conspicuously tropical genera, but 
some have a considerable range in extra-tropical and temperate regions. 
Hypericum, Carum, Peucedanum, Valerianella, Teucrium, Habenaria, for instance, 
are genera with considerable temperate development, and in the tropics found 
usually in mountainous districts. Rhus has but a small tropical representation. 
The majority of genera of the category we are now considering are extensive 
ones, with almost cosmopolitan range within their latitudes, but such ones as 
Crotalaria, Indigo/era, Tephrosia, Acacia, Kalanchoe, and Tetragonia may be said 
to attain their maxima in tropical and south Africa, and the section of Senecio 
which occurs in Socotra is south African. Dorstenia has a very large develop- 
ment in Africa, but few species are Asian ; and Tetragonia is not known yet 
from the Orient region of Asia adjacent to Socotra. 

Amongst the twelve genera of old-world distribution, only Brassica and Lotus 
have considerable range in temperate regions, and the latter especially frequents 
highlands in the tropics ; Helichrysum has a maximum development in Africa, 
especially in south Africa, and has few representatives in Asia east of the 
Orient region, and Launcea extends from the Canary Islands to India. 

The presence of Thamnosma, a genus with only two representatives, natives 
of southern north America, is one of those features of distribution in this 
region difficult to explain adequately. 

Several of the twenty-six genera recorded in the table as of restricted area 
in Africa and Asia are deserving of notice. Several are small genera, with 
remarkable sporadic distribution. Taverniera is characteristically a genus of 
south-west Asia, but is also found in Nubia. Psiadia is essentially tropical 
and subtropical African, extending to Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands, 
but one species reaches Arabia, and thus it has Asian representation. Euryops 
is almost entirely south African, one species, however, occurs on Kilima Njaro, 
and another grows in Nile-land and Arabia. The tritypic Vogelia has one 
south African and one Arabian and north-west Indian species, the other being 
Socotran. Anisotes, also tritypic, has one Arabian species and one growing in 
east tropical Africa. Ecbolium is ditypic, the non -Socotran plant being widely 
spread in tropical Asia and Africa. Lasiosiphon has a maximum development 
in south Africa, and also occurs in Madagascar. Secamone is interesting, because 
of the Madagascar relationship of the Socotran species. 

There arc thirteen genera with endemic Socotran species which occur in 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 



Ixi 



Africa, but are altogether absent from Asia. Of these Anthericum is a genus of 
wide distribution throughout Europe, America, and Africa; and it is a significant 
fact that only one of the others occurs off the African continent. This one is 
Aloe, which has its headquarters in south Africa, and reaches the Atlantic and 
Mascarene Islands and the Mediterranean region. Thus eleven of the genera 
are peculiarly continental African, and their geographical areas are so remark- 
able that I add here a table to exhibit them : — 



Table showing distribution of eleven genera with endemic species in 
the phanerogamic flora of socotra which are confined to the 
African continent. 





< 
O 


"3 

'3. ?, 

93 
W 


S3 

u 

03 
S3 

•a 


.5 

< 


< 


C3* 

a 

2 

'a 

b. 

B 
O 
O 


4 




Eureiandra, 

Dirichletia, 

Euclea, 

Ectadiopsis, 

Camptoloma, . 

Graderia, 

Lasiocarys, 

Cephalocroton, 

Babiana, 

Hsemanthus, . 

Rhynchelytrum, 






X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

X 
X 


X 
X 

X 


X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


X 
X 


Tritypic. Third species Socotran. 
Seven species. Three endemic in Socotra. 

Six species. Two, perhaps three, endemic in Socotra. 
Ditypic. Second species endemic in Socotra. 
Tritypic. Third species endemic in Socotra. 
Five species. Two endemic in Socotra. 
Tritypic. Third species endemic in Socotra. 

Tritypic. Third species endemic in Socotra. 



The affinities with the south African flora, and with that of the higher lands 
upon the west, east, and north-east of Africa, is so clearly brought out in this 
table that no words are needed to emphasise the relationship. But I may just 
note this interesting fact, that three of the genera are Monocotyledones. There 
are only fifteen Socotran genera of Monocotyledones with endemic species ; of 
these one is itself endemic, and five are African, but absent from Asia. 

Of no less interest than the African genera which are not Asian, are the six 
Asian genera which are not African. Prenanthes is a large genus with a wide 
temperate distribution, chiefly American, but extending to the Canary Islands, 
Europe, and northern India, without representation on the African con- 
tinent. Elwocarpus and P or ana are genera of considerable size and area in 
the old-world tropics, both reaching Australia, and occurring in India and 
Madagascar, the former also in the Mascarene Islands, and their absence 
from Africa, in view of their last-mentioned localities, is striking. The pre- 
sence of the ditypic Priotropis, of which the only other species inhabits 
tropical districts of the eastern Himalayas, from Khasia to Sikkim, is an 
Indian relationship of great importance. Lastly, Punica, of which the cul- 
tivated P. Granatum is the only other known species, is supposed to be native 
of the region including Persia, Kurdistan, Affghanistan, and Beloochistan ; 
and Campylanthus, with four non-Socotran species, has one species at Aden, 



lxii 



BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 






which is also found in Scindh, another is native of Scindh and Beloochistan, and 
two inhabit the Cape de Verde Islands. 

There remain £" Q genera which do not quite fall into any of the groups 
already noted. Of these Farsedd, Reseda, Withania, and Lavandula are genera 
of the Mediterranean and Orient regions, with varying extensions; and Pulicaria 
lias also its greatest development in the Mediterranean region. 

Looking now at the non-endemic species of Phanerogams, we find that 
ninety are common weeds in the tropics or warmer regions of all parts of the 
world, some of them reaching into temperate regions ; forty-four of them being 
annuals. The greater number of these are introduced plants in Socotra, some 
of quite recent date, and cannot be considered as established in the island ; 
others have now incorporated themselves with the indigenous vegetation. The 
following is a list of those cosmopolitan tropical plants : — 



List of species of the phanerogamic flora of Socotra cosmopolitan in 
the tropics, some extending to subtropical and temperate regions ; 
many are weeds of cultivation, and introduced into socotra. 



Argemone mexicana. Annual. 
Cleoine viscosa. Annual. 
Gynandtopsis pentaphylla. Annual. 
Capparis spinosa. 
Arenaria serpyllifolia. Annual. 
Polycnqvea eorymbosa. Annual. 
Portulacca oleracea. Annual. 
Sida cordifolia. 

,, rhombifolia. 

„ humilis. Annual. 
Tribulua terrestris. Annual. 
Fagonia cretica. Annual. Represented 

by an endemic variety, and also by 

the Arabian variety. 
Oxalis corniculata. Annual. 
Dodonsea viscosa. 
Melilotus parviflorus. Annual. 
Tephrosia purpurea. 
Zornia diphylla. Annual. 
Desmodium trittorum. 
Teramnus labialis. Annual. 
Canavalia ensiformis. 
Vigna luteola. Annual. 
Rhynchosia minima. 
( laasia Sophera. 

,, Torn. Annual. 
Lythrum hyssopifolium. Annual. 
Momordiea Charantia, var. abbreviata. 
Mollugo hirta. Annual. 
Hydrocotyle asiatica. 
Oldenlandia eorymbosa. Annual. 
Ageratum conyzoides. Annual. 



Siegesbeckia orientalis. Annual. 
Eclipta alba. Annual. 
Blaiuvillea rhomboidea. Annual. 
Bidens pilosa. Annual. 
Sonchus oleraceus. Annual. 
Anagallisarvensis,w«\cait'ulea. Annual. 
Ipomcea biloba. 

,, scabra. Annual. 
Evolvulus alsinoides. 
Dichondra repeus. 
Cressa cretica. 
Solanum nigi'um. Annual. 
Datura fastuosa, var. alba. Anuual. 
Herpestes Monnieria. 
Lippia nodiflora. 
Avicennia officinalis. 
Boerhaavia diffusa. 

,, scandens. 

Acbyranthes aspera. 

,, ,, var. sicula 

Cbenopodium murale. Annual. 
1'olygonum glabrum. 
Peperomia reflexa. Annual. Repre- 
sented by a Himalayan and Ceylon 
form. 
Fluggea microcarpa. 
Potamogeton natans. Represented by 

European and west Indian form. 

,, fluitans. 

,, peetinatus. 

Ruppia maritima. 
Naias major. Annual. 



Cyperus lsevigatus. 

,, amabilis. 

,, aristatus. Annual. 

,, compressus. Annual. 

,, difformis. Annual. 

,, rotundus. 
Heleocharis Chsetaria. 
,, capitata. 

Fimbristylis diphylla. 
,, ferruginea. 

,, autumnalis. 

,, glomerata. 

Cladium Mariscus. 
Paspalum distichum. 
Panieum sanguinale. Annual. 

,, paspaloides. 

,, colon um. Annual. 
Oplismenus Burmanni. 

,, compositus. 

Setaria glauca. Annual. 

,, viridis. Annual. 

,, verticillata. Annual. 
Pennisetum cenchroides. 
Tragus racemosus. Annual. 
Imperata arundinacea. 
Heteropogon hirtus. 
Cynodou dactylon. 
Cbloris barbata. 
Eleusine segyptiacil. Annual. 

,, indica. Annual. 
Eragrostis pilosa. Annual. 
,, eiliaris. Annual. 



A considerable proportion of the non-endemic plants have a wide distribu- 
tion in the tropics and warmer regions of the old world only, and do not reach 
America, some of them having an extension into temperate regions. Sixty-two 
species belong to this category, and they are enumerated in the following list. 
Some of them are plants which have been certainly introduced ; nearly the 
whole of them are quite established as part of the flora of the island. Twenty- 
four of them are annuals. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 



lxiii 



List of species of the phanerogamic flora of Socotra with general old- 
world distribution; some introduced in Socotra. 



Ionidium suffruticosum. The only 
species of the genus in tropical Africa. 
Portulacca quadrifida. Animal. 
Talinuni crmeilblium. Reaches Europe. 
Tamarix gallica. 
Abutilon fruticosum. 

,, muticum. 
Hibiscus vitifolius. Annual. 
Corchorus acutangulus. 
Zizyphus Jujuba. 

,, Spin a-Christi. 
Vitis quadrangularis. 
Medicago denticulata. Annual. Only 

in the northern hemisphere. 
Indigofera cordifolia. Annual. 

, , paucifolia. 

,, viseosa. Annual. 

Alysicarpus vaginalis. Annual. 
Cassia Absus. 

Ammania baccifera. Annual. 
Momordica balsamina. Annual. 
Citrullus Colocynthis. 
Melothria punctata. 



Oldenlandia Heynei. 
Galium Aparine. 
Vernonia cinerea. Annual. 
Dichrocephala chrysanthemifolia. 

Annual. 
Heliotropium ovalifolium. Annual. 

,, strigosum. 

Ipomoea obscura. Annual. 
Solanum indicum. 
Physalis minima. Annual. 
Wrthania somnifera. 
Striga hirsuta. Annual. 
Asystasia coromandeliana. 
Boerhaavia repens. 
Digera arvensis. 
Amarantus Blitum. Annual. 

,, polygamus. Annual. 

Pupalia lappacea. 
Aerua javanica. 

,, lanata. With an endemic 
variety. 
Polygonum barbatum. 
Phyllanthus maderaspatensis. 



Acalypha indica. Annual. 

Commelina benghalenis. 

Juncus maritimus. Northern hemi- 
sphere only. 

Naias graniinea. Annual. 

Cyperus pumilus, var. patens. Annual. 
The Socotran form is tropical 
African and Australian. 

Cyperus umbellatus, var. cyperinus. 

Kyllinga monocephala. 

Fuirena glomerata. Annual. 

Paspalnm serobiculatum. 

Panicum eruciforme. Annual. 
, , Petiveri. Annual. 

Arthraxon molle. 

Andropogon hirtus. 
, , pertusus. 

Chrysopogon Gryllus. 

Anthistiria ciliata. 

Apluda aristata. 

Aristida adscensionis. 

Eleusine verticillata. Annual. 

Eragrostis plumosa. Annual. 



The geographical areas of the remaining plants are more definite. One hun- 
dred and nine of them may be considered as inhabitants of the regions in Africa 
and Asia adjacent to Socotra, that is to say, occupying the north-east corner of 
Africa, including Nubia, Abyssinia, and Somali-land, and the south-west corner 
of Asia. Taking this region as a centre, they extend in a varying degree east- 
wards and westwards ; eastwards passing through Persia and Beloochistan to 
Affghanistan and even Turkestan on the north ; to Scindh, the Himalayas, 
and the Indian Peninsula, and even Ceylon on the south ; westwards spreading 
through Syria and Egypt into the Mediterranean region and reaching south- 
west Europe and the Atlantic Islands, or passing more directly across tropical 
Africa to the Atlantic Islands — with not infrequently extensions to south 
Africa, to Madagascar, and to the Mascarene Islands. Some of these species 
have an exceedingly limited geographical area, in the case of others the range 
is very extensive. Some of the plants are perhaps introductions. The following 
is a list of the species having this distribution : — 



List of one hundred and nine species of the phanerogamic flora of 
Socotra with distribution in north-east Africa and south-west Asia. 



Species. 


Western limit. 


Eastern limit. 


Intermediate and farther 
extension, Remarks. 


Cocculus Leseba, 


De Verde Islands 


India 


Tropical Africa. 


Farsctia longisiliqua, 


Nubia 


Arabia 




Sisymbrium erysimoides, 


Canary Islands 


South Persia 


Mediterranean region and Abys- 
sinia. Annual. 


Cleome papillosa, . 


Nile-land 


North-west India 


Annual. 


,, brachycarpa, 


Nile-land 


North-west India 




Cadaba longifolia, . 


Abyssinia 


Arabia 




Capparis aphylla, . 


Nile-land 


North-west India 




Oehradenus baccatus, 


Nile-land 


Scindh 




Polygala abyssinica, 


Tropical Africa 


North-west India 


Also south Africa. Annual. 


,, erioptera, . 


De Verde Islands 


North India 


Tropical Africa. Annual. 



ixiv 



BOTANY OF SOCOTKA. 



List of one hundred and nine species of the phanerogamic flora of Socotra 

WITH DISTRIBUTION IN NORTH-WEST AFRICA AND SOUTH-WEST ASIA— continued. 



Species. 


Western limit. 


Eastern limit. 


Intermediate and further 
extension, Remarks. 


Gypsophila montaua, 


Somali-land 


Arabia (Aden) 


The Somali-laud form is a viscid 
variety, which also occurs on 
Socotra. 


Silene apetala, 


Canary Islands 


Afghanistan 


Med i terranean region. Not African. 
Annual. 


Polycarpsea spicata, 


Nile-land 


India 


Annual. An endemic variety 
occurs on Socotra. 


Malva parviflora, 


Levant 


North-west India 


Nubia. Annual. 


Sida grewioides, 


Tropical Africa 


North-west India 




Senra incana, .... 


Nile-land 


Seindh 




Hibiscus intermedius, 


Tropical Africa 


Scindh 


Annual. 


,, niicraiithus, 


Tropical Africa 


India 




Grewia populifolia, . 


Tropical Africa 


North-west India 


Also Mascarene Islands. 


,, salvifolia, . 


Tropical Africa 


Scindh 


Also Johannas. 


Corchorus Antichorus, . 


De Verde Islands 


North India 


Tropical Africa. 


Linuni gallicum, 


Mediterranean region 


Persia 


Abyssinia. Annual. 


Zygophylluin simplex, . 


De Verde Islands 


Scindh 


North tropical Africa; also south 
Africa. Annual. 


,, album, 


North Africa 


Arabia 


East Mediterranean region. 


Medicago laciniata, 


Canary Islands 


Beloochistan 


East Mediterranean region and 
north Africa ; also south 
Africa. Annual. 


,, minima, 


Europe and west Asia 


North India 


Abyssinia. Annual. 


Lotus arabicus, var. trigonel- 


Canary Islands 


Persia 


North Africa. Annual. 


lioides, .... 








Indigofera leptocarpa, 


Nubia 


Arabia 




,, argentea, 


Nile-land 


Scindh 




Tephrosia Ai>ollinea, 


Tropical Africa 


Scindh 




Rhynchosia Memnonia, . 


Tropical Africa 


Scindh 




Cassia obovata, 


Tropical Africa 


India 




,, holosericea, . 


Nile-land 


Scindh 




Ludwigia palustiis, 


Europe 


Persia 


Also south Africa and north America. 


Cucumis ticifolius, var. eehin- 


Tropical Africa 


Arabia 




ophorus, 








,, prophetarum, . 


Tropical Africa 


India 


Annual. 


,, dipsaceus, 


Tropical Africa 


Arabia 


Annual. 


Aizoon cauarieuse, . 


Canary Islands 


Scindh 


Tropical Africa, also south Africa. 


Trianthema pentandra, . 


Tropical Africa 


North-west India 




Orygia deenmbens, . 


Tropical Africa 


Scindh 


Also south Africa. 


Oldenlandia Schimperi, . 


Tropical Africa 


Arabia 




Vaillautia hispida, . 


De Verde and Canary 


South Persia 


Mediterranean region and north 




Islands 




Africa. Annual. 


Vernonia spathulata, 


Abyssinia 


North-west India 




Volutarclla Lippii, . 


Canary Islands 


Arabia 


South-east Spain and north Africa. 
Annual. 


Dicoma tomentosa, . 


Tropical Africa 


Indian Peninsula 




Heterachsna massaviensis, 


Abyssinia 


Beloochistan 


Monotypic genus. Annual. 


Reichardia tingitana, 


Canary Islands 


North-west India 


Mediterranean region and tropical 
Africa. Annual. 


Campanula dicliotoma, . 


Canary Islands 


Syria 


Mediterranean region and north 
Africa. Annual. 


Statice axillaris, 


Egypt 


Arabia 




Myrsine africana, . 


Canary Islands 


North India 


Tropical Africa, also south Africa. 


Salvadora persica, . 


Tropical Africa 


India 




Calotropis proeera, . 


Canary Islands 


India 


Tropical Africa. 


Erythiu-a Centaurhim, 


Europe 


Persia 


North Africa. Annual. 


Cordia Rothii, 


East tropical Africa 


India 




Ehrctia obtusifolia, 


Abyssinia 


Scindh 




Hcliotiopium zeylanicum, 


Tropical Africa 


India 




,, undulatum, 


North Africa 


Arabia 




,, rariflorum, 


Nubia 


Scindh 




,, pterocarpum, 


Senegal 


Arabia 


Tropical Africa. 


Ipomcea cardiosepala, 


Senegal 


Indian Peninsula 


Tropical Africa. 


Convolvulus glomcratus, . 


Abyssinia 


North-west India 




,, sieulus, . 


Canary Islands 


Syria 


Mediterranean region and north 
Africa. Annual. 


Breweria latifolia, . 


Abyssinia 


Scindh 




Cuscuta planillora, var. globU- 
l'iS. I, .... 


Asia Minor 


Persia 


Not African. Annual. 


Lycium europicuni, 

1 


Canary Islands 


North India 


Mediterranean region and north 
Africa. 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 



Ixv 



List of one hundred and nine species of the phanerogamic flora of Socotra 
with distribution in north-east Africa and south-west Asia — continued. 



Species. 


Western limit. 


Eastern limit. 


Intermediate and further 
extension, Remarks. 


Anticharis arabiea, 


Nile-land 


Beloochistan 


Annual. 


Autirrhinum Orontium, . 


Europe, Canary Islands, 


India 


Mediterranean region and north 




and Azores 




Africa. Annual. 


Scrophularia arguta, 


Canary Islands 


Persia 


North Africa. Annual. 


Lindenbergia sinaica, 


Egypt 


Persia 




Striga orobanchoides, 


Tropical Africa 


North-west India 


Also north Africa. Annual. 


Cistanche lutea, 


Canary Islands 


Persia 


Mediterranean region and north 
Africa. 


Orobanche cernua, . 


Mediterranean region 
and north Africa 


North India 


Also Australia. 


,, ramosa, . 


Canary Islands and 


Persia 


Mediterranean region and north 




Europe 




Africa ; also south Africa. 


Pedal iura Murex, . 


Tropical Africa 


Indian Peninsula 


Monotypic genus. Annual. 


Ruellia patula, 


Tropical Africa 


Indian Peninsula 


Also Madagascar. There are also 
two varieties of this on Socotra, 
one a Nile-land form and the 
other endemic. 


Blepharis bocrhaavisefolia, 


Tropical Africa 


Indian Peninsula 


Also Ceylon. 


Justicia heterocarpa, 


Abyssinia 


Scindh 




Peristroplie bicalyculata, 


De Verde Islands 


India 


Tropical Africa. Annual. 


Hypoestes verticillaris, . 


Tropical Africa 


Arabia 


Also south Africa. The Socotran 
plant is a variety found in 
Angola, east tropical Africa, 
and south Africa. 


Priva leptostachya, 


Tropical Africa 


India 


Also south Africa. 


Micromeria microphylla, 


De Verde and Canary 


India 


Mediterranean region and north- 




Islands 




east Africa. 


Leucas urtieaefolia, . 


Nubia 


India 


Annual. 


Plantago amplexicaulis, . 


Canary Islands 


India 


Mediterranean region and north 
Africa. Annual. 


Suaeda monoica, 


Egypt 


India 




Osyris arborea, 


Tropical Africa 


India 


Also south Africa. 


Euphorbia indiea, . 


De Verde Islands 


India 


Tropica] Africa. Annual. 


,, Chamsesyce, . 


Mediterranean region 
and north Africa 


Persia 


Annual. 


,, Scliimperi, 


Nubia 


Persia 




Phyllanthus rotundifolius, 


Tropical Africa 


India 


The Socotran plant is a tropical 
African variety. 


Chrozophora tinctoria, . 


Mediterranean region 
and north Africa 


Persia 


Annual. 


,, obliqua, 


Egypt 


North India 


A variety also occurs which is 
spread along the shores of the 
Red Sea. 


Fieus salicifolins, . 


Tropical Africa 


Arabia 




Forskohlea viridis, . 


Atlantic Island 


Arabia 


Abyssinia. 


Romulea purpurascens, . 


Mediterranean region 


Socotra 


The Socotran plant is an endemic 
variety. 


Aspliodclus fistulosus, 


Atlantic Islands 


Indian Peninsula 


Mediterranean region and north 
Africa ; also Mauritius. The 
Socotran plant is a variety with 
equally wide distribution. An- 
nual. 

Tropical Africa. 


Commelina Forskalsei, . 


De Verde Islands 


India 


,, albescens, 


Abyssinia 


North-west India 




Cyperus proteinolepis, 


Egypt 


Arabia 


The Egyptian plant is a variety 
which also occurs on Socotra ; 
the type-form is not African. 


„ conglomerates, . 


Egypt 


Afghanistan 


Occurs as an endemic variety on 
Socotra. 


Panicum turgidum, 


Tropical Africa 


Arabia 




Cenchrus Scliimperi, 


Tropical Africa 


India 


Animal. 


Pennisetnm dichotomum, 


Egypt and Algeria 


North-west India 




Androjiogcm laniger, 


North Africa 


North India 




Aristida murina, 


Senegal and Egypt 


Beloochistan 


Annual. 


Sporobolus spicatus, 


Atlantic Islands 


Arabia 


Tropical Africa. 


Melanoeeiichris Royleana, 


North-east Africa 


India 




Pappopborum Aucheri, . 


Egypt 


Affghanistan 




Eragrostia cyriosuroid.es, . 


Egypt 


India 




jEluropus repens, . 


Mediterranean region 


North-west India 





TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 



lxvi 



BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 



Some of the species included in the foregoing list have quite an exceptional 
eastern extension in Socotra, and cannot justly be considered as plants of the 
north-east corner of Africa and of south-west Asia. For instance, Campanula 
dichotoma and Convolvulus siculus are not known further east than Syria upon 
the mainland. Again some forms, whilst of Asiatic distribution, do not reach 
the African coast. This is the case with Silene apetala and Cuscuta planiflora, 
var. globidosa, which have a wide range on the north of the Red Sea, the latter 
reaching into Asia Minor, the former spreading as far as the Canary Islands. 

Thirty-five Socotran species — of which seven are annuals — are found in 
Africa, but do not reach Asia, and the distribution of some of these is remark- 
able, bearing out the strong Abyssinian, south African and east and west tropical 
African highland relationships of the flora. As an example of extreme sporadic 
distribution, Sarcostemma Daltoni may be quoted, for it is known from the Cape 
de Verde Islands, and now turns up in Socotra. The relationships of these 
African species will be best understood from the following table : — 



List of thirty-five species of the phanerogamic flora of Socotra which 

are African but not Asian. 



Species. 

Diceratella incana, 
Manna angolensis, . 
Cadaba rotundifolia, 
Aberia abyssinica, 
Hypericum lanceolatum 
Hibiscus ternatus, 
Sterculia Triphaea, 
Rhus glaueescens, 
Crotalaria spinosa, 
Tephrosia subtrittora, 
,, anthylloides, 
,, vicioides, 
Kalanchoe rotundifolia, 
Diricbletia glaucescens, 
Conyza Hoehstetteri, 
Achyrocline Luzuloides, 
,, Schimperi, 

Tripteris Lordii, 



Wahlenborgia riparia, 

Euclea Kellau, 
Carissa Schimperi, 
Adenium multillorum, 



Glossonema Revoili, 

Sarcostemma Daltoni, 
Dremia angolensis, 
Ecliidnopsis cereiformia, 
Linaria bastata, 
< >robanche abyasiDica, 
Leucas Nenflizeana, 
Buxus Ilildebiaudti, 
Atwtralina capensia, 
A iparagos africanus, 

E mil i isi\ he bispidula. 
I'anicum nudiglume, 

Panicum atrosanguin- nn, 



Distribution and Remarks. 

Somali-land. Genus tritypic, other species natives of Persia. 

Tropical Africa. 

Nile-land. 

Abyssinia. 

Highlands of Africa, Madagascar, Mascarene Islands. 

Tropical Africa. Annual. 

From Abyssinia to Mozambique. 

Tropical and south Afiica. 

Tropical Africa. Annual. 

Abyssinia. 

Tropical Africa. 

Nubia and Abyssinia. 

South Africa. 

Somali-land. Distribution of genus is referred to on page lxi. 

Abyssinia and Kilima Njaro. 

Somali-land, Nile-land, Upper Guinea. 

Nile-land, Mozambique. Annual. 

Upper Nubia. Essentially a south African genus ; only two 
species are north African. Represented by an endemic variety 
on Soi-otra. Annual. 

Upper Guinea. Annual. 

Abyssinia. Distribution of genus is referred to on page lxi. 

Abyssinia. 

Mozambique. Belongs to a genus of five species only, one of 
which occurs in Arabia, Nubia, and east tropical Afiica ; one 
grows in Senegambia and west tropical Africa; one at Aden, 
and one in Somali-land ; the fifth is the Socotran and Mozam- 
bique plant. 

Somali-land. Genus of six or seven species natives of Arabia 
and tropical Afiica ; one is south African. 

De Verde Islands. 

Tropical Africa. 

Abyssinia. Monotypic genus. 

Abyssinia. Annual. 

Abyssinia. 

Abyssinia, Dessi Island, east tropical Africa. 

Somali-land. 

South Africa. Genus is Australian and south African. 

Tropical and south Africa. Represented by an endemic variety 
on Socotra. 

Tropical Africa. 

Abyssinia, Egypt. Annual. The Abyssinian variety major 
also occurs on Socotra. 

Abyssinia, 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 



lxvii 



Thirty-one Socotran species come into the category of Asian species which do 
not reach Africa, ten of them being annuals. The greater number of these are 
found in the adjacent Arabian continent, but there are several which are not 
reported from any portion of the south-west corner of Asia, and their occurrence 
has therefore additional interest. Some of the species of sporadic area may be 
accounted for in Socotra by supposing they are of comparatively recent introduc- 
tion. Thus Crotalaria retusa, Psoralea corylifolia, Spermacoce hispida, Leucas 
lanata are, I think, certainly of this character. But the occurrence of Hypericum 
mysorense, Indigo/era Gerardiana, and Cylista scariosa cannot be explained in 
this way. In the subjoined table the Asian species are enumerated, and their 
geographical area outside Socotra is mentioned. 

List of thirty-one species of the phanerogamic flora of Socotra which 

are Asian but not African. 



Species. 

Viola cinerea, 
Polygala chinensis, 
Hypericum mysorense, . 
Grewia orbiculata, 
Acridocarpus orientalis, 

Geranium mascatense, 
Balsamodendron Mukul, 
Crotalaria retusa, . 
Psoralea corylifolia, 
Indigofera intrieata, 

,, Gerardiana, . 



Cylista scariosa, 
Ammannia multiflora, . 
Spermacoce hispida, 
Statice cylindrifolia, 
Vogelia indica, 

Cuscuta chinensis, 
Solanum gracilipes, 
Schweinfurthia pedicellata, 

Cistanche tubulosa, 
Orthosiphon tenuiflorus, 

,, pallidus, 

Leucas lanata, 
Psilostaehys sericea, 
A triplex Stoeksii, . 
Fliiggea Leucopyrus, 
Pouzolzia aurieulata, 
Lagarosiphon Roxburghii, 
Cyanotis cristata, . 
Pappophorum elegans, . 
Eragrostis orientalis, 



Distribution and Remarks. 

Arabia, Persia to Afghanistan. Annual. 

Tropical Asia .ind Australia. Annual. 

Indian Peninsula and Ceylon. 

Indian Peninsula, Ceylon ? 

Arabia. Genus of tropical and south Africa, Madagascar, and 
Arabia. 

Arabia. Annual. 

Arabia, Persia, Scindh. 

Eastern tropical Asia. Introduced in Africa and America. 

Arabia, India, Ceylon. Annual. Introduced. 

Arabia, Persia. 

Afghanistan, eastwards through sub-tropical and tropical 
Himalayas. Not known hitherto further west than Afghan- 
istan. 

Indian Peninsula, Mauritius. Genus is monotypic. 

Persia, Aftghanistan, India. Annual. 

Eastern tropical Asia. Annual. 

Arabia, 

Arabia, north-west India. Represented in Socotra by an endemic 
variety. Genus referred to on page lx. 

From Syria eastwards to China ; also Australia. Annual. 

Arabia ? Beloochistan, north-west India. 

Arabia (Aden). Tritypic genus ; another species occurs ia 
Arabia and Nile-land, and the third in Persia and Scindh. 

From Arabia eastwards to northern India. 

Arabia. Annual. 

From Arabia eastwards to India. Annual. 

Indian Peninsula. 

Eastern India (Goozerat). Annual. 

Persia, Beloochistan, Scindh. 

Tropical Asia. 

Indian Peninsula, Ceylon. 

Eastern tropical Asia. 

Eastern tropical Asia and Mauritius. , r> 

India. 

Tropical Asia. 



All the species from the island fall into the categories above mentioned, 
save half-a-dozen species — Cleome tenella, Hibiscus Solandra, Tillcea pentandra, 
Cyperus intermedius, C. Tegetum, and C. tenuiflorus — which are plants of 
tropical Africa and of the Indian Peninsula, but are not reported from the 
intermediate districts in Asia ; two species of Peperomia, P. Goudotii from 
Bourbon and P. arabica, recorded from the Cape of Good Hope, Madagascar, 



lxviii BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

and Arabia ; and twenty-three plants belonging to the following genera, of 
which our material is not adequate for a more precise determination : — 



Farsetia, sp. 

Hibiscus, sp. 
IJoswellia, sp. 2. 
Balsarnodendron, sp. 2. 
Allophylus, sp. 

Eiythiina, sp. 



Entada, sp. 
Acacia, sp. 
Euclea, sp. 2. 
Ectadiopsis, sp. 
Sareostemma, sp. 
Boucerosia, sp. 2. 



Ehretia, sp. 
Plectrantlms, sp. 
Aristolocliia, sp. 
Loranthus, sp. 
Thesidium, sp. 
Ficus, sp. 



It is probable that several of these imperfectly determined plants are endemic. 

We have 253 species of Cryptogams from the island, Lichens forming a little 
more than half of the number. The distribution of the species amongst the 
several groups is shown in the table on page xxxvi. 

If we have to consider the statistical analysis of the phanerogamic flora as 
only approximative, the same holds good, with increased force, for the Crypto- 
gams. Less is known of the cryptogamic than of the phanerogamic flora of the 
adjacent mainlands, and the limitations of many genera and species in the 
Thallophyta especially, are admittedly so loosely defined at the present time 
that these afford an unsatisfactory basis for comparison; and then our collection 
of Cellular Cryptogams is even more fragmentary than that of Phanerogams, 
Lichens being the only group of which Ave have at all a representative gathering. 
I can only then write a brief account of the general features of the cryptogamic 
flora. 

The position of Socotra prepares us for just such a cryptogamic flora as we 
know from the island. The large expanses of limestone, and the dry soil and 
climate of the greater part of the island, are not favourable to a development of 
luxuriant Ferns or delicate Muscinese, and the only group of Cryptogams to 
which the conditions are at all suited is that of Lichens. The few Ferns that do 
grow on the island are mostly those which affect dry localities, and are found, 
like Cheilanthes farinosa or Onychium melanolepis, hidden under boulders, or, 
like Actinopteris dichotoma, occupying cavities in rocks on the hill-sides. 
Ceratopteris ihalictroides banks the streams on Hadibu plain ; whilst some, like 
Pellcea concolor, occur at a high altitude on the Haghier hills, where the 
climate is moister and more temperate. The Mosses and Liverworts are 
chiefly found upon the central granitic hills, high above the dry limestone- 
plains, though some, like Weisia socotrana and Fimbriaria pusilla, grow in 
the lower arid districts. Lichens grow in great numbers all over the island, 
and, as we know them, far outnumber all other Cryptogams. There is a marked 
absence of foliaceous and fruticose forms, by far the larger number being 
crustaceous. They colour the rocks in all localities, the prevailing tone being 
greyish-white, derived from species of Roccella, Pertusaria, and Parmelia ; the 
steins of many of the trees have also coatings of Opegrapha, Gi'aphina, and 
species of other genera. Other Fungi are not abundant, although doubtless a 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. lxix 

more plentiful crop of Microfungi could be obtained. For Algae I have already 
remarked the shore is not favourable, and we did not devote any time to its 
exploration. In the streams and pools of the island a small collection of 
Algae and allied forms was obtained, but I do not think a rich harvest is to be 
gathered. 

Of the nineteen species of Vascular Cryptogams, one is a hydropterideous 
species of India and west Africa ; the rest are Ferns. Eleven of these are 
cosmopolitan in their range in the tropics, some of them being cosmopolitan in 
its most extended sense, and two are widely spread in the old world. Three 
have a restricted old-world distribution, and support the facts of distribution 
I have noticed in the case of the Phanerogams ; thus, Onychium melanolepis 
belongs to the group of plants having its centre of distribution in north- 
east Africa and south-west Asia, but it does not range beyond this region, 
being confined to Abyssinia, Arabia, and Persia ; and Pellcea viridis and 
Gymnogramme cor data are both African forms which do not reach Asia, the 
former extending into the adjacent tropical islands; whilst the latter has a 
more sporadic geographical area, occurring in south Africa, Angola, and 
Bourbon. Two species are endemic — Adianlum Balfourii and Asplenium 
Schweinfurthii. 

Sixteen species of Musci and Hepaticae are known — eleven being Musci 
and five Hepaticae, Six of the former and two of the latter are endemic. 
Mr Mitten says of them that, in point of affinity, they " approach more nearly 
to the Indian flora than, so far as is yet known, to the African." 

Characese, of which three members occur on the island, is interesting, 
because one of the species — Char a socotrensis — is endemic, and is a form con- 
necting two hitherto well-defined sections of the genus. 

The 130 species of Lichens, of which sixty-nine, or more than one half, are 
endemic, fall into forty-seven genera. A fourth of the species are distributed 
in warmer regions of the world, whilst another fourth includes species extend- 
ing to Europe. 

Of the twenty-seven representatives of other groups of Fungi, eleven are 
endemic. A large proportion of these are Microfungi. None of them call for 
special mention. Algae and allied groups number fifty-eight species, only two 
of them being endemic ; most of the plants have a very wide distribution ; a 
few of the seaweeds are more local ; but there is no point of particular interest 
to note. 

I have in the preceding pages so fully exposed in tabular form the features 
of the flora of Socotra, that the nature of its elements and its relations require 
no further exposition, and the following summary of its characters, based upon 
the facts that bave been already set forth, may be given. 



lxx BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

1. The flora is an insular one, having 

a. Relatively large proportion of orders to genera, and of genera to 

species. 

b. Relatively large proportion of endemic species, and of endemic 

genera, and with a considerable amount of endemic variation. 

c. Small proportion of endemic annuals. 

In support of this statement the tables on pages xxxvi, xl, and xlix, may 
be referred to. 

2. It is that of a continental island, by which is meant that its features are 
evidently most nearly related to those of the adjacent continents, with which- 
the island has undoubtedly been connected. 

The tables on pages xlix, lvi, lxiii, lxvi, and lxvii, bear out this statement. 

3. It has features of great antiquity. 

For evidence of this statement we depend not only upon the character of 
the flora as a whole, but also upon the peculiar physiognomy of many endemic 
forms, and their isolation in the groups to which they belong. Cocculus 
Balfourii, Nirarathamnos socotrana, Dracaena Cinnabari, Dendrosicyos socotrana, 
Dorstenia gigas, and the like are all individual forms which betoken a remote 
ancestry. 

4. It contains three conspicuous types of vegetation. 

a. One characteristic of a dry desert-region, in which, too, tropical, 

sub-tropical, and even sub-temperate forms mingle. 

b. One with a general tropical nicies. 

c. One having the imprint of that in a cooler and more temperate 

climate. 

On page xxxiv I have pointed out the prevalence on the plains of many 
plants having the aspect belonging to a, and on pagexxxv I have noted the pre- 
sence of some forms which answer the description of those included in b and c. 

5. There is a large admixture of introduced plants, a considerable pro- 
portion of which are now quite naturalised. Many of them are annuals. 

This is a feature that the tables on pages lxii and lxiii specially illustrate, 
and it is one which was to be expected in an island with so long a history of 
occupation by man. 

6. Its affinities are essentially tropical African and Asian, being most pro- 
nounced with the flora of the regions immediately adjoining, i.e., with north- 
east Africa and south-west Asia ; but the African element predominates. 

(A) In the African element we find 

a. Forms which belong to those types which people the plain-regions 
of north-east and tropical Africa, extending to north Africa 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. lxxi 

and the warm regions of the Mediterranean region, and 
reaching even the Atlantic Islands. 

b. Forms which are part of the general tropical African flora. 

c. Forms which are met with on the African continent in the 

mountainous region of Abyssinia, of east tropical Africa, and 
of west ti-opical Africa, in south Africa, and also in Mada- 
gascar. This is the element which is developed chiefly, 
though not altogether, in the higher regions of the island. 

(B) In the Asian element we find 

a. Forms which belong to those types which people the plains of south- 

west Asia, extending as far as north-west India on the east. 

b. Forms which are part of the general tropical Asian flora. 

c. Forms which have relations in restricted districts in India or 

further east, but which have no connections in the inter- 
mediate regions. 

7. There are some curious Mascarene connections. Thus, for instance, the 
occurrence of Elceocarpus and of Cylista scariosa. 

8. There are some striking American affinities. Thamnosma, Dirachma, 
Ccelocarpus illustrate these. 

How are these features to be explained 1 What is the origin of the 
Socotran flora ? 

When we group together all the facts now known of the flora, we arrive 
without hesitation at the conclusion that it has been isolated for a vast length 
of time during which Socotra has been an island. The position which Socotra 
occupies in the Indian Ocean naturally leads to the supposition that it has at 
one time been a portion of the African continent, and that it has been broken 
off from Cape Guardafui. The general evidence of the flora not only gives 
certainty to the supposition, but it also shows that the separation from the 
mainland is of great antiquity. 

It is by such a land-connection alone that we can account for the African 
element in the flora. But, as I have shown, there are African elements of more 
than one kind in the Socotran flora. Beside the general tropical African types, 
we have those kinships with forms of sporadic African distribution of many of 
the most peculiar plants of Socotra to which attention has been repeatedly 
called, and some further explanation is needed to show what is the meaning 
of this relationship, and how it is come about that we have this group of 
isolated forms in the midst of others of more generally extended distribution. 

All the evidence tends to show that the present general tropical flora of 
Africa is not the oldest African flora of which we have knowledge. The 



lxxii BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

specialised type and ancient character of the flora of south Africa, and its 
relations and similarities with types found at widely separated spots upon the 
highlands of the east coast of Africa, especially about Angola, the Cameroon 
mountains, and Fernando Po, in some of the Atlantic islands, in the north- 
west of Africa and south-west of Europe, as well in the highlands of east 
tropical Africa and Abyssinia, all point to the hypothesis which was first 
enunciated by Sir Joseph Hooker, that the south African flora has been 
continued along the highlands of east Africa and Abyssinia, and that a like 
connection existed through central Africa, between the western and north-east 
regions. That at a time when the tropical zone was much cooler than it now 
is, northern forms of plant-life spread as far as and over south Africa. With 
the diminution of the cold, these forms were driven back, and retreated north- 
wards and up the mountains before the advance of a vegetation more tropical 
in its character, and a few types left on the isolated higher points of land in the 
regions mentioned, are at the present day the only evidence of the existence 
of this ancient flora, and of the invasion by what we now call the tropical 
African flora. 

If we accept this hypothesis, then, in Helichrysum, Babiana, Hamianthus, 
Dracaena, Begonia, and other Socotran plants with like kinship, we have an 
outlying fragment of this old African flora, its north-eastern limit, just as in 
southern latitudes we have its eastern limit in Madagascar and in the Mascarene 
Islands ; and we learn further, that at a time when this old African flora peopled 
the land Socotra was yet a part of the continent, and the northward extension of 
some of the types, for instance, Euryops, into Arabia seems to show that Africa 
was then also joined in the north-eastern region with Asia. Whether the land- 
connection with Africa persisted during the time of and the expulsion of the older 
flora, so that the invading forms could spread directly over the land-surface, 
which is now Socotra, or a separation of the island took place during the reign 
of the old flora, it is not easy to decide. I am disposed to believe that there 
was insulation before the incoming of the new tropical forms, and that only at 
a later period, when land-connection with Africa was again established, did the 
general tropical African flora spread its influence before the final separation of 
the Socotra of to-day. 

But if a land-connection with Africa is necessary for an adequate explana- 
tion of the African affinities, a like union with Asia must be assumed in order 
to account for Asian relationships. I have incidentally mentioned that the 
extension of some of the old African types into Arabia may be attributed to the 
period of the old African flora, when Socotra was part of the African continent. 
Any elevation of the land which would unite Socotra with Africa would bridge 
over the Straits of Bab-el-Mandcb, and a further elevation would bring Socotra 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. lxxiii 

itself in union with Arabia. That some such connection has existed it is 
impossible to doubt, and by it the vegetation of the Orient gained extension 
into Socotra. 

But there are those other Asian forms which do not occur anywhere in 
south-west Asia to account for — Indian and other Eastern affinities. How 
did they reach Socotra 1 An elevation of land that would unite Socotra and 
Madagascar with Africa — an elevation which certainly took place — would, if 
increased and continued over a wider area, produce some interesting changes 
in surface features. Not only would the Gulf of Aden disappear by the union of 
Africa with Arabia, but there would be no Persian Gulf, and the Euphrates 
would pour its waters through a delta extending over a large part of the Arabian 
Sea, and through this delta the Indus would also discharge, the coast-line of 
the Indian Peninsula being advanced to some extent. South of the equator 
Madagascar would join the Seychelles, which in turn, through the Malha and 
Nazareth banks, would run into the larger Mascarene Islands. In this way, 
then, Africa would have an irregular coast-line prolonged greatly south of the 
equator into the Indian Ocean, and running up with an advance upon its 
present line until it reached its north-eastern limit outside and south of Socotra. 
Thence an advanced land-surface of Asia would extend across the Arabian Sea 
into the Indian Peninsula. It appears to me that we must assume that some 
such land-surface as this existed to aid us in explaining the migration westward 
to Socotra of Indo-Malayan types, several of which have a striking extension 
into Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands. Lieutenant-Colonel Godwin- 
Austen asserts that the relationship of the Socotran land-shells are such as to 
warrant the conclusion of a prolongation of land-surface which would stretch from 
Madagascar to Ceylon across the Indian Ocean. Professor Von Martens ques- 
tions this conclusion, and the evidence upon which it rests, and Dr Schweinfurth 
is also inclined to doubt a near connection with Madagascar. Mr Blandford, too, 
doubts the nativity of a lizard in Madagascar, because it is now found in Socotra, 
from which I gather that he would not allow a land-connection between Socotra 
and Madagascar. But the evidence from the plants leaves no room for ques- 
tioning the determinations and spontaneity of forms, and the Madagascar and 
Mascarene affinities are thoroughly assured, as are those with India and the 
East. I do not think it is requisite to suppose so large a land-surface to have 
existed as Lieutenant-Colonel Godwin-Austen assumes,* but a greater exten- 
sion of land, and on the lines above sketched, appears to me to be required by 
the facts. I imagine that these Indian and Madagascar and Mascarene types 
were enabled to reach the land-surface, now Socotra, about the period when 
the old African flora existed, and they help one to the conclusion that a separa- 
tion from Africa and Asia took place when that old flora was general in Africa, 
and then they, with the remnants of that flora, formed a conspicuous part of 

TRANS. ROY. S0C. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. k 



lxxiv BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

the small colony of plant-life on the Haghier Peaks, which probably were then 
the only Socotran surface exposed. With the rising again of the land, and a 
renewed connection with Africa and also with Asia, the union was of much 
less extent, but of sufficient duration to allow of the inroad of a crowd of 
north-east African and south-west Asian forms. 

We have, finally, to consider American affinities. The occurrence in Indian 
Ocean islands of restricted new-world types, or of forms related to these, is a 
remarkable and well-known fact of distribution. We have, for example, the 
sapotaceous Labourdonnaisia represented in Natal, Mascarene Islands, and 
Cuba ; the laurineous Ocotea with representatives in Canary Islands, South 
Africa, and Madagascar, its main distribution being American ; and the Rodri- 
guesian Mathurina, one of the TurneraceEe, with its nearest ally the central 
American Erblichia. And now in Socotra we have similar relationships mani- 
fested. I need only mention Thamnosma, Dirach?na, and Ccelocarpus. That 
the identity of form means identity of stock is, I think, in many of these cases 
an irresistible conclusion, but how the present distribution came about, whether 
by migration from the south and west or from the north and east, is one of 
those problems for which we have not yet the material for a solution. 

Such is the account of the characters and of the origin of the flora of 
Socotra which I have the honour to submit to the Fellows of the Society. 

On page xxiii I have quoted the words of Professor Bonney, in which he 
gives bis conclusions regarding the mutations of Socotra, based upon the geo- 
logical evidence, and it will be seen that the botanical evidence entirely corro- 
borates them. The zoological evidence is too imperfect to allow of historical 
deductions being drawn from it, but in its several parts, as stated by the 
zoologists whom I have quoted, it does not run counter to the evidence of the 
plants. 

Dealing with the whole facts that are at command, I may give this brief 
outline sketch of the geological and biological history of the island. During 
the carboniferous epoch there was in the region of Socotra a shallow sea in 
which was deposited on the top of the fundamental gneisses of this spot, which 
had ere then been certainly much seamed and fractured by volcanic outbursts, 
the sandstone of which we have such a large development in Nubia. This sea 
subsequently deepened, allowing the formation of the shales, which now con- 
stitute the argillite of the island. During the permian, Socotra may have been 
a land-surface, forming part of the great mass of land which probably existed in 
the region at that epoch, and gave the wide area for westward migration of life 
which presently took place, and by which the eastern affinities in Socotra may be 
explained. In early and middle tertiary times, when the Indian Peninsula was 
an island, and the sea which stretched into Europe washed the base of the 
Himalayan hills, Socotra was in great part submerged, and the great mass of its 



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. lxxv 

limestone was deposited ; but its higher peaks were still above water, and 
formed an island, peopled mainly by African species— the plants being the 
fragmentary remains of the old African flora — but with an admixture of 
eastern and other Asian forms. Thereafter it gradually rose, undergoing 
violent volcanic disturbance, and again became part of the mainland, though it 
is likely for only a short period, and during this union the life of the adjacent 
continent covered its plains and filled its valleys. Subsequently it reverted to 
its insular condition, in which state it has remained. 

An island certainly from tertiary times, the various denuding agents have 
during the interval continued to sculpture the surface of Socotra, and have 
brought about the quaint outline we see at the present day ; but as a land- 
surface it dates from a far greater antiquity, back indeed to the permian epoch ; 
and the species which now people its surface exhibit peculiarities which bear 
alike the stamp of their ancient origin and the imprint of the isolation to which 
they have been subjected. 



BOTANY OF SOCOTEA. 



PHANEKOGAMJ] ANGIOSPERMJL 

DICOTYLEDONES. 

POLYPE TAL^. 

Order I. MENISPEKMACE^. 

A considerable tropical order of, with but few exceptions, climbing plants, 
occurring in both the old and new worlds. A few species are found in the 
cooler regions of North America, Eastern Asia, South Africa, and Australia. 

COCCULUS. 

Cocculus, DC. Syst. Veg. i. 515 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 36. 

A small genus of about twelve species, chiefly growing in tropical Africa and 
Asia, though two species belong to the warmer parts of North America. All 
climbers except two species, of which one is endemic in Socotra. 

1. O. Leseba, DC. Syst. Veg. i. 529; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 44; 
Hook. fil. and Thorns, in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 102. 

Adenodicton phyllanthoides, Fenzl. in Flora 1844, 312. 

Socotra. Not uncommon on the hill slopes. B.C.S. nn. 326, 340, 621, 
632. Schweinf. n. 713. 

Distrib. Tropical and subtropical Africa to the Cape de Verde Islands, 
and through Arabia to Afghanistan and India. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. A 



2 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

2. C. Balfourii, Schweinf. inProc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 500. Tab. I. 

Dumetosus, cladodiferus, spinosus ; foliis eH'iptico-oblongis v. subobovatis breviter petiolatis mox 
deciduis ; iioribus subsessilibus iu brevissinie-pedunculatas cyinas coufertis; fl. ?: — 
staminodiis senis. 

Frutex deuse virgatus lignosus dumetosus cum ramis foliosis et cladodiis ; rami juveniles foliosi 
elongati quadranguli, seniores subteretes angulati v. compressi et saepe demum spinosi 
striati cano-pubescentes v. canescentes primum cladodiferi cladodiis extra-axillaribus folia 
superpositis deinde ex axillis infra cladodia duos (rarius unicum) superpositos foliosos 
ramulos emittentes ; cladodia falcata rigida lignosa pubescentia striata apice spinosa 1^- 
3% poll, longa £-§ poll, lata irregulariter a latere margineve ramosa seniperque 
cladodia ne ramos foliosos gerentia. Folia vera §-§ poll, longa %-\ poll, lata breviter 
petiolata moxdecidua elliptico-oblonga v. subobovata ssepe obliqua, apice truncata v. retusa 
apiculata, margiue revoluta, coriacea nitida uervis pilis adpressis subtiliter instructis, 
petiolo j 1 ^ poll, longo : folia cladodalia minuta inconspicua decidua. Florcs a cladodiis 
rarius a ramis incerte orientes subsessiles in fasciculos parvos conferti. Bractcce minut?e 
squamiformes pilosa?. Flos$ ut in genere. Flos ? -.—Staminodia 6 petalls breviora. Styli 
reflexi. Drupce reniformes subglabrse dorsaliter transverse rugosse \ poll, longie; endocar- 
pium lignosum. 

Nom. Vekn. Kiomlian. (B.C.S.) 

Soeotra. Abundant on the Haghier hills at an elevation of over 2000 
feet. B.C.S. n. 439. Schweinf. n. 754. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

One of the most remarkable discoveries of our expedition. When first I 
obtained it, with neither flower nor fruit, on the top of Sicante, south from 
Tamarida, I took it to be a plant of a Gymnospermous type. Subsequently I 
gathered it plentifully, in flower only, near Adho Dimellus pass, but was 
unable to determine its affinity, and it was with considerable surprise I made 
it out, on examination in this country, to be a Menisperm. Its exact position 
seemed doubtful, and I was inclined to make it the type of a new genus. 
Fortunately Schweinf urth obtained a quantity of fruit, and has thus been able 
to refer it to the genus Cocculus, and his nomenclature is retained. 

It is a strange species. C. laurifolius, DC. (Prod. i. 100), a plant of India 
and the Eastern Archipelago, is the only arboreous form known in the family, 
and, with the exception of a few low herbaceous Cissampeli, all the other species 
are climbers. But in our Socotran plant we have a hard-wooded shrub, growing, 
as a dense thicket, like our common gorse, and forming with its sharp-pointed 
cladodes a complete chemax defrise. 

The floral and fruit characters admit of no doubt as to its true position 
in this genus. 

Possessing both cladodes and ordinary leafy branches, an interesting feature 
in the morphology of the plant is the succession of these. Young branchlets 
bear cladodes only, and these do not arise in the axils of the leaves, but at a 
little distance above, and at a later period, in the second or third year of growth, 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 3 

the axillant leafy shoot is developed below the cladode. Usually two super- 
posed leafy shoots arise and develope equally. The branching of the cladodes 
is most irregular, as is the production of flowers. 

The internal anatomy of the plant is interesting, and conforms with the 
characteristics of other Menisperms. I shall refer to this subject at greater 
length in the appendix. 

Schweinfurth directs attention to the resemblance between this plant and 
the South American Colletia cruciata, Hook. & Arn., a rhamnaceous plant not 
unfamiliar in cultivation. The morphological likeness is very striking, and I 
find the same succession of cladodes and leafy branches. Mr N. E. Brown of 
Kew Herbarium points out that in the aphyllous section of the Australian 
leguminous genus Daviesia similar features are found. 

Order II. PAPAVERACE^. 

A family of herbaceous plants of temperate and subtropical regions, con- 
taining several species which are widely spread as weeds of cultivation. 

ARGEMONE. 

Argemone, Linn. Gen. n. 649; Beuth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 52* 

An American genus of six species, one of which, the following, is found 
almost everywhere in the tropics as an introduced weed. 

A. mexicana, Linn. Sp. 727 ; DC. Prod. i. 120 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. 
i. 54 ; Hook. fil. and Thorns, in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 117 ; Bot. Mag. t. 243. 
Nom. Vern. Maruna. (B.C.S.) 

Soeotra. In the vicinity of Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 454. 
Distrib. Widely spread in the tropics. 

Order III. CRUCIFERiE. 

A very large order of herbs and rarely half-shrubby plants, most abundant in 
the temperate and cold regions of the northern hemisphere • rare within the 
tropics. Of the five genera represented in Soeotra, one is endemic, one has a 
limited Persian and Somali Land distribution, a third is confined to the dry 
plains of the old world tropics, the remaining two having a more extended 
range in the old world. 

1. DICERATELLA. 

Diceratella, Boiss. Diagn. v. 80 (olim Diceratium, Boiss.) ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 71. 

A genus made up of three species of white and downy herbs, two of which 
have a limited distribution on the desert plains of Persia, and the third is 



4 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

known only from Socotra and Somali Land. The genus is very closely allied 
to Robert Brown's Notoceras from the Canary Islands, Mediterranean region 
and Western Asia, from which indeed it is but doubtfully separated by th 
more clothed habit and the colour of its flowers. 

D. incana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. ix. (1882), 500. Tab. II. 

Notoceras sinuata, Franch. Sert. Somal. in Miss. BeVoil. 9. 

Herba incaua ; foliis oblongis v. ovatis, obtusis, repandis ; racemis laxis elongatis ; floribus 
niagnis ; siliquis tetragonis. 

Erecta basi suffruticosa incana. Folia oblonga v. ovata |-1| poll, longa, ^— | poll, lata, basi 
cuneata inpetiolumbrevemattenuata,apice obtusa v. subacuta, repanda dentata v. dentato- 
serrata, subfloccosa. Bacemi laxi elongati ssepe pedales. Alabastri oblongi. Flores magni % 
poll, longi. Sepala margine scariosa, lateralia basi saccata. Petala erythrina dimidio sepala 
superantia. Siliqua tetragona vix torulosa |-| poll, longa floccosa, cornuis stylo dimidio 
lorgioribus. 

Socotra. On sandy spots of the plains about Galonsir. B.C.S. nn. 136, 
161. 

Distrib. Somali Land. 

A very beautiful new species of this genus, of which D. floccosa, Boiss. (Flor. 
Orient, i. 315), andZ>. canescens, Boiss. (loc. cit.) are the other members. These 
were brought from Persia by Aucher Eloy. 

The Socotran plant is very distinct, resembling most D. floccosa, from which, 
however, its larger leaves, long lax racemes, large flowers with saccate lateral 
sepals, as also its tetragonous siliqua separate it. These last two characters 
are points in which the species varies from the generic type as given by 
Bentham and Hooker {loc. cit.), where I find "sepala basi sequalia" "siliqua 
teretiuscula torulosa." The specimens of Boissier's species to which I have 
had access are somewhat fragmentary, and do not afford flowers for making a 
satisfactory comparison, but the fruit of I), canescens, which is described by 
him as subtetragonous, shows an approach to the marked tetragonous con- 
dition which is so conspicuous a feature in the Socotran plant. 

Franchet, ignorant of my diagnosis of the species as found in Socotra, 
described (loc. cit.) ReVoil's Somali Land specimens under the genus Notoceras. 
I have in Paris, through the kindness of M. Franchet, examined ReVoil's plant, 
and find it is the same as the Socotran one. 

2. FARSETIA. 

Farsetia, Desv. Journ. Bot. iii. (1814), 173 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 72. 

A genus of about twenty-five species of whitish woolly herbs or half-shrubby 
plants, characteristic of the dry plains of the circum- Mediterranean region, 
Arabia, Persia, and north-west India. One species appears endemic in 
Socotra. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEF BALFOUR. 5 

1. P. longisiliqua, Dene, in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, iv. (1835), 69 ; Boiss. 
Flor. Orient, i. 157 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 62 ; Fourn. in Bull. Soc. Bot. de 
France xi. (1864), 56. 

F. stylosa, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (I860), Suppl. 1. 

Matthiola stylosa, Hochst. et Steud. in herb. Schimp. Arab. sect. i. m 860. 

Socotra. Common on the limestone plains. B.C.S. n. 584. Schweinf. n. 
224. 

Distrib. Arabia, Nubia. 

Decaisne first briefly described this species thus : — " ramis foliisque incanis, 
siliquis pedunculatis cernuis linearibus (2 poll, longis, 2\ lin. latis)," — from 
imperfect specimens collected by Bove" on the plains of Yemen. T. Anderson, 
when he wrote his florula of Aden, had not seen Decaisne's plant, but on the 
strength of a remark by Walpers (Eepert. i. 139) regarding it, " non hujus 
generis esse videtur," he made of the Aden plant a new species. Oliver (loc. cit.) 
describes the species, adding " I have not seen type specimens of this plant ; the 
name is taken from Schweinfurth's Nubian distribution. It appears doubtfully 
distinct from F. Hamiltonii, Royle Illustr. 71." 

A type specimen is now in Kew Herbarium and, though it is imperfect, 
enables me to determine that Decaisne's species is a good one. From F. 
Hamiltonii, Royle, it is distinguished by its much larger flowers, pods, and non- 
capitate stigmas. 

F. linearis, Dene., another African species, which Hooker and Thomson (in 
Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 140), consider identical with F. Hamiltonii, Royle— (I 
cannot agree with them, but with Fournier regard it as a distinct species, recog- 
nisable by the longer, not capitate but bifid style and more slender stigma) — is 
also separated from F. longisiliqua, with which it has close affinity, by its smaller 
flowers and shorter and relatively broader pods, — characters which T. Anderson 
also recognised as specific. A plant in Kew Herbarium marked " F. heliophila, 
Bunge (Iter Persicum) " seems to me doubtfully distinct from our plant. 

The Socotran specimens are remarkable for their very large flowers. 
These sometimes attain a length of over § of an inch. The plant is very 
common on the plains, especially about Galonsir. Schweinfurth marks his 
specimens " fl. livido." I found flowers varying in colour from a pink to that 
livid or violet shade seen in, for example, the common Malcolmia maritima. 

2. F. prostrata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 500. 

Herba prostrata ; foliis obovatis obtusis saepe apiculatis crassis strigosis ; siliquis linearibus. 
Prostrata lignosa ramis cinereis pilis adpressis dense vestitis. Folia obovata obtusa ssepe 

apiculata crassa strigosa f-l£ poll, longa £— \ poll. lata. Alabastri oblongi. Flores 

breviter pedicellati. Sepala lineari-acuta strigosa. Petala dimidio calycem superantia. 

Stylus bifidue. Siliqua linearis | poll longa \ poll, lata ; stylum in fructu non vidi. 

Semina uniseriata compressa alata. 



6 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Socotra. On the plains about Galonsir, not common. B.C.S. n. 205. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Of this plant I have only one specimen, and that not a good one. It bears, 
however, a flower and two pods. The characters derived from these and from 
the leaves prevent the plant being incorporated in any described species. 
The association of a linear pod with broad leaves is not commonly met with 
m the genus. 

3. Farsetia, Sp. 

Socotra. B.C.S. n. 586. 

A few fragments of inflorescence bearing flowers and one or two fruits of a 
species of this genus are in our collection. There are no leaves with the 
inflorescences, and as they turned up in a small packet containing delicate 
flowers and fruits of plants, complete specimens of which are in our collection, 
I suppose they have been dried in the belief that they belonged to one of the 
two species already mentioned. They are marked as collected near Galonsir, 
but I have no recollection of gathering them, and they do not belong to either 
species. The flowers are small, about the size of those of F. linearis, Dene., but 
the style is much longer (f in.) than in that species, more tapered and more 
deeply bifid, and with the lobes connivent. The pod is about an inch long, and 
the valves are finely reticulate-venulose and hardly strigose. I have not been 
able to refer them to any described species. 

3. SISYMBRIUM. 

Sisymbrium, Linn. Gen. n. 813 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 77. 

A large genus of mainly European and Eastern Asiatic distribution, but 
represented in most temperate regions. Very few species occur in the southern 
hemisphere. 

S. erysimoides, Desf. Fl. Atl. ii. 84. 1. 158 ; DC. Syst. Veg. ii. 482 ; Boiss. 
Flor. Orient, i. 217 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 64 ; Fourn. Monogr. Crucif. 92. 

Socotra. An occasional weed. B.C.S. n. 700. Schweinf. n. 508. 

Distrib. A plant of the Mediterranean region, and found also in Canary 
Islands, Abyssinia, Arabia, and southern Persia. 

4. BRASSICA. 

Brussica, Linn. Gen. n. 820 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 84. 

A considerable genus of badly defined species, distributed in the temperate 
regions of the northern hemisphere of the old world. A few occur at the Cape. 

B. rostrata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 500. 

Herba annua; foliis lyrato-pinnatisectis ; floribus albis ; siliquis patentibus torulosis, valvis 
trinerviis, rostro longo monospermo. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 7 

Glabra v. puberula nunc hirsuta. Folia 3-3£ poll, longa lyrato-pinnatisecta segmento 
terrninali obcuneato-trilobato, caulinia rarius integra lineari-lanceolata apiculata, inferiora 
segmentis ssepe f poll, longis oblongis v. subrotundatis obtusis subcrenatis interdum dentatis, 
superiora segmentis ovatis v. lanceolatis acutis dentatis ; petiolus 1-2 poll, longus. Flores 
albi. Scpala patula. Siliqua subcompressa |— £ poll, longa, longe graciliterque pedicellata 
(pedicellis §-| poll, longis) patentia torulosa, valvis trinerviis rostroque conico basi mono- 
spermo dimidio breviore v. subequilongo sug'ultis. Semina ellipsoidea. 
Socotra. Abundant on the hill slopes up to a great elevation. Most 
frequently in sheltered spots under cliffs or boulders. B.C.S. n. 245. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

Of Eastern species, B. Tournefortii, Gouan (Ilk 44, t. 20a), a form with a 
considerable distribution, extending on the Mediterranean shores as far west as 
Spain, and reaching to Persia and northern India, has most resemblance with 
the Socotran plant. With B. fruticulosa, Cyr. (PI. Ear. ii. 7, t. 1), a plant of 
Oran and the Mediterranean basin, our plant has also close affinity. From both 
its foliage, white flowers with spreading sepals, and three-nerved valves to the 
pods, distinguish it, whilst from the last-mentioned species the additional 
character of the long strong beak to the pods is diagnostic. 

This is a species that varies much in clothing. Typically almost glabrous, it 
passes through more or less puberulous states, until it is at times quite hirsute. 
With the hirsute condition is associated in the specimens gathered a more pro- 
nounced dentation or serration of the leaf segments. When these characters are 
fully developed, one might designate the form a variety as,— 

B. rostrata, Balf. fil. var. hirsuta, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Eclin. xiii. 
(1883). 
Omnino hirsuta foliisque arete dentato-serratis. 

Socotra. Not so common as the species. B.C.S. n. 555. 

Dtstrib. Endemic. 

5. LACHNOCAPSA. 

Lachnocapsa, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 500. 

Sepala erecta, lateralia basi saccata. Petala unguiculata. Stamina libera, edentula. Siliqua 
brevis, plano-compressa, subcordata v. orbicularis, tomentosa, subsessilis, foliis similissima, 
2-locularis loculis interdum bilocellatis, 1-3-sperma ; valvis seepe septulatis, apteris, 
crassis, spongiosis, septo contrarie compressis ; septum lineare, enervium, chartaceum ; stylo 
prope nullo ; stigmate bilobo. Semina in locellis solitaria, suspensa, oblonga, subcom- 
pressa, immarginata; testa nonmucosa ; radiculaincumbens. — Fruticulus dirTusus,.ramosus 
albide tomentosus, cortice rumpente decidenteque. Folia alterna integra. Flores 
axillares, subsessiles, lutei. * 

A monotypic endemic genus. It is a very distinct one, and remarkable by its 
shrubby habit and the downy cordate pods, which resemble so closely the leaves 
that is is difficult to distinguish them. 

Its affinities are somewhat obscure. Angustiseptate pods with incumbent 



8 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

radicle relegate it to the Lepidineae, and possibly its nearest ally is to be found 
in Lepidium. But amongst the Isatidae there are genera in the vicinity of 
Isatis itself which present these characters, though they always possess a well- 
marked winged, single seeded pod. 

Etym. *<*x*ot wool and xxfyx, capsule. 

Xi. spathulata, Balf. fil. loc. cit. Tab. III. 

Folia spathulata oblique dense tomentoso-velutina f-f| poll, longa £— £ poll. lata. Flores magni 
•^2 poll- longi. Petala sepalis longiora. Siliqua T 5 2 poll, diam., basi thalamo bilobato cincta. 

Soeotra. On the sandy plains near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 587. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

Order IV. CAPPARIDEiE. 

A large family containing twenty-three genera of shrubby or herbaceous 
plants, sometimes trees, inhabiting tropical and subtropical regions all round the 
world. Of the five Socotran genera, all are characteristic of dry and sandy 
localities. Two of them are almost entirely confined to such spots in tropical 
Africa, and south-west Asia, with the adjacent islands. The others are nearly 
cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

1. CLEOMK 

Cleome, Linn. Gen. n. 826 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 105. 

A large genus of herbs or half shrubs spread in dry and sandy tropical and 
subtropical regions of both the old and new worlds. Of the five Socotran 
species, one is endemic, three are essentially inhabitants of the desert plains of 
south-west Asia and north-west Africa, but one exhibits a distinct variety in 
Soeotra ; the fifth is a common tropical weed. 

1. CI. papillosa, Steud. Nom. Bot. ed. 2. i. 382 ; T. Anders, in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. i. 3 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 413 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. i. 76 ; Hook. fil. and Thorns, in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 168. 

Soeotra. Near Tamarida. Schweinf. n. 275 in lit. 
Distrib. Through Arabia and Scindh to north-west India, and in Nile Land. 
I have seen no specimens of this plant from Soeotra. Schweinfurth informs 
me in a letter that he has it 

2. 01. socotrana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 501. 

Herba erecta ; foliolis obovatis v. oblongo-obovatis ; petalorum limbo subdeltoideo ; siliquis 

adscendentibus ; seminibus pubescentibus. 
Glanduloso-scabra 1-1 1 ped. alta. Folia trifoliolata petiolata 1-l^poll. longa ; foliola £-£ poll. 

longa vix r poll, lata obovata v. oblongo-obovata glandulosa v. subglabra. Racemi longi. 

laxi terminales. Bractcce inferiores trifoliolatte petiolatae, super iores simplices minutse 

eubsessiles. Flores pedicellati. Sepala lanceolata glandulosa. Petala ssepe inaequalia 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 9 

unguiculata calyce duplolongiora, postica duo v. tria purpurea limbis subdeltoideis acutis 
Stamina 6 basi libera. Stylus brevis. Siliqua late oblongo-linearis \-1 poll, longa \-\ 
poll, lata scabra venosa recta adscendens subsessilis. Semina pubescentia. 

Socotra. Not uncommon. B.C.S. nn. 76, 404. Schweinf. nn. 659, 
710. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This plant I at first considered to be a form of CI. arabica, Linn., a wide- 
spread North African and Arabian species. In habit the species resemble one 
another closely, and the likeness is especially marked in the Arabian forms of 
CI. arabica. But the less scabrid character of the Socotran plant, its broader 
leaves, form of petals, straight ascending pods, and lastly, its smaller hairy not 
cottony seeds, sufficiently separate it. Schweinfurth sends two specimens of the 
plant, one of which n. 659 is almost as scabrid as CI. arabica. 

Like all Cleomes it is a somewhat variable plant according as it occurs 
on dry plains or in sheltered favourable situations. Sometimes in the latter 
habitats it is perfectly glabrous, and then the leaves are much larger than 
is normally the case. 

3. 01. tenella, Linn, fil, Suppl. 300 ; DC. Prod. i. 240 ; Oliv. Flor. Afr. i. 
78 ; Hook. fil. and Thorns, in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 169. 

Socotra. On the plains about Galonsir and Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 147. 
Schweinf. n. 749. 

Distrib. Southern India and Tropical Africa. 

The Socotran specimens resemble more the African than the Indian plants, 
the latter being, as Hooker and Thomson (loc. cit.) state, of smaller dimensions, 
though identical with that of Africa. The seeds are " globose reniform minutely 
rugulose pitted " (Oliv. loc. cit) not " smooth " (Hook. fil. and Thorns, loc. cit.). 

4. CI. brachycarpa, Vahl. ex DC. Prod. i. 240 ; T. Anders, in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. v. (1880), Suppl. 4 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 412 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. 
i. 77 ; Hook. fil. and Thorns, in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 169 ; Franch. Sert. 
Somal. in Miss. ReVoil. 11. 

C. Buta, Jacqem. Voy. Bot. 19, t. 19. 
C. moschata, Stocks ins. in Herb. Kew. 

Socotra. Sandy parts of the limestone plains. B.C.S. nn. 88, 556. 
Schweinf. n. 262, in lit. 

Distrib. Arabia to north-west India, and in Nile Land. 

A very variable plant, both in size of leaf and in amount of glandular 
clothing. In Socotra it varies in this latter respect from densely glandulose to 
nearly glabrous. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXL. B 



10 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Our spocimen-s (n. 556), are from a plant of less scaberulous character than 
is typical, and of which the upper leaves of the flowering shoots are longly 
petioled, not sessile as in the type. There is no fruit on the specimen to con- 
firm the identification, yet I have little doubt it is a form of this species. 
Schweinfurth sends specimens (n. 289), collected near Tamarida, which are 
quite glabrous, and he tickets them " Cleome aff. brachycarpa, sed habitu 
diversa et foliis non moschatis inodoris." In a note he remarks CI. brachycarpa 
is " herba semper moschata, covered all over with short stalked glands." This 
plant has sessile glands on the fruit only, and though in structure the flowers 
are like those of CI. brachycarpa yet they are smaller, the foliage is more 
minute, and the basal leaves are simple with long stalks. He concludes, 
however, that it may be merely a shade form of CI. brachycarpa, but on 
account of its slender habit, inodorous character, and minute different foliage, 
deserving a varietal name, for which he proposes " filicaulis." Its diagnosis is, — 

CI. brachycarpa, Vahl, var. filicaulis, Schweinf. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. 
xiii. (1883). 

Minuta, eglandulosa, inodora, filicaulis. 

Soeotra. Near Tamarida. Schweinf. n. 289. 
Distkib. Endemic. 

5. CI. viscosa, Linn. Sp. 938 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 80 .; Hook. fil. 
and Thorns, in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 170. 

Polanisia viscosa, DC. Prod. i. 242. 
P. icosandra, Wight Ic. t. 2. 

Soeotra. About villages, B.C.S. n. 681. Schweinf. n. 276, in lit. 
Distrib. A common tropical weed. 

2. GYNANDKOPSIS. 

Gynandropsis, DC. Prod. i. 237 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 106. 

A small genus of herbaceous plants found in the tropics all round the 
world. 

G. pentaphylla, DC. Prod. i. 238 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 410 ; 
Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 82 ; Hook. fil. and Thorns, in Hook. Flor. Brit. 
Ind. i. 171. 

Cleome pentaphylla, Linn. Sp. 938 ; Bot. Mag. t. 1681. 

Soeotra. Casual about habitations. B.C.S. n. 206. Schweinf. n. 393. 
Distrib. Common tropical weed. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR, 11 

3. M^ERUA, 

Mcerua, Forsk. Fl. ^Egypt. Arab. 104 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 10& 

A small genus of shrubby plants or small trees found across tropical Africa, 
extending to the Cape ; also spread eastwards through Arabia to India and in the 
islands of the Indian Ocean. 

M. angolensis, DC. Prod. i. 254 j Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 87, var. 
SOCOtrana, Schweinf. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Arbor mediocris vel frutex ramis effuso-dependentibus dense Miosis ; foliis tenuiter carnosulis 
vel (perennantibus) crassis suberosis, petiolo duplo vel ad J lamina breviore flaccido haud 
recurvo, lamina basi cuneata ovali-obovata v. oblongo-lineari ad apicem rotundata v. 
emarginata semper mucronata ; floribus paucis mediocribus apetalis ; fruct. ignot. 

Nom. Vern. Eschab. 'Eschab. Eshaib. (Wellst.) 

Socotra. On the hills and plains, B.C.S. nn. 193, 588. Schweinf. nn. 
251, 457, 603. 

Distrib. Abyssinia % 

Schweinfurth, whose description I have quoted above, thus writes : — " differt 
a M. angolensis Nubian et Africae septentrionalis orientalis, in foliis creberrimis 
semper cuneatis nunquam acutis obsoletius nervosis, nervis secundariis 
basalibus ad marginem longius decurrentibus, petiolo apice minus incrassato 
nunquam inflexo, floribus plus duplominoribus 3-4 ad apices ramorum." 

As found on Socotra by Schweinfurth, this plant is variable. He has three 
sets of specimens :■ — 

«. n. 603. From the Wadi Digal, at an elevation of about 2500 feet. A 
lofty shrub with pendant branches. This is called Eschab. 

(3. n. 457. From Keregnigiti. A weeping shrub with narrow leaves. No 
flowers found. 

y. n. 251. " From the plains at Galonsir. A small tree with pendant 
branches and long virgate polystichous fleshy leaves, in shape like those of n. 
603, but with shorter petioles. On the young branches occur slender petioled 
thin leaves. This is called 'Eschab, in Arabic ' Seob,' a name applied on the 
shores of the Red Sea to Mcerua uniflora, Vahl,. and perhaps to all Mseruas." 

All these Schweinfurth regards as forms of one species, which he takes to be 
distinct from M. angolensis, DC, but for the present lie is content to describe 
them as a variety of that species, because without fruit a true diagnosis is 
impossible. 

We obtained two Mseruas of different aspect on the island. One, (n. 588), 
not uncommon on the hills, is a weeping form, with leaves cuneate at the base, 
and corresponds with Schweinfurth's n. 603, (I agree with him in regarding 
his n. 603 as identical with n. 457.) Onr other plant, (n. 193), is a small tree 
from the plains, with pendulous branches and close-set short-petioled fleshy 



12 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

glaucous leaves, which are a favourite food with camels ; and as the young twigs 
are so usually devoured, it is rare to find flower or fruit. This form I think may 
be the same as Schweinfurth's n. 251, although he mentions the leaves on 
young shoots as slender and long-petioled, whilst our plant is heterophyllous 
after the type of such Mascarene plants as Pyrostria trilocularis, Balf. fil. 
ScyphocMamys revoluta, Balf. fil., &c. (see Botany of Rodriguez in Phil. Trans. 
168 (extra vol. 1879). The leaves on young shoots are long and linear, often 2 
inches in length, and only x^th inch broad, and subsessile, whilst the mature 
leaves are oblong, about l^th in. long, and shortly petiolate withacuneate base. 
Is this, then, merely a plain form of the hill plant, or is it a distinct species ? 

M. angolensis, DC. is a wide-spread and variable plant, and as it occurs in 
Angola is a tree with leaves not narrowly cuneate at the base but rather obtuse 
and rounded. I have examined De Candolle's type, and also specimens collected 
by Welwitsch (n. 969)— which last show heterophylly of the same type as our 
Socotran plain form— and they are certainly different from our specimens. It 
may be questioned, however, whether the species as taken up and described by 
Oliver (loc. cit.) is really one or includes more than one form. The Abyssinian 
specimens in Kew Herbarium, under the name M. retusa, Hochst., quoted by 
Oliver as a synonym of M. angolensis, are I think doubtfully referable to it, and 
with them the Socotran hill plant agrees in many ways, especially in the cuneate 
based leaves, though ours is a more delicate plant and has smaller flowers with 
a relatively shorter calyx tube. 

Whether there are one or two species on Socotra, and whether the Abyssinian 
plant is identical with any Socotran form, must remain for future exploration to 
decide. Meanwhile, as our specimens are not perfect, I have accepted 
Schweinfurth's description and nomenclature. 

The Socotran tree is a very graceful one, and is thus described by Wellsted 
(Journ. Roy. Geogr. Soc. v. (1835) 199 : — " The eshaib tree is remarkable as 
resembling in its light and graceful form the weeping ash of England. Not- 
withstanding the slender dimensions of its trunk, and its being always slightly 
inclined in a direction contrary to the prevailing south-westerly breezes, it 
appears to be capable of withstanding the full force of a tropical storm. From 
the great length of the petiole, the leaves hang loose, and are easily shaken by 
the wind, presenting an appearance similar to that produced by the " light 
quivering aspen." A more beautiful or tasteful mourner over an urn or tomb 
than this plant could not be selected !" 

4. CADABA. 

Cadaha, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 67 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 108. 

A small genus of shrubs chiefly found in tropical Africa (but extending to 
the Cape), Arabia, India, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. One species 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 13 

occurs in Australia. The name was derived by Forskal from the Arabic 
vernacular name for one of the species. Possibly the village Kadhab on the 
northern shores of Socotra takes its name from a species of the genus growing 
abundantly on the plain in its vicinity. Both Socotran species are plants of the 
dry sandy region of the vicinity of the Red Sea. 

1. C. rotundifolia, Forsk. Fl. ^Egypt. Arab. 68 ; DC. Prod. i. 244 ; 
Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 418 (notul. ad spec. C. glandulosa, Forsk.) ; Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. i. 89. 

C. glandulosa, var. glabrior, Thorns, ms. in Herb. Kew. 
Strcemia rotundifolia, Vahl Symb. i. 20. 

Socotra. On the hill slopes near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 322. 

Distrib. Nile Land. 

The specimens from Socotra referred to this species have no flower, but 
they are identical with plants in Kew Herbarium, collected at Aden by 
Thomson, and named by him as a variety "glabrior" of C. glandulosa, Forsk. 
Oliver (loc. cit.) in a note to description of C. glandulosa, which is typically 
"glandular pilose with short spreading viscid hairs" and iu such form occurs 
at Aden, referring to Thomson's Aden specimens, says, — " a slightly scabrid or 
nearly glabrous variety occurs at Aden." 

An examination of Thomson's specimens, which have flower but no fruit, 
has convinced me that it is not a variety of C. glandulosa. In addition to the 
distinction derivable from the clothing, the very constant retuse form of the 
leaves, and above all the floral characters — filaments of stamens adnate to the 
gynophore through a considerable extent, and ovary one-celled with two opposite 
placentas — separate it from C. glandulosa, and bring it near C. rotundifolia, 
Forsk. I say bring it near this species, for the leaves in Thomson's as well as 
in our Socotran plants are considerably smaller (not exceeding f inch in 
diameter), and have shorter petioles than those of Forskal's type from Arabia and 
Nile Land. Aden is one of the stations for the type C. rotundifolia. It was 
first found there in 1873, by Oliver and Cleave, and their specimens have been 
ticketed in Kew Herbarium as variety " glabrior " of C. glandulosa. We also 
found the type at Aden. But I have seen no specimens like those of Thomson 
brought by any other collector from Aden. 

Although, then, the Socotran, and Thomson's Aden specimens do not conform 
exactly with the specific characters of either species, it appears to me that they 
are much more nearly allied to C. rotundifolia than to C. glandulosa, and I am 
indeed unable from the specimens to determine any good character by which 
to separate them from the former somewhat variable species. It may be, how- 
ever, that we are dealing with a distinct species. 



14 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

2. C. longifolia, DC. Prod, i. 244 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 90 j T. 
Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (I860), Suppl. 4 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. 
Abyss. I. 26, t. 5. 

Socotra. Not common on the plains. B.C.S. n. 679. 
Distrib. Somali Land, Abyssinia, shores of the Bed Sea. Common at 
Aden, 

5. CAPPARIS. 

Capparis, Linn. Gen. n. 643 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 108. 

A large genus of trees or shrubs, often spiny, of tropical and warm regions 
in both old and new world, but absent from North America. 

1. C. aphylla, Roth. Nov. PI. Sp. 238; DC. Prod. i. 246; Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. i. 95 ; Hook. fil. and Thorns, in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 174 ; 
Brandis For. Flor. t. iii. 

C. Sodada, E. Br. in Denh. and Clapp. App. 20 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 419. 
Sodada decidua, Forsk. Fl. ^Egypt. Arab. 81 ; Del. Fl. Mgypt. 74, t. 26, f. 2. 

Socotra. A characteristic plant of the dry limestone plains at the east 
and west ends of the island. B.C.S. n. 678. 

Distrib. Through Nile Land and north tropical Africa, and from Arabia to 
north-west India. 

2. C. spinosa, Linn. Sp. 720 ; DC. Prod. i. 245 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, 
i. 420 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 95 ; Hook. fil. and Thorns, in Hook. Flor. Brit. 
Ind. i. 173. 

Socotra. On the plains, common. B.C.S. n. 192. Schweinf. n. 751. 

Distrib. Of wide distribution in the dry regions of the tropics. 

The plant occurs in both spiny and unarmed states on Socotra. For a dis- 
cussion of the synonymy of this protean species, see Hooker and Thomson 
(loc. cit.) and T. Anderson (in Linn. Soc. Journ. v. (1860), Suppl. 5). The 
Socotran plant is the true C. spinosa, Linn. 



Order V. RESEDACE^]. 

A small family of six genera, reaching a maximum in the regions about the 
Mediterranean, and in south-west Asia. A few representatives extend to 
India and south Africa. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 15 

1. RESEDA. 

Reseda, Linn. Gen. n. 608 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 112. 

A genus of some twenty-seven species of very variable herbs or half-shrubs 
occurring in the circum-Mediterranean region, and the dry parts of south-west 
Asia. 

R. viridis, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 501. 

Fruticulosa, glaberrima ; foliis ellipbicis v. oblongis v. subobovatis obtusis sinuatis interduin. 
tripartitis longe petiolatis ; pedicellis floribus brevioribus ; sepalis 6 infcegris deciduis ; 
petalis albis ; filamentis deciduis ; capsulis breviter tridentatis ; seminibus tuberculatis. 

Suffrutex ramosus ramis late patentibus subdecumbentibus. Folia l|-24 poll, longa §-1 poll, 
lata indivisa sed superiora rarius ternatim partita, lamina elliptica v. rotundato-obovata 
obtusa ssepe emarginata, basi in petiolum longuum usque ad pollicare cuneatim attenuata, 
margine sinuata. Spicai longe conica? ; pedicelli \ poll, longi floribus breviores ; bracteos 
longe subulatse caduca?. Sepala 6 anguste spathulata subrequalia \ poll, longa decidua 
petalis vix breviora. Petalormn superiorum lamina ad basim in 5 lacinias lineari-spathu- 
latas subaequales uugui aBquilongas partita. Filamenta clecidua. Capsula glabra breviter 
tridentata, ore vix constricto, oblonga § poll, longa ; placenta? tenues indivisa?. Semina 
^ poll. diam. rugoso-tuberculata. 

Socotra. On the slopes of the hills near Galonsir at, an elevation of 
1500 feet. B.C.S. n. 230. 

Dlstrib. Endemic. 

This is a very graceful under-shrub, with a woody base and long spreading 
branches bearing leaves of an exquisite fresh green. Apparently a new species, 
it has very close affinities with Continental forms, and notably with R. Aucheri, 
Boiss. (Diagn. Ser. 1. i. 5), a plant of Mesopotamia, Persia, and Scindh. 
This species, to which R. Alphonsi, Mull, (in Bot. Zeit. 1856, 35) is referred, 
resembles our plant, especially through Algerian specimens, in habit and 
foliage, but the leaves are not so fleshy, are more distinctly veined and are 
usually acute (in Persian plants always so), the pedicels are longer and more 
delicate, and the capsules stouter and somewhat globose at the base ; the 
seeds, too, are usually smooth, but sometimes are somewhat rugose 
punctate. 

T. Anderson (in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 6) regards R. Aucheri 
as a form of the widely spread desert species R. pruinosa, Del., from which he 
distinguishes the Aden plant R. amblyocarpa, Ires. But, as Oliver (Flor. Trop. 
Afr. i. 103) points out, the punctate seeds of the Aden plant upon which 
Anderson rests his diagnosis are not sufficient to warrant its separation from 
R. pruinosa, in which the seeds are usually smooth, and Hooker fil. and Thomson 
(Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 181), rightly, I think, keep up R. Aucheri as distinct 
from R. pruinosa (with which they combine R. bracteata, Boiss.) on the ground 
of the general absence of pruinose character, rarely or less divided leaves, longly 
pedicellate flowers, and long linear bracts. 



16 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Even if all these forms be reduced to one species, the Socotran plant has 
in its pedicels, capsules, and seeds, characters quite sufficient to distinguish it 
specifically though it is not far removed from them. 

Seeds of this plant sent home to Kew germinated, and in the autumn of 
1880 the plants flowered. 

2. OCHRADENUS. 

Ochrathmis, Del. Fl. ^Egypt. 92, t. 31, f. 1 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 112. 

A genus of two species of shrubs, one found in Spain, the other, which 
occurs in Socotra, extends from Egypt eastwards to Scindh. 

O. baccatus, Del. Fl. ^Egypt. 92, t. 31 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 422 ; Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 104 ; Hook. fil. and Thorns, in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 182. 

Nom Vern. Girclhi. (Schweinf.) 

Socotra. Common on the limestone plains at the east and west ends of 
the island. B.C.S. n. 2. Schweinf. n. 372. 

Distrib. Nile Land and through Arabia to Scindh. 



l »' 



Order VI. VIOLARIE^E. 

A small family of about twenty-one genera of herbs or under- shrubs 
represented in all parts of the world. The herbaceous forms are chiefly 
temperate, the shrubby more frequently tropical. 

1. VIOLA. 

Viola, Linn. Gen. n. 1007 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 117. 

A large genus of about one hundred species of herbs, distributed in tem- 
perate and mountainous regions all over the world. 

V. cinerea, Boiss. Diagn. se>. 1. 1. 7. Flor. Orient, i. 454 ; Hook. fil. 
and Thorns, in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 185. 

Socotra. Near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 701. 

Distrib. Through Arabia and Persia to Afghanistan. 

Our specimens are not in flower, but I have no doubt of the identification. 

2. IONIDIUM. 

Ionidium, Vent. Hort. Malm. t. 27 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 117. 

A considerable genus of herbaceous or shrubby plants represented chiefly 
in America. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 17 

I. suffruticosum, Ging. ex DC. Prod. i. 311 ; Hook. fil. and Thorns, in 
Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. L. 185. 

I. enneaspermum, Vent. Hort. Malm. 27 ; DC. Prod. i. 308 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Mr. i. 105, 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 214. Schweinf. in lit. 
Distrib. Widely spread in the tropics of the old world and in Australia. 
The only species found in tropical Africa. 

3. ALSODEIA 

Alsodeia, Thouars Hist. Veg. Afr. 55, tt. 17, 18 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 118. 

A considerable genus of tropical and subtropical regions, chiefly American, 
but with several representatives in Africa, Asia, and the Indian Ocean islands, 
but the Indian forms are quite distinct from the African. The Socotran species 
is. endemic. 

A. SOCOtrana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Boy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Herbacea ramosissima humilis glabra ; foliis parvis- ellipticis v. subobovatis brevissime petio- 
latis obscure remoteque serrulatis subtus glanduloso-puberulis ; floribus solitariis ; 
filamentis brevissimis. 

Pedalis glabra dense ramosissima herbacea ramis erectis striatis angulatfs. Folia breviter 
petiolata \- §- poll, longa \— | poll, lata elliptica v. oblongo-elliptica v. subobovata apice 
acuta nonnunquam obtusa basi atteuuata cuueiformia margiue inferne integra superne 
remote serrata revoluta supra puberulo-scabridula subtus glanduloso-puberula pallidiora 
plerumque basi 3-5-nervia. Stipvim parvae -^ poll, longaa membranaceae ovatee extus 
pubescentes apice glandula capitata terminate concavse dorsaliter medio nervo prominente. 
Flores minuti solitarii ; pedicelli supra medium articulati j^ poll, longi demum j^-. poll, 
longi ; braeteolae ovato-acutse minutae pilosae. Sepcda T a 2 poll, longa lanceolata acuta 
obscure pubescens. Petala sepalis dimidio breviora acuta v. obtusa. Staminum filamenta 
brevissima ; connectivum ultra loculos latum. Discus, inconspicuus 5-lobus. Ovarium, 
glabrum. Fruct. ignot. 

Socotra. Near Tamarida, RC.S. n. 26. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very distinct herbaceous species, widely separate from all other described 
©Id world forms by its habit and foliage. It has to some extent the facies of A. 
(Scyphellandra) virgata, Thwaites (Enum. PL Zeyl, 21 ; Hook. fil. and 
Thorns, in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 189), but that is a more woody plant, and 
is moreover distinguished by its stamens squamate on the back. 

It is not abundant on the island - r we only found it at one locality. 

Order YII. BIXINE.E. 

A family of trees or shrubs included in thirty genera, chiefly found in the 
tropics. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. C 



18 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

ABERIA. 

Aheria, Hochst. in Flora 1844, Beil. 2 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 128. 

A genus of seven species of trees or shrubs. Two of these occur at the Cape, 
one is peculiar to Ceylon, and the remaining four are tropical African. The 
Socotran plant is one of these last. 

A. abyssinica, Clos in Ann. Sc. Nat. se>. 4. viii. (1857), 236 ; Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. i. 122. 

Boumea abyssinica, Aeh. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, i. 34, t. 8. 

Nom. Veen. Ugelhas (B.C.S.) 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 384. Schweinf. n. 609. 

Distrib. Abyssinia. 

We obtained specimens of this plant with very young flower buds only, 
but Schweinfurth, in the month of May, got male flowers in splendid condition, 
which enable us to determine it. Although the female flowers and fruit of our 
Socotran plant are unknown, the general resemblance with the Abyssinian plant 
is so great as to leave little doubt as to their identity. Richard describes the 
Abyssinian plant as a large tree ; on Socotra it is little more than a shrub. 



Order VIII. POLYGALEA 

A considerable order of herbs, rarely trees, widely dispersed all over the 
world. 

POLYGALA. 

Polyrjala, Linn. Gen. n. 851 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 136. 

A very large genus of herbs or shrubs found in temperate and tropical 
regions of both hemispheres. Of the Socotran species, two are essentially north- 
west tropical African and south-west Asiatic species, one, however, extending to 
the Cape de Verde Islands and the other to Natal ; the third species is not African, 
but is found out of tropical Asia in Socotra and in Australia. 

1. P. abyssinica, Fres. in Mus. Senck. ii. 273 ; Oliv. Fk>r. Trop. Afr. i. 
130 ; Benn. in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 202. 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 602. 

Distrib. Abyssinia to Natal, and in Afghanistan and north-west India. 

2. P. erioptera, DC. Prod. i. 326 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 469 ; Benn. in 
Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 203. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 19 

P. triflora, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 6. 
P. triflora, Qliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 128. 

Soeotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 692. Schweinf. n. 735. 
Distrib. From Cape de Verde Islands through tropical Africa and Arabia 
to northern India. 

3. P. chinensis, Linn. Sp. 989 ; Benn. in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 204. 

P. arvensis, Willd. Sp. iii. 876 ; DC. Prod. i. 326. 

Soeotra. Found sparingly on the limestone plains. B.C.S. n. 693. 
Distrib. Tropical Asia and Australia. Absent from Africa. 



Order IX. CARYOPHYLLE^. 

A large family of herbs, essentially plants of the extratropical and alpine 
regions of the northern hemisphere. More rare between the tropics. 

1 GYPSOPHILA. 

GypsopMla, Linn. Gen. n. 563 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 146. 

A genus of about fifty species of herbs, natives of the Mediterranean region, 
especially the northern shores, and of south-west Asia. One species (possibly 
introduced) extends to Australia and New Zealand. 

G. montana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 501. 

G. somalensis, Frauch. Sert. SomaL in Miss. "ReVoil 14. 

Perennis glabra v. plus minusve glanduloso-pilosa ; foliis crassiuseulis obovato-spathulatis ; 
cymis laxis ramosis ; pedicellis calyce et braeteis foliaceis longioribus ; calyce campanulato 
ad medium 5-fido ; petalorum limbo distineto truncato ; capsula calyci aequilonga ; semini- 
bus punctulato-tuberculatis. 

Herba caule perenni lignoso proeumbente ramoso ramis adscendentibus usque ad 2-ped. glabris 
sed ssepe glanduloso-pilosis. Folia 1 \ polL loDga \- \ poll, lata obovato-spatbulata v. 
oblonga et in petiolum brevem gradatim attenuata obtusa et saspe mucronulata v. acuta 
crassiuscula glabra v. subglanduloso-pilosa. Cymos dicbotome ramosissimse effusse divari- 
catse ; pedicelli glanduloso-pilosi ultimi capillares erecti | poll, longi ; bractese foliaceas 
pedicellis multo-breviores. Calyx subglaber v. sparsim glanduloso-pilosus j poll, longus 
campauulatus 5-lobatus lobis longe acutis tubum sequantibns margine submembranaceis, 
tubi intervallis membranaceis angustis. Petala trinervia glabra alba v. lilacina % poll, 
longa, ungue in limbum truncatum erosum v. emarginatum sensim dilatato basi acuto. 
Ovarium 8-ovulatum. Capsula apice subbifida breviter stipitata calyci sequilonga oligo- 
sperma. Semina nigra tuberculata ; embryonis radicula elongata. 

Soeotra. On the Haghier hills, at an elevation of over 2500 feet. B.C.S. 
n. 442. 

Distrib. Aden. 



20 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

This species, as yet known only from Aden, Somali Land, and from Socotra, 
finds perhaps its nearest allies in G. polyclada, Fenzl. (in herb. Kotschy Pers. 
Austr. n. 674 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 542), a Persian plant, and as Franchet 
suggests in G. Arrostii, Guss. (PI. Rar. 160, t. 30), a south European species ; 
but it is easily separated by foliage, inflorescence, and flowers. With G. bellidi- 
folia, Boiss. (Diagn. ser. 1, i. 11, non Willd.), a species from Muscat and 
Beloochistan, there is also much resemblance; but that plant is an almost 
unbranched annual, with a very small inflorescence and with many seeds. 

Tins beautiful plant of the Socotran hills I found in great abundance in 
the shaded moist ravines near the summit of the Sicante peaks of the Haghier 
range. The same plant was subsequently brought from Somali Land by ReVoil, 
and Franchet, unaware of the publication of my diagnosis, described it (he. cit.) 
as a new species, G. somalensis. It is a somewhat variable plant, at times being 
almost glabrous, whilst from other situations it has a densely viscid glandular 
hairy covering. With the presence of this greater viscidity is associated a 
more robust habit, very marked in the inflorescence, which becomes more 
densely branched, the branches diverge more, and the terminal ones are much 
shortened. The flowers, too, are slightly larger. To this viscid hairy form, 
which is the only one sent by Schweinfurth, and is the form from Somali 
Land, I have given a distinct varietal name — 

Gr. montana, var. viscida, Balf. fil., in Proc. Boy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Robustior inflorescentiae ramis ultimis brevioribus et omnino pilis glandulosis vestita. 

Socotra. Rarer than the type. B.C.S. n. 554. Schweinf. n. 658. 

Distrib. Somali Land. 

The Socotran plant appears to be identical with a hitherto undescribed one, 
first found at Aden by Thomson in 1872, and since sent home from that 
locality by several collectors. We obtained it there in abundance. In the 
Aden plant variations in -habit and clothing of the same character as in the 
Socotran specimens are observed, though not so strongly marked. But there 
is a farther variation observable in the inflorescences and flowers of the glabrous 
form as found at Aden. The former become exceedingly diffuse, and the 
pedicels are very short and delicate ; the latter arc greatly reduced in size, often 
less than half those of the Socotran plants. In fact the inflorescence assumes 
more the appearance of an Arenaria. I can find, however, no sufficient 
character separating the forms as species, though a varietal name may be 
assigned to the Aden plant, and it may be described as — 

G. montana, var. diffusa, Balf. fil. 

Ilerba inflorescentia diffusa ramosa ramulis ultimis capillaribus fioribusque minoribus. 
Aden. Found by many collectors. 
Distrib. Endemic. 



PHANEROGAMS— PKOFESSOE BAYLEY BALFOUR, 21 

2. SILENE. 

Silene, Linn. Gen. n. 567 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 147. 

A very large genus of herbs, abundant in Europe, the Mediterranean region, 
and temperate Asia. A few are also found at the Cape and in North America. 

S. apetala, Willd. Sp. ii. 703 ; DC. Prod. i. 369- ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i 
596. 

Socotra. Common on the hills at all elevations. B.C.S. n. 352. 
Schweinf. n. 664. 

Distkib. Canary Islands and circum-Mediterranean region, Persia and 
Afghanistan. 

3. ARENARIA. 

Arenaria, Linn. Gen. n. 569 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 149. 

A large genus, chiefly of temperate and alpine regions. 

A. serpyllifolia, Linn. Sp. 606 ; DC. Prod. i. 411 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, 
i. 701 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 142 ; Edgew. and Hook. fil. in Hook. Flor. 
Brit. Ind. i. 239 ; Eng. Bot. Syme t. 236. 

Socotra. Abundant in many places. B.C.S. n. 702, 
Distrib. A common weed. 

4. POLYCARP^EA. 

Polycarpcca, Lamk. in Journ, Hist. Nat. ii. 8, t.'25> ex DC. ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 154. 

A genus of twenty-six species of small herbs, many of them badly defined, 
spread through the tropical and warmer regions of the old world, one extending 
into tropical America. Two of the Socotran species are endemic. Another is 
a wide spread species of both old and new worlds, whilst a fourth is a south-west 
Asiatic and north-west African form extending to Australia, which, in Socotra, 
exhibits a distinct varietal character. 

1. P. corymbosa, Lamk. 111. ii. 129 ; DC. Prod. iii. 374 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. i. 145 ; Edgew. and Hook. fil. in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 245 ; Wight Ic. 
t. 712. 

Socotra. On the plain near Kadhab. B.C.S. n. 20. 
Distkib. A very widely spread tropical plant of both old and new worlds. 
A very small form of this species occurs on Socotra. 



22 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

2. P. spicata, Arn. in Ann. Nat. Hist. iv. (1839), 91 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, 
i. 738; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 146 ; Edgew. and Hook. fil. in Hook. Flor. 
Brit. Ind. i. 246 ; Wight Ic. t. 510. 
P. staticocformis, Hochst. et Steud. in herb. Schimp. Arab. sect. 1 n. 940. 

Nom Vern. 'Teyeycha. 

Socotra. Not uncommon. Our plants are from the Haghier hills near 
Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 371. 

Distrib. Abyssinia, Egypt, and through Arabia to the Indian Peninsula. 
Also Australia. 

This species, which has a wide distribution in the regions around Socotra, is a 
very marked one in the genus by reason of its Statice-like habit, a character which 
is shared with it by all the members of the genus in Socotra. Specific limits 
are at present notably difficult to define in this genus, and the Socotran plants 
referred to this species depart considerably from the ordinary type as it occurs 
on the mainland. Normally this is more or less spathulate, fleshy, glaucous, 
with a few rigid erect branches rising from a basal rosette and subsequently 
dividing by pairs but not copiously. Now the Socotran plant is more delicate, 
more copiously branched, with less fleshy leaves, which are usually setose at the 
point, and whilst the radical leaves are spathulate, they narrow to the base 
much more gradually, and the leaves on the branchlets are greatly narrowed, 
becoming at times quite filiform and very long. I should have had more hesita- 
tion in referring our plant to this species, but for a specimen of Gay's, in Kew 
Herbarium, labelled P. staticwformis, var. ramosissima, which is certainly P. 
spicata, but is very greatly branched, and the upper leaves are much narrowed 
after the fashion of those in our plant, and it is a link uniting our plant with 
the type. 

But there is also a plant found by both Schweinfurth and our party in 
Socotra, not abundantly, which I think it is advisable to refer to this species, 
but as a distinct variety. In general habit it resembles the Socotran forms above 
referred to, but is very sparingly branched, in this respect coming near the 
mainland type. But its leaves are very small and thread-like. The basal ones 
have almost entirely disappeared from our specimens, and as the branches 
carry but few, the plant has a very bare look. The primary floral axes too are 
exceedingly attenuated, though straight and ascending. One of the most 
striking features is the uniform coloration of the bracteoles. These have not 
a scarious margin with a midrib tinged with colour, as in the type, but with 
almost no scarious margin, are throughout of a fawn or brown tint, and this 
contrasts in the dry state very markedly Avith the white scarious sepals of the 
flowers, which in the fresh condition are deep purple along the midribs. These 
(lid'crences are evident enough, but as I have, failed to obtain any distinctive 
characters in the flowers, and moreover, as coincident with the narrowing of the 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 23 

leaves in Gay's specimen above referred to, I find in many of the flowers a 
reduction in extent of the scarious margin of the bracteoles and increase in the 
area of coloration, I have for the present considered the Socotran form as con- 
specific with P. spicata. But I have given it a varietal designation. This, as 
well as the identification of the last species, must be regarded as provisional. 
Farther exploration of the regions around Socotra will, as Oliver remarks in a 
note to the tropical African species, discover other forms, rendering more 
precise diagnoses of the species possible. This Socotran plant, then, is diagnosed 
thus : — 

P. spicata, Arn., var. capillaris, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 
Tenuior pauciramosus ; foliis paucis filiformibus ; bracteolis siccis rufis niarginibus vix scariosis. 

Socotra. Near Galonsir and elsewhere. B.C.S. n. 211. Schweinf. n. 239. 
Distrib.' Endemic. 

3. P. divaricata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 502. 

Annua glabra ramosissima erecta ; foliis submembranaceis apice setosis, radicalibus rosulatis 
spathulatis, ramalibus longe oblanceolatis v. filiformibus ; stipulis acuminatis ; floribus 
sessilibus in spicas imbricatas ad extremitates rliacbium longorum positas aggregatis ; 
sepalis ovato-lanceolatis petalis capsulisque longioribus. 

Herba tenuis viridis omnino glabra annua ramosissima ramis divaricatis rectis et subgeniculatis. 
Folia non distincte petiolata submembranacea et saepissime setoso-apiculata, radicalia 
rosulata spathulata obtusa v. acuta f— 1 poll, longa \-\ poll, lata, ramulorum angusta 
longe oblanceolata acutissima v. filiformia plurima ad nodum quemque fasciculata 1 poll, 
longa. Slipitlcv minutae scariosae ovato-acuminatse. Flores sessiles in spicas 10-16-floras ad 
apices rhachium 1-1 £ poll, longorum rectorum capillarium secundim congesti; bracteolae 
subcarinatae nervo medio colorato lateribusque scariosis. Sepala ovato-lanceolata scariosa 
subcarinata, medio nervo colorato, £ poll, longa petalis duplolongiora. Petala lanceolata 
apice angustata dentata purpurea. Antherce parvae filamentis multo breviores. Stylus 
ovario brevior. Capsula sepalis dimidio breviora sed petalis paullo longiora. 

Socotra. Not so common as the foregoing. Found in several localities, 
often at considerable elevation. B.C.S. n. 684. Schweinf. n. 543. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very beautiful Statice-like annual. Its general facies is not unlike the 
forms of P. spicata, Arn., on Socotra ; but its less robust habit, its foliage, and the 
relative dimensions of the parts of the flower, distinguish it. 

4. P. caespitosa, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 502. 

Perennis subcaespitosa glabra ; caulibus prostratis v. subterraneis ; foliis subcrassis anguste 
spathulatis v. oblanceolatis ; stipulis fimbriatis ; floribus sessilibus in spicas paucifloras ad 
apices rhachium longorum congestis ; sepalis ovato-acutis infra late scarioso-alatis ; petalis 
sepalis subaequilongis et capsulis longioribus. 

Perennis pedalis. Caules lignosi si epigcei glauci cum baseis foliorum persistentibus 
incrassatis vestiti ; ramuli annui recti v. nonnunquam anfractuosi tenues striati ex axillis 
foliorum dense rosulatorum adscendentes. Folia basalia l-l£ poll, longa ^ poll, lata 



24 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

angmte spatbulata v. oblanceolata acuta rarius subapiculata v. obfcnsa, ramulorum saepe 
filiformia pluriiiuoe ad nodum quenique fasciculata. Stipidw liiinutaa margine scarios;e 
fimbriata?. Florcs sessiles in spicas densas breves paucifloras apice rhacbium longorum 
rectoruni cougestas dispositi ; bracteolas fusco-rufae late ovatae medio nervo promineute, 
margine subscariosa? basi fimbriate. Sepala £-^ poll, longa ovato-acuta medio nervo 
herbaceo, margine basi late scarioso-alata, rufa. Petala sepalis subaquilonga apice anguste 
dentata. Staminum filamenta basi ampliata ; antberae inagnae nlamentis dimidio breviores. 
Stylus ovario longior. C'apsula petalis breviora. 

Socotra. On the plains beyond Tamarida and elsewhere ; not uncommon. 
B.C.S. n. 683. 

A very distinct perennial, with a luzuloid habit. It varies somewhat with 
its locality. In some specimens from dry and stony spots the stems are gnarled, 
hard, brittle, prostrate, and very glaucous, clothed with but few leaves, and 
having annual shoots only two or three inches long. On the other hand, when 
from more penetrable ground, the stems are thin, flexible, and straggling, 
bearing delicate, straight, almost capillary branchlets a foot or more high. 



Order X. PORTULACE.E. 

A small family of shrubs or under-shrubs frequently succulent, chiefly 
characteristic of America, with a few confined to South Africa and Australia, 
and some spread in the old world. 

1. PORTULACA. 

Portulaca, Linn. Gen. n. 603 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 156. 

A small genus of herbs, most of which are American, but a few are weeds of 
wide range in tropical countries,, and extend into temperate regions. 

1. P. oleracea, Linn. Sp. 638 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 757 ; Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. i. 148 ; Dyer in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 246. 

Socotra. Abundant. B.C.S. n. 12. 
Disteib. A common tropical weed. 

2. P. quadriflda, Linn. Mant. 73 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 757 ; Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. i. 149 ; Dyer in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 247 ; Wight Illustr. t. 109. 

Socotra. Abundant. B.C.S. n. 601. Schweinf. n. 724 ; Hunt. n. 6. 
Distrib. A common old world tropical weed. 

2. TALINUM. 
Taltnum, Adans. ex Juss. Gen. 312 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 157. 

A small ,^enus of herbs of warm and tropical regions ; all American except a 
few, which are Asiatic or African. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 25 

T. cuneifolium, Willd. Sp. ii. 864 ; DC. Prod. iii. 357 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. i. 150 ; Dyer in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 247. 

Soeotra. Near Tamarida and Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 712. Schweinf. n. 
522. 

Distrib. Through tropical Africa, Arabia, and in India. 

Order XL TAMARISCINE^E. 

A small family of shrubby or arboreous, rarely herbaceous, species of sandy 
regions in the warmer and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere ; a few 
also south African. 

TAMARIX. 

Tamarix, Linn. Gen. n. 375 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 160. 

A genus of badly denned species of shrubs or small trees, inhabitants of 
saline sandy districts in the Mediterranean region, and in temperate and sub- 
tropical Asia, also at the Cape. 

T. gallica, Linn. Sp. 386 ; DC. Prod. iii. 96 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 151 ; 
Dyer in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 248. 

Nom. Vern. Kalko. (B.C.S.) 

Soeotra. Shore at Gharriah and elsewhere. B.C.S. n. 489. Schweinf. 
n. 627. 

Distrib. A widely dispersed plant on the west and south shores of Europe, 
north and tropical Africa, and south Asia. 

The form of this variable species found in Soeotra is that which occurs on 
the adjacent Arabian coast, and described by Bunge (Tent. Gen. Tamar. Dorpat 
1852, ex Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 774) as T. Mascatensis. 

Order XII. HYPERICINE^E. 

A considerable family of herbaceous, shrubby, or arboreous plants, widely 
dispersed in temperate and warmer regions of the world. 

HYPERICUM. 

Hypericum, Linn. Gen. n. 902 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 165. 

A large genus of herbaceous or shrubby species ranging over the whole 
world ; most abundant in the temperate northern hemisphere and on .the 
mountain ranges within the tropics. There are four Socotran species, of which 
two are endemic, one is entirely African and Mascarene, and the other is an 
Indian and Ceylon form. 

TRANS. ROY. S0C. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. D 



26 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

1. H. (Androssemum) mysorense, Heyne in Wall. Cat. 4808 ; Dyer in 
Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 253. 

Norisca mysorensis, Arn ; Wight Ic. t. 56. 

Socotra. Rocky places at an elevation of over 1500 feet. B.C.S. nn. 557, 
600. Schweinf. nn. 569, 755. Nimmo. 

Distrib. Indian Peninsula, Ceylon. 

A species with long sub-pendulous or trailing branches and large showy 
yellow flowers. As it grows on Socotra it is found only at considerable eleva- 
tions. Schweinfurth has it from Kischen. 

Like the nearly allied African species H. lanceolatum, Lamk., presently to be 
referred to, it assumes several forms, varying both as regards foliage, leaves, 
calyx, and styles. On Socotra there are two distinct states. One with narrow 
lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate leaves, li^-lf inches long and £ to T \ inch 
broad, in which the styles are free almost to their base. The other has longish 
ovate or ovate-acuminate leaves, 1| inches long by 7-8 lines broad, and the 
styles are united almost to the apex, showing only a slight cleaving into five 
segments. Between these extremes there are many intermediate states. The 
calyx-segments vary in the species from oblong to ovate, and are from I inch 
to over \ inch in length. 

Indian and Ceylon specimens show, as a rule, a large calyx and free styles. 
The 3-5 pellucid veins are extremely characteristic of the foliage of this species, 
and they are well marked in the Socotran plants, as well as in Heyne's type 
specimen ; but in the other Indian specimens in Kew Herbarium they are 
somewhat obscure. By this character of the venation the plant may be readily 
separated from H. lanceolatum, as well as by its larger flowers and leaves. 

Dyer (loc. cit.) gives the distribution of the species as limited to the Indian 
Peninsula and Ceylon. I find, however, a plant in Kew Herbarium labelled by 
Sir William Hooker " Shores of the Red Sea." This belongs to a set of 
specimens which, through the assistance of Sir Joseph Hooker by consulting 
Sir William Hooker's correspondence, I find were sent home by Dr Nimmo 
from Bombay. Many of the specimens in this collection were, he states, 
obtained from Socotra during the period of its occupation by Indian troops 
(1834-1839), and there can be little doubt that this Hypericum came 
from Socotra. In Kew Herbarium I have found several specimens belonging 
to this collection of Nimmo's and with the label " Shores of the Red Sea," 
and some of them have been described and recorded as from that locality. 
In many cases the plants are identical with Socotran forms known from 
no other locality, and in such instances I have, therefore, had no hesitation 
in considering that Nimmo's plants were really brought from Socotra. I shall, 
under the several species, take notice of this iact. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 27 

This Hypericum has then an interesting distribution, being restricted to the 
Indian Peninsula, Ceylon, and Socotra. 

H. gnidicefolium, Ach. Rich. (Tent. Flor. Abyss, i. 98), quoted by Dyer as 
an ally, is a very different plant. 

2. H. (Androsaemum) lanceolatum, Lamk. Encyc. iv. 145 ; DC. Prod. 
i. 545 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 156. 

Nom. Vern. Seghor. 

Socotra. On the higher rocky parts of the hills. B.C.S. n. 246. 
Distrib. African and Mascarene. From Abyssinia to the Transvaal, also 
Bourbon and Madagascar. Widely dispersed in mountainous regions. 

A very beautiful species, not far removed from the last, and like it present- 
ing a considerable amount of variation, both in size of leaf and degree of union 
of the styles. The Socotran plant resembles that from the Cameroon mountains 
in having very deeply divided styles, whilst in most of the continental forms the 
styles are only free through about \ of their length. The flowers of the 
Socotran plant are somewhat smaller than those of the continental ones, but in 
Socotra the species does not exhibit so much departure from the normal main- 
land type as it does in Bourbon, where the leaves grow very large, reaching 1^ to 
2 inches in length, and the sepals take an acute form. 

3. H. (Arthrophylla) scopulorum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Eclin. xi. 
(1882), 502. Tab. IV. A. 

Glabrum glaucum ramulis quadrangulis ; foliis oblongo-ovatis obtusis sessilibus decussatis 
glanduloso-punctatis ; peduuculis unifloris axillaribus ; sepalis basi subconnatis ensiformi- 
bus eglandulosis; staminibus sfcylis brevioribus. 

Suffrutex glaber bipartini ramosus ssepe tortuosus lignosusque, ramulis juvenilibus quadrangu- 
latis glaucis rufescente-purpureis, cortice rumpente. Folia decussata sessilia subamplexi- 
caulia §-l£ poll, longa \-^ poll, lata oblongo-elliptica v. subobovata obtusa v. rarius sub- 
acuta, margine revoluta, sempervirentia glauca coriacea glanduloso-punctata. Mores soli- 
tarii in pedunculos tenues adscendentes axillares minute 2-bracteatos ^ poll, longos obsiti. 
Sepala eequalia basi subconnata, laciniis ensiformibus acutissimis striatis non imbricatis 
eglandulosis £ poll, longis petalis brevioribus. Petala persistentia oblique obovato-oblonga 
obtusa \ poll, longa. Stamina triadelphia \ poll, longa. Ovarium tricarpellare y^ poll, 
longum. Styli 3 divaricati curvati apice attenuati, \ poll, longi stamina excedentes. 
Capsula trilocularia septicide trivalva longitudinaliter vittata. Semina cylindrica lente 
curva lineato-punctata ; raphe prominula. 

Socotra. Not uncommon amongst the boulders on the Socotran hills at 
altitudes over 1000 feet. B.C.S. n. 405. Schweinf. nn. 622, 756. 
Distrib. Endemic. 
This small shrubby plant is a very distinct species. It finds its nearest 



28 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

affinity in two plants from the Levant — //. nanum, Poir. (Suppl. Diet. iii. 699 ; 
Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 792) and II. cardiophyllum, Boiss. (loc. cit. 791) — but 
without any risk of being mistaken for them. As in most species of the genus 
having a shrubby habit, the young leafy shoots are elongated and erect, but the 
older parts form a woody, twisting, branched plant. 

4. H. (Arthrophylla) tortuosum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. 
(1882), 502. Tab. IV. B. 

Glabrum glaueum ramulis quadrangulis ; foliis obovatis v. elliptico-oblongis v. subrotundis 
obtusis v. subacutis, inferioribus petiolatis, superioribus sessilibus decussatis, pellucido- 
punctatis ; floribus in cymas terminates dispositis ; sepalis elongato-ellipticis iinbricatis 
eglandulosis ; staminibus stylis brevioribus ; capsulis verrucosis. 

Suffrutex lignosus glaber glaucus raruosissimus ramis tortuosis, juvenilibus quadrangulis rufes- 
cente-purpureis. Folia decussata f-1 poll, longa ^—^ poll, lata obovata v. elliptico- 
oblonga obtusa v. subacuta basi ssepo subouneata margine revoluta, inferiora omnia 
petiolata petiolo £— \ poll, longo, superiora sub inflorescentia omnino sessilia plerumque sub- 
rotundata late aniplexicaulia decurrentia, sempervirentia glauca subcoriacea pellucido- 
punctata. Cymce terminates multo-rarnosoe subumbellatae ; pedicelli tenues § poll, longi ; 
bracteolse niinutae. Sqxda | poll, longa petalis breviora inrequalia breviter connata 
elliptica v. oblongo-elliptica acuta venulosa, margine membranacea imbricata eglandulosa. 
Petala £ poll, longa persistentia irregularia oblonga v. ovato-oblonga sa?pe subunguicu- 
lata obliqua, apice truncata v. obtusa v. breviter bifida Stamina triadelpbia \ poll, longa. 
Ovarium tricarpellare -^ poll- longum. Styli 3 divaricati incurvati gradatim versus 
apicem attenuati i poll, longi. Capsula trilocularia septicide trivalva longitudinaliter 
verrucosa. Semina curvata lineato-punctata; rapbe prominula. 

Socotra. With the foregoing species on the Haghier range at a high 
elevation. B.C.S. n. 607. Schweinf. n. 757. 

Distrib. Endemic, 

A distinct species, in every way allied to the foregoing, but altogether a 
smaller plant. 

Order XIII. MALVACEAE. 

A large family, representatives of which are found in all parts of the world, 
except in Arctic regions. In Socotra there are six genera. Four of these are 
generally dispersed in the tropics, one is essentially a genus of temperate 
regions of the old world, and the other has a limited distribution in north-west 
Africa and south-west Asia. 

1. MALVA. 

Malva, Linn. Gen. n. 841 ; P.enth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 201. 

A small genus of herbs, natives of the temperate regions of the old world, 
but several species are now spread as weeds over the world. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 29 

M. parviflora, Linn. Sp. 969 ; DC. Prod. i. 433 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 
820 ; Mast, in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 177, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 321. 

Socotra. On the limestone plains near villages. B.C.S. n. 55. 
Distrib. Through the Levant. Arabia and Persia to north-west India. 
Also Nubia. 

2. SIDA. 

Sida, Linn. Gen. n. 837 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 203. 

A considerable genus of herbs or shrubs, having its chief distribution in 
America, but including several common tropical weeds. To this latter category 
belong three of the Socotran species ; the fourth being confined to north-west 
Africa and south-west Asia. 

1. S. cordifolia, Linn. Sp. 961 ; DC. Prod. i. 464 ; Mast, in Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. i. 181, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 324. 

Socotra. In the valley Kischen. Schweinf. n. 761. 
Distpjb. A common tropical weed. 
This plant our party did not obtain. 

2. S. rhombifolia, Linn. Sp. 961 ; DC. Prod. i. 462 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, 
i. 835 ; Mast, in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 181, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 323 ; 
Franch. Sert. Somal. in Miss. Revoil 16. 

Nom. Vern. Suffaih. (Schweinf.) 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. nn. 231, 392. Schweinf. n. 364. 

Distrib. Widely dispersed in the tropics. 

3. S. humilis, Willd. Sp. hi. 744 ; DC. Prod. i. 463 ; Mast, in Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. i. 179, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 322 ; Cav. Diss., v. 277, t. 134, 
f. 2. 

Socotra. By the Wadi Digal. Schweinf. n. 491. 
Distrib. General in the tropics. 
Another plant not found by o m ur party. 

4. S. grewioides, Guill. et Perr. Fl. Seneg. i. 71 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 835 ; 
Mast, in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 182, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 323. 

Socotra. Common on the limestone plains. B.C.S. n. 45. 
Distrib. Tropical Africa, Arabia, Scindh, and north-west India. 

3. ABUTILON. 

Abutilon, Gaertn. Fruct. ii. 251, t. 135, f. 1 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 204. 

A considerable genus of herbs, shrubs, or trees, widely dispersed in the 
warmer regions of the globe. 



30 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

1. A. fruticosum, Guill. et Perr. Fl. Seneg. i. 70 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 
836 ; Mast, in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 187, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 328. 
Franch. Sert. Somal. in Miss. Ke>oil 15. 

A. microphyllum, Ach. Eich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, i. 70, t. xv. 

A. denticidatum, Planch, in herb. Hook.; T. And. in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 8. 

Sida denticulata, Fres. Mus. Senck. i. 182. 

Nom. Vern. Gehuha (B.C.S.) 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. nn. 374, 703. Scliweinf. nn. 380, 540. 

Distrib. From the Canary Islands through tropical Africa, Syria, Arabia, 
and Scindh, and reaching to Java. 

The species presents on Socotra considerable variation in its foliage. This 
character is however exhibited by the plant in other localities. We have a form 
(n. 374) from the island, in which the stems and leaf-petioles, as well as the mid- 
ribs, are covered with long delicate spreading hairs, so that they are quite pilose. 
This covering is additional to the normal close-set tomentum. 

2. A. muticum, G. Don. Syst. Veg. i. 502 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 836 ; 
Mast, in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 327. 

A. glaucum, G. Don. Syst. Veg. i. 504; Mast, in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 185. 
Sida glauca, Cav. 1c. i. 8, t. 11. 

Socotra. Sparingly on the plains. B.C.S. n. 704. 

Distrib. From Cape de Verde Islands through tropical Africa, and in 
tropical Asia generally. 

4. SENEA. 
Senra, Cav. Diss. ii. 83, t. 35, f. 3, and 104 adnot ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. Pl.Vi. 207. 
A monotypic genus, confined to Nile Land, Arabia, and Scindh. 

S. incana, Cav. Diss. ii. 83, t. 35, f. 3 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 838 ; Mast, 
in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 194, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 334 ; Franch. 
Sert. Somal. in Miss. Revoil 15, 

Serrcea incana, Dene, in Ann. Sc. Nat. Sen 2. iv. 70, t. 4 ; Wight Ic. t. 1592. 
Dumreichera arabica, Hochst. et Steud. in herb. Schinip. Abyss, sect. i. n. 817. 

Nom. Vern. Fereedah (B.C.S.) 

Socotra. Very common around Galonsir and other villages. B.C.S. n. 4. 
Scliweinf. n. 324. 

Distrib. Of the genus. 

5. HIBISCUS. 

Hibiscus, Linn. Gen. n. 846 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 207. 

A vast genus of herbs, shrubs, or trees, widely dispersed in the tropics. On 
Socotra nine species are found ; three, and probably a fourth, are endemic, the 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 31 

rest are old world forms, one being tropical African alone and the others have 
a distribution in tropical Africa and south-west Asia, one of them being also 
abundant in the islands of the Indian Ocean, and one reaching Australia. 

1. H. (Bombicella) intermedins, Ach. Eich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, i. 58 ; 
Mast, in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 198, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 336. 

Socotra. On the plains about Galonsir and Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 219. 
Schweinf. n. 321. 

Distrib. East and north-east tropical Africa, Arabia, and Scindh. 

2. H. (Bombicella) micranthus, Linn. fil. Suppl. 308 ; DC. Prod. i. 453 ; 
T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 8 ; Mast, in Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. i. 205 and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i.. 335. 

H. clandestinus, Cav. Ic. i. 1, t. 2. 

H. ovalifolius, Vahl Symb. i. 50 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 839. 

Socotra. Not uncommon. B.C.S. 148. Schweinf. n. 331. 
Distrib. Tropical Africa, Arabia, and India. 

A species which varies in Socotra, as it does in other localities of its wide 
distribution. Schweinfurth sends specimens which show " petala alba reflexa." 

3. H. (Lagunsea) Solandra, L'Her. Stirp. i. 103, t. 49 ; Mast, in Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 206, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 336. 

Latjunma lobata, Wiltd. Sp. iii. 733 ; DC. Prod. i. 474. 
Solandra lobata, Cav. Diss. v. 279, t. 136, f. 1. 

For an extensive synonymy see authors quoted. 

Socotra. Near Tamarida and Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 150. 

Distrib. East tropical Africa and India. 

A species not far removed from the next mentioned one, H. ternatus, Mast. , 
with which its resemblance is so close as to make it sometimes difficult to 
diagnose. The characters to be depended upon are its more robust habit and 
cream-coloured flowers, with beaked carpels exceeding the calyx. Seeds of 
this plant from Socotra germinated at Kew, and the plant flowered in 1881. 

4. H. (Lagunsea) ternatus, Mast. (non. Cav.) in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 
206. 

Laguncea ternata, Willd. Sp. iii. 733 ; DC. Prod. i. 474. 

Socotra. Plains about Tamarida. B.C.S. 425, Schweinf. 297. 
Distrib. Tropical Africa. 

5. H. (Ketmia) vitifolius, Linn. Sp. 980 ; DC. Prod. i. 450 ; Mast, in 
Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 197, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. lad. i. 338 ; Cav. Diss. iii. 
145, t. 58, f. 2. 



32 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 146. Schweinf. n. 665. 
Distrib. Hotter parts of India, tropical Africa, Indian Ocean islands, and 
Australia. 

6. H. (Ketmia) Scotti, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 503. 
Tab. V. A. 

Arborescens; foliis petiolatis ellipticis v. ovatis obtusis basi cordatis v. cuneatis, subtus pilis 
trifurcatis faciliter avulsis vestitis ; floribusin racemos axillares solitarios breves paucifloros 
dispositis ; calyce cyatbofornri bracteolas 10 v. plures lineares trinervias liberas asquante ; 
corolla magna ; capsulis 5-valvis levibus ; seminibus pilosis. 

Arbor parva ramis erectis ramulisque terminalibus angulatis tomentosis. Folia petiolata ellip- 
tica v. ovata v. subrbomboidea 1^-2 poll, longa f-lj lata obtusa dentata v. crenata basi 
cordata v. cuneata palmatim 3-5-nervia hispida cum pilis sparsis supra stellatis subtus 
trifurcatis admixtis ; petiolus tomentosus laminae vix sequilongus. Stipulce subulatae. 
Flores in racemos 2-3-floros crassos breves solitarios axillares dispositi ; pedunculi breves 
■f {1 poll, longi tomentosi sub apice articulati ; bracteae caducse. Epicalycis lobi 10 v. plures 
liberi lineares trinervii pubescentes calyci cequilongi. Calyx cyatboformis £ poll, longus 
5-lobatus lobis deltoideis acutis tubo eequilongis pubescentibus. Corolla lutea magna 
2£ poll, longa 2-^-2 f poll, diam, extus basi trifurcatis setis vestita. Columna staminea 
per totum antberifera apice truncata. Capsula globosa v. late ovata \ poll. diam. dimidio 
calyces persistentes excedentia, valvis 5 acutis levis \ poll, latis. Scmina plurima 
reniformia pilosa. 

Socotra. On the hill slopes at considerable elevation. B.C.S. n. 705. 
Schweinf. nn. 5Soa, 535d. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

A very beautiful small tree, first found in flower by Scott, after whom I have 
named it, on the slope of Haghier near Adho Dimellus. The easily detached 
trifurcate hairs make it an unpleasant scrub plant. A distinct species of the 
section Ketmia, it finds its nearest allies in H. Kirkii, Mast, (in Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. i. 199), a Mozambique species, and in the widely spread tropical II. 
panduriformis, Burm. (Ind. 151. t. 47, f. 2 ; Mast, in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 
203). 

7. H. (Ketmia) stenanthus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 
503. Tab. V. B. 

SufTruticosus humilis ; foliis cordatis obtusis dentato-crenatis pilis trifurcatis dense subtus 
vestitis ; pedunculis unifioris curtis solitariis petiolum breviter excedentibus ; calyce poculi- 
luiiiii dimidio bracteolas 8-12 lineares superante ; corolla angusta. 

Suffrutex ligneus prostratus ramis ssepe congestis ramulisque ultimis elongatis tomentosis. 
Folia petiolata 1-1^ poll, longa g— £ lpoll. lata cordata v. late cordato-rotundata obtusa 
dentato-crenata palmatim 5-nervia pilis stellatis suffulta et subtus pilis trifurcatis faciliter 
avulsis intermixtis; petiolus griseo-pilosus laminae fere lequilongus. Stipuloe minutoe lineares. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 33 

Pedunculi uniflori curti \-\ poll, longi petiolum breviter excedentes in axillis solitarii sub 
apice articulati pubescentes et supra articulum stellatis pilis instructi. Bracteolos 8-12 
setacea3 niinutse libera? \ poll, longce. Calyx poculiformis § poll, longus extus dense 
stellatim hirsutus 5-lobatus, lobis triangulari-acutis tubo triplo-brevioribus. Corolla lutea 
extus pilis trifurcatis vestita 1J poll, longa in parte superiore patens 1^ poll. diam. sed 
petalis in parte inferiore in tubum angustum \ poll. diam. convolutis. Columna staminifera 
exserta versus apicem solum antberifera, vertice dentato anantberifera. Ovarium 5-locu- 
lare; stylus in ramos 5 capitato-stigmatosos divisus ; ovula inloculisplurima. Cset. ignot. 

Socotra. On the limestone plateaux, at an elevation of over 1000 feet. 
B.C.S. 706. Hunter n. 2. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very distinct species. It grows as a dwarf, hard, woody under-shrub on 
the high limestone plains, and like other Socotran species is a disagreeable 
scrub plant, on account of its easily detached forked hairs. Its most marked 
feature is the convolution of the petals to form a narrow tube in their lower 
part, whilst above they are spreading. 

8. H. (Ketmia) malacophyllus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. 
(1882), 503. 
Arborescens ramulis ferrugineo-tomentosis ; foliis late ovatis obtusis dentatis crassis dense 

pubesceutibus ; pedunculis unifloris solitariis brevibus ; bracteolis 10-12 liberis 

linearibus. 
Arbor parva ramulis ultimis canaliculatis dense stellatim ferrugineo-tomentosis. Folia breviter 

petiolata 1^-1^ poll, longa |— 1 poll, lata late ovata obtusa dentata palmatim 3-5-nervia 

crassa mollissima dense stellatim pubescentia ; p'etiolus pubescens lamina dimidio brevior. 

Stipidce minutoe subulatre. Pedunculi 1-flori in axillis solitarii. Alabastri per totum 

pubescentes ; bract ere 10-12 lineares liberse. 

Nom. Vern. Derafoo (B.C.S.). Derafaa (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Not abundant near Adho Dimellus. B.C.S. n. 488. Schweinf. 
nn. 535, 535 b, 535 c 1 

Dtstrib. Endemic. 

A species having a not remote affinity with the African ff. gossypinus, 
Thunb. (Flor. Cap. 549; Mast, in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 205), which is, however, 
distinguished by its subcordate thick leaves, generally denser pubescence, and 
absence of brown setse, while the epicalyx consists of shorter and stouter 
bracteoles. 

Schweinfurth, under n. 535, sends specimens from several localities. Some of 
these are undoubtedly of H. Scotti, but some I take to be of a different species, 
and I believe may be referred to this one. I have not, however, in the 
description above incorporated any character derived from his specimens, as 
our specimens like his are few in number, and it is better to wait for further 
investigation of the flora before deciding the limits of the species. Schwein- 
furth considers all his specimens as being of one species. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. E 



34 BOTANY OF SOCOTKA. 

9. Hibiscus sp. 

We have foliage leaves and twigs of another species of Hibiscus from 
Socotra without flowers or fruit. We met with it in many parts of the island. 
It is a small tree with leaves, which vary considerably in form, densely covered 
with detachable trifurcate hairs. I have not been able to match our specimens 
with any known species. It is not unlike II. Scotti and //. stenanthus, and falls, 
according to Dr Masters, to whom I have shown the specimens, into the Rosa- 
sinenis section of the genus. Our material being so incomplete, I have not 
named this a species, but confine myself to giving a short description of our 
specimens : — 

Arborescens ramulis ultimis tomentosis cum pilis trifurcatis interspersis ; follis longe petiolatis 
deltoideis v. subrotundis palmatim 3-nerviis 2|-3| poll, longis 1-1| poll, latis crenato- 
incisis basi truncatis pilis trifurcatis faciliter avulsis subtus dense vestitis, peti)lo sparsnii 
griseo tomento tecto lamina duplolongiore ; stipulis liuearibus deciduis. 

Socotra. Abundant on the hill slope. B.C.S. n. 122. 

6. GOSSYPIUM. 

Gossypinm, Linn. Gen. n. 845 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 209. 

A genus of a few species of shrubby plants, generally cultivated in the 
tropics. 

Q. barbadense, Linn. Sp. 975 ; DC. Prod. i. 456 ; Mast, in Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. i. 210, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 347 ; Wight Illustr. t. 
28, a and b. 

Socotra. Near habitations. B.C.S. 707. 

Distrib. Cultivated generally in the tropics. 

This is not, so far as I could discover, now cultivated in Socotra. 

Order XIY. STERCULIACE^. 

A large order dispersed over the old and new world, chiefly in the tropics, 
but a few genera have extra-tropical representatives. Two genera occur in 
Socotra, one spread all over the globe, though most abundant in tropical 
Asia, the other an old world tropical genus extending to Australia. 

1. STERCULIA. 

Stcrcvlia, Linn. Gen. n. 1086 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 217. 

A considerable genus of the warmer regions of the globe, with its head- 
quarters in tropical Asia. 

S. Triphaca, P. Br. PI. Jav. Ear. 228 ; Mast, in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 
210. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAY/LEY BALFOUR. 35 

S. abyssinica, R. Br. PI. Jav. Ear. 227 pro parte ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), 
Suppl. 9, t. 2, b. 

Nom. Vern. Boheng. Bohain (Wellst.). 

Socotra. Common on the hills. B.C.S. n. 470. Schweinf. n. 758. 

Distrib. East tropical Africa. 

The Socotran specimens differ somewhat from the typical Abyssinian and 
Mozambique plant. The leaves are sharply five cleft with acuminate lobes, 
not rounded and three-lobed, and they are much larger than in type specimens, 
attaining sometimes a diameter of six inches. Again, the down on the flower 
panicles is not so coarse, but forms a somewhat velvety coating, both to the . 
pedicels and also on the sepals themselves. Ln descriptions of the type, the 
calyx is said to be cleft into lobes through less than half its length, and Ander- 
son's figure represents this. Now in our plant the cleaving extends deeper, to 
fully three-quarters of the length of the calyx, and on some Zambesi specimens, 
in Kew Herbarium, I find calyces equally deeply cleft. The follicles in the 
Socotra plant vary from two to five, and are somewhat larger than those in 
Kew Herbarium attached to the Mozambique plant, the S. ipomcecefolia, 
Garcke (in Peters Mossamb. 130), which is, as T. Anderson points out, unques- 
tionably the S. Triphaca of Brown. The differences I have detailed are not 
sufficient to warrant a specific distinction being drawn, and there are in Kew 
Herbarium several specimens of the genus (as yet undetermined) from the 
African coast, which may well supply links to fill the small gaps at present 
observable between this insular and the continental forms. 

The confusion that has arisen between S. arabica, T. Anders., S. abyssinica, 
R. Br., and S. Triphaca, R. Br., has been clearly explained by T. Anderson in 
his Aden Flora, which may be consulted on this point. 

The Boheng or Bohain tree is a large one, attaining on Socotra often 30 
feet in height. It is very abundant on the Haghier hills behind Tamarida. 
We did not obtain either flowers or fruit, but Schweinfurth was fortunate in 
getting both in May 1881, which have enabled an identification to be made. 

Wellsted (in Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc. v. (1835), 199), writes of the tree : 
" The Bohain tree is scarcely inferior in size to the Ukshare " (Odina ornifolia, 
Balf. fil.), " it has a broad leaf resembling the English sycamore, of which the 
camels and sheep are very fond. 

2. MELHANIA. 

Melhania, Forsk. Fl. ^gypt Arab. 64; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 222. 

A small genus of shrubs and under-shrubs growing in Africa, warmer Asia, 
and in Australia, but most abundant in Africa. 

M. muricata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 503. Tab. 
VII., A. 



36 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

S'.ilVruticosa inolliter tomeutosa; foliis petiolatis variantibus ab formis linearibus ad ellipticas 
apice truncatis v. retusis seepe apiculatis, crenato-serratis subtus glanduloso-punctatis ; 
cyinis biiloris ; bracteolis cordato-reniformibus accresceutibus membranaceis ; capsulorum 
loculis bispermis ; seminibus inuricatis. 

Suffrutex lignosus ramosissimus. Ram.uli patentes glanduloso-punctati molliter tomentosi. 
Folia diversiformia 1-1 \ poll, longa }.-^ poll, lata linearia v. ovato-oblonga v. anguste 
elliptica crenato-serrata, basi 5-nervia apice truucata v. retusa sa3pius apiculata, cano- 
tomentosa et glandulis fuscis subtus punctata ; petiolus •£-§ poll, longus lamina brevior. 
Stipulce setaeese. Cymce biflorre axillares ; pedunculis petiolis subaequilongis. Involueri 
lobi cordato-reniformes transverse latiores accrescentes. Scpala ovato-lanceolata. Petala 
obovata sepalis vix cequilonga. Staminodia linearia stamina aequantia. Cajisula 5-locularia 
loculis bispermis. Semina muricata glauca. 

Soeotra. Not uncommon near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 330. 

Disteib. Endemic. 

This plant I at one time thought would fit in with the specific characters of 
M. Denhami, K. Br. (in Denh. et Capp. Voy. App. 233), a plant of Arabia and 
Scindh, which varies much in the size of its parts, and in the number of seeds 
in each cell of the fruit. But the Socotran plant presents several points of 
difference, being of much smaller habit, with leaves and branchlets less pro- 
nouncedly stellate-tomentose and very distinctly gland-dotted on the under side. 
These brown glands I only find faintly indicated on specimens in Kew 
Herbarium of M. Denhami. In form of leaf the Socotran plant varies from 
quite linear to elliptical, and these forms are seen on the half-dozen specimens we 
have. In none of the examples of M. Denhami is there such extreme variation 
In the flower, the petals in our plant are more nearly of the same length' as the 
sepals, and are obovate rather than ovate. The capsule, too, equals in length 
the sepals, and contains seeds, two in each cell, which are glaucous and muri- 
cate, not brown and smooth. Boissier (Flor. Orient, i. 841), describing M. 
hracteosa {Brotera bracteosa, Guill. et Perr. Fl. Seneg. i. 86, t. 17, and M. Kotschyi, 
Hochst. in herb. Kotsch. Nub. sect. i. n. 219), which is the same plant as M. 
Denhami, writes of the seeds " punctatis." This feature is in the Arabian and 
African specimens in Kew Herbarium exceedingly obscure, and not like the 
strong murication of the Socotran plant. On account of all these differences I 
have regarded the Socotran plant as specifically distinct from M. Denhami, but 
it is not far removed, and exploration of the adjacent Arabian shores may 
discover forms uniting the two. 



© 



Order XV. TILIACE^E. 

A considerable order with a wide dispersion over the globe, chiefly tropical. 
It is represented in Soeotra by three genera, of which one is entirely old world, 
another is chiefly old world, but absent from Africa and occurring in the 
Pacific Islands, and the third is found all over the world, both old and new. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY" BALFOUR. 37 

1. GREWIA. 

Grewia, Linn. Gen. n. 1026 ; Bentli. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 233. 

A considerable genus of herbs and trees widely spread in the warmer 
regions of the old world. Of the five species found in Socotra, two are 
endemic, and of the others, two are tropical African, south-west Asiatic, and 
Indian species, one of them reaching Mauritius ; the fifth is entirely Indian. 

1. G. populifolia, Vahl Symb. i. 33; DC. Prod. i. 511; T. Anders, in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 10 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 843 ; Mast, in 
Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 246, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 385. 

G. hetulifolia, Juss. in Ann. Mus. iv. (1804), 92, t. 50, f. 1. 

Socotra. Not common. B.C.S. n. 97. Schweinf. n. 447 in lit. 

Distrib. Tropical Africa and through Arabia to Afghanistan and India ; 
also Mauritius. 

Like so many plants from similar habitats, it varies very greatly in its 
foliage. The form from Socotra is a small-leaved one with clustered branches. 

2. G. orbiculata, Rottl. in Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. Berol. 1803, 205, ex Mast, 
in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 386. 

G. rotundifolia, Juss. in Ann. Mus. iv. (1804), 92, t. 50, f. 3 ; DC. Prod. i. 511 ; Wight Ic. t, 45. 

Socotra. On the hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 680. 

Distrib. Indian peninsula and perhaps Ceylon. 

We obtained a plant in foliage-leaf only which we refer tp this species. 

3. G. salvifolia, Heyne in Roth. Nov. Spec. 23 9;; DC. Prod. i. 509; 
Mast, in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 247, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 386, 

G. bicolor, Juss. in Ann. Mus. iv. (1804), 92, t. 50, f. 2 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 844. 
Socotra. Not frequent on the hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 590. 
Distrib. Tropical Africa and north-west and western India. 
We obtained this variable plant in leaf only. 

4. G. turbinata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin.. xi. (1882), 504. 

Arborea ; foliis longe petiolatis ovato-lanceolatis basi obliquis serratis subtus incanis; cyrnis 
trifloris oppositifoliis ; drupis turbinatis glabrescentibus nitidis, pyrenis 1-pluri-locularibus. 

Arbor circa 25-pedalis. Hamuli incani. Folia longe petiolata ovato-lanceolata basi 5-nervia 
serrata subtus incano-pubescentia 4-5 poll, longa 1— 1|- poll, lata ; petiolus f poll, longus 
pubescens sub lamina dilatatus. Stipidce subulata?. Cym.ce triflorse v. abortu uniflorse 
oppositifoliae, pedunculis incanis petiolo brevioribus. Mores ignoti. Drupce nonlobatae 
turbinata^ t 7 G poll, longae in parte suprema ^ poll, latee 4-pyrenae aureae levse pilis paucis 
adpressis vestitae demum glabrae nitidaeque ; pyrenae l-pluri-loculara3, loculis superpositis 
nionospermis. 

Nom. Vern. Eireit (B.C.S.). Ereik (Schweinf.), 
Socotra. Amidst boulders at the sides of Keregnigiti, B.C.S,. n, 373. 

Schweinf. n. 475. 



38 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A small tree or small shrub in general appearance not unlike G. salvifolia, 
Heyne, but distinguished readily by its oppositifoliar inflorescence and large 
turbinate fruits. In well-developed fruits there are four stones, and each 
is usually multilocular (up to 6), but frequently, as is common in the genus, 
all the stones are not equally developed, and then the smaller ones have only 
one loculus. Neither Schweinfurth nor our party obtained flowers of this 
species. The inhabitants give to it the same name as to the next one. 

5. G. bilocularis, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 504. 

Arborescens glabra ; foliis breviter petiolatis magnis ovatis acutis basi cordatis aBquilateralibus ; 
cymis bitloris fere oppositifoliis ; pedimculis petiolo suba?quilougis ; drupis 4-pyrenis 
4-lubatis subcubicalibus glabrescentibus nitidis ; pyrenis bilocularibufi. 
Arbor parva ramulis glabris. Folia magna 4^-7 poll, longa 2£- 3-^ poll, lata ovata acuta basi 
5-nervia cordata, crenato-serrata subcoriacea pilis pancis adpressis dispersis subtus vestita 
cseteroquin glabra ; petiolus §-f poll, longus subpilosus sub lamina expansus. Cymce 
biflor-se v. abortu 1-floree suboppositifoliae rbacbi pedunculisque subiucanis petiolo subsequi- 
lougis. Flores ignoti. Drupce 4-lobatse §-f poll. diam. subeubicales aurese nitidse siccoe 
subrugosas glabrescentes basin filamentis staminum marcidis cinctas ; pyrense biloeulares, 
loculis superpositis monospermis. 
Nom. Veen. Eireit (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. Near Adona, at an elevation over 3000 feet. B.C.S. nn. 498, 
516. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Species of this genus are in the dried condition notably hard to identify, and, 
as Masters has pointed out, the synonymy is most complex and the whole genus 
wants revision. Nevertheless this plant and the preceding are so very marked, 
and their characters are so unconformable with those of any described species, 
that I have, although our specimens are incomplete, named them as novelties. 

The present species finds its nearest ally in G. bracteata., Roth. (Nov. Spec. 
243), a plant of the Carnatic and Ceylon, from which its nearly glabrous 
leaves and fruits on almost oppositifoliar axes separate it. It is a rare plant in 
Socotra ; we have it from only one locality. 

This plant frequently sends out adventitious twigs (n. 516) bearing very 
small leaves, often hardly \ inch in diameter, somewhat cordate, deltoid in form 
with prominent dentations, the teeth and margin being coloured dark purple, the 
rest of the leaf green, and the whole being very hairy. Thus the plant is 
heterophyllous, Schweinfurth sends specimens with this character, which he 
refers to his n, 475, which is G. turhinata, but I doubt if this is correct, and 
think his specimens are really like ours from G. bilocularis. 



PHANEEOGAM^E — PEOFESSOE BAYLEY BALFOUE. 39 

2. CORCHORUS. 

Corclwrus, Linn. Gen. n. 675 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 235. 

An extensive genus widely dispersed in the tropics. Of the three Socotran 
species one is endemic, one is south-west Asiatic and tropical African, and one 
is a wide-spread tropical species. 

1. C. acutangulus, Lamk. Diet. ii. 104 ; DC. Prod. i. 505 ; Mast, in 
Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 264, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 398 ; Wight Ic. t. 
739. 

Socotra. Not uncommon on the plains. B.C.S. n. 457. Schweinf. n. 
692. 

Disteib. Tropical Africa and Asia, West Indies and Australia.. 

2. C. Antichorus, Rseuschel Nomencl. Bot. ed. iii. 158, ex T. Anders, in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 10 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 846 ; Mast, in 
Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 263, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 398. 

Antichorus depressus, Linn. Mant. 64 ; DC. Prod. i. 504 ; Franch. Sert. Somal. in Miss. Eevoil. 21. 
C. humilis, Munro ; Wight Ic. t. 1073. 

Socotra. Common on dry plains. B.C.S. n. 591. Schweinf. n. 308 in lit. 
Disteib. Northern India, Arabia, and tropical Africa, reaching the Cape de 
Verde Islands. 

3. O. erodiodes, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 504. Tab. 
VII., B. 

Perennis depressus ; foliis diverse pinnatisectis longe petiolatis ; pedunculis longis unifloris 
extra-axillaribus ; sepalis petalisque quatuor; stamini-bus pluribus ; stylis elongafcis - y 
capsulis rectis v. paruni eurvatis brevibus pubescentibus bilocularibus bivalvis. 

Herba perennis ramis plurimis tenuibus rosalatis depressis patentibus fere 1-pedalibus. Folia 
conferta longe petiolata If- 3f poll, longa ^— \ poll, lata oblonga v. obovato-oblonga v. 
ovato-oblonga, lamina serrata v. pinnafcifida lobis serratis, v. bipinnatisecta laciniis angustis 
basi cordata v. subbastata ciliata pilisque paucis sparse vestita v. pubescenti ; petiolus 
1-2 poll, longus basi subamplexicaulis. Stipulce angustae subulatse. Pedunculi solitarii 
uniflori |— | poll, longi lateraliter extra-axillares puberuli demum recurvi. Alabastri 
obovati dense pilosi. Sepala 4 oblanceolato-oblonga v. oblonga apice concava \ poll, 
longa 3-5-nervia nervo medio superne incrassato reticulato-venulosa extus pilis reflexis 
adpressis vestita. Pctala obovata sepalis sequilonga. Stamina plura sepalis sequilonga ; 
antberae biloculares, loculis parallelibus. Ovarium biloonlare. Stylus longus staminibus 
sequilongus a basi sursum dilatatus. Capsula breviter siliquseformia ^— ^ poll, longa 
bivalva paullo rostrata recta v. subcurvata subpubescentta. Seminam quoque loculo plura 
irregulariter angulata. 

Socotra. Abundant on the sandy plains near Galonsir and Tamarida. 
B.C.S. n. 48. Schweinf. nn. 381, 726. Boivin. n. 1041, 
Distrib. Endemic. 



40 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

A very curious species, quite distinct from all others. At first one would 
hardly recognise it as belonging to this genus, but it only varies from the generic 
character in the long style and delicate herb-like habit. Its nearer allies are 
found in two Cape species, C. asplenifolius, Burch. (Harv. and Sond. Flor. Cap. 
i. 229), a woody plant with glabrous shortly stalked crenate-serrate leaves and 
long linear capsules, and C. servcefolins, Burch. (Harv. and Sond., loc. cit), which 
in habit resembles the last-mentioned and has six-valved muricate capsules. 
Like so many plants of sandy desert spots this species is slightly variable. In 
some examples the leaves are very longly petiolate and almost entire, whilst in 
others they are deeply cleft with narrow laciniaB. It is a very common plant on 
the plains, with its leaves spread out in a rosette and studded with yellow 
flowers. The peduncles in fruit are always recurved, and thus bury the fruit in 
the sand beneath the^bases of the leaf stalks. This is one of the plants brought 
from Socotra by Boivin, and now in the Museum of Natural History at Paris. 



o. 



ELiEOCAKPUS. 



Elccocarpus, Linn. Gen. n. 663 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 239. 

A considerable genus of the old world tropics, the South Pacific, and 
Australia ; absent from Africa, but two or three species occur in Madagascar 
and the Mascarene Islands. 



E. transultus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 504. 

Arbor alta resinifera ramis terminalibus crassis cicatricosis ; foliis versus apices • rainorum 
aggregatis lanceolatis elongatis apice basique angustatis obtusis integris subundulatis stib- 
obliquis fere 6 poll, longis 2 poll, latis breviter petiolatis sparsim stellatim-tomentosis subtns 
pallidioribus venulis piominulis, petiolo dense tomentoso -f.j~^ P°H- l° n S° 5 stipulis ovatis 
caducis; floribus ignotis ; racemis fructiferis If -2 poll, longis paucicarpicis/pedicellis \ 
poll, longis ; drupis ellipticis \ poll, longis glabris, pyrenis bilocellatis extus tuberculatis. 

Nom Vern. Kenhar (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the hills about Galonsir and Tamarida. B.C.S. nn. 267, 
409. 

Distkib. Endemic. 

Our specimens of this plant are unfortunately imperfect, and do not admit 
of a complete description being given, but the fruiting racemes permit of no 
doubt as to the identification of the plant as a member of this genus. It is 
quite a distinct species, falling into the Dicera group, amongst the members of 
which, however, it is not usual to find the leaves aggregated at the ends of the 
branches as in our plant. 

It is interesting to obtain a representative of this genus in Socotra, as it 
connects its Indian distribution with that in the Mascarene Islands and 
Madagascar. It is worthy of note that the genus is not African. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 41 

Order XVI. LINE.E. 

A small order spread over the whole world. One, almost cosmopolitan, 
genus is represented in Socotra. 

LINUM. 

Linum, Linn. Gen. n. 389 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 242. 

A considerable genus of temperate and warmer regions of the world, with a 
few tropical species in America. The majority of them belong to the 
Mediterranean region. 

L. gallicum, Linn. Sp. 401 ; DC. Prod. i. 423 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 851 ; 
Sibth. Flor. Grsec. t. 303. 

Socotra. A common plant on the hill slopes at an elevation of over 1000 
feet. B.C.S. n. 609. 

Distrib. Mediterranean region, extending eastward to Persia. 

Order XVII. MALPIGHIACE.E. 

A large tropical American order, with some extra-tropical forms, and a few 
representatives in Asia and Africa. The Socotran genus is exclusively old 
world. 

ACRIDOCARPUS. 

Acridocarpus, Guill. et Perr. Fl. Seneg. i. 123, t. 29 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 256. 

A small genus of species, limited in distribution to tropical and south Africa, 
Madagascar, and Arabia. 

A. orientalis, Ad. Juss. Mon. Malpigh. 234. 
A . ? sp. nova. Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 279. 

Socotra. Abundant on the Haghier hills. B.C.S. n. 272. Schweinf. n. 
454. Nimmo. 

Distrib. Arabia. 

A very handsome and showy small tree, with glossy foliage and long 
racemes of yellow flowers. Hitherto this plant has only been found by Aucher 
Eloy in the vicinity of Muscat, and from his specimens Jussieu described the 
species. Nimmo's plant in Kew Herbarium, which is as usual labelled " Red 
Sea," and is so referred to by Oliver, is fragmentary and much insect eaten. 
Oliver doubted its being this species, and conjectured it might be a variety 
of A. natalitus, Juss., or a new species. Our specimens show that it is really 
A. orientalis, the foliage characters, as well as the length of raceme, which 
are the main points of difference between Nimmo's specimens and the type, 
being variable. 

TRANS. ROY. S0C.EDIN. VOL. XXXI. F 



42 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

On comparing our plants with those of Aucher Eloy and with Jussieu's 
description, we find one or two points wherein emendation may be made, and 
as Schweinfurth obtained very fine fruit (we only have flowers) I am able to 
complete the specific description which has been deficient in that character. 
Jussieu describes the leaves as " oblonga lanceolato-obovata 2^—1^ poll, longa 
li— | poll, lata." Whilst this typical form is found in leaves of Socotran plants, 
yet they are at times quite oval or oblong-oval with a subcuneate base, and may 
reach three inches in length. In the flowers I find all the sepals invariably " in 
margine glandula minuta rubenti impressa." The petals too are about two- 
and-a-half times the length of the sepals, and the filaments of the stamens are 
almost equal in length to the sepals, so that the anthers project beyond them. 
Of the fruit and seeds the following is a description : — Samarce tres oblongse 
receptaculo trigono-conico aucto applicitse, lateribus rufescente-tomentosis, 
supra extrorsumque in alam puberulam cum pilis runs productse 1 poll, longse 
-£% poll, latae margine antico subincrassato vix curvato integro, postico tenuiore 
subsinuato et curvilineari. Semina subdolabriformia, testa membranacea. 



Order XVIII. ZYGOPHYLLE^. 

A small order, chiefly found in desert and maritime districts of the tropical 
and subtropical regions of the old and new world. The three genera found in 
Socotra have a wide distribution, one of them, however, being limited almost 
entirely to the old world. 

1. TRIBULUS. 

Tribulus, Linn. Gen. n. 532 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 264. 

A small genus of very variable species, widely dispersed in the warm regions 
of the world, and reaching Europe and North America. 

T. terrestris, Linn. Sp. 554; DC. Prod. i. 703; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 902; 
Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 283 ; Edgew. and Hook. fil. in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 
423 ; Franch. Sert. Soma], in Miss. Revoil 22 ; Sibth. Flor. Grsec. t. 372. 

T. mollis, Ehrenb. in Schweinf. Flor. yEthiop. 29. 

Socotra. Common on the plains. B.C.S. nn. 92, 222. Schweinf. n. 383 
in lit. 

Distrib. A wide-spread tropical weed. 

We have on Socotra two distinct forms of this plant. One, the type, with 
the shortly pedicellate flowers and the slightly hairy fruits. The other (n. 222) 
which in a less variable plant might be almost a distinct species, has very 
long pedicels, and the fruit is densely hispid. It resembles most nearly Schwein- 
furth's centra] African plant, named Tr. mollis by Ehrenberg. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 43 

2. ZYGOPHYLLUM. 

Zygophyllum, Linn. Gen. n. 530 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 266. 

A considerable old-world genus, having its headquarters at the Cape and in 
Australia, and in the saline regions and deserts of western Asia and north 
Africa. Both Socotran species have a wide distribution. 

1. Z. simplex, Linn. Mant. 68 ; DC. Prod. i. 705 ; T. Anders, in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 13; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 912; Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. i. 285 ; Edgew. and Hook. fil. in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 424. 

Z. portulacoides, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 88, t. xii, B. 

Socotra. Common on the plains. B.C.S. n. 660. 

Distrib. Deserts from Cape de Verde Islands through north tropical 
Africa and Arabia to Scinclh ; also Cape of Good Hope. 

2. Z. album, Linn. fil. Dec. i. t. 6 ; DC. Prod. i. 706 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, 
i. 915 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 286 ; Sibth. Flor. Grsec. t. 371. 

Socotra. On sandy spots near the shore at Galonsir and elsewhere. 
B.C.S. n. 112. 

Distrib. Same as the last species, but not spreading so far eastwards. 

3. FAGONIA. 

Fagonia, Linn. Gen. n. 531 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 267. 

A small genus of very variable species, having a world-wide distribution. 

F. cretica, Linn. Sp. 553 ; DC. Prod. i. 704 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 11 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 905 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 
287 ; Bot. Mag. t. 241. 

var. arabica, T. Anders, (loc. cit.); Oliv. (loc. cit.). 

F. arabica, Linn. Sp. 553 ; DC. Prod. i. 704 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 907 ; Edgew. and Hook. fil. 
in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 425. 

Socotra. Common everywhere on the plains. B.C.S. n. 93. Nimmo. 

Distrib. Of the species — cosmopolitan. Of the variety — Egypt and 
Arabia. 

Another of the plants sent home by Nimmo. 

var. socotrana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Omnino inarmata glauca raniis striatis scabrido-hispidis ; foliis unifoliatis crassis ovato-ellipticis 
v. ellipticis v. rotundatis v. suborbicularibus §-l£ poll, longis jp 2 jj poll, latis ; stipulis 
minutis ^ P oU - l° n gi s subulatis submembranaceis ; pedunculis sub capsulis dilatatis et eis 
subsequilongis ; sepalis subpapillosis ; petalis albidis v. purpureis ; capsulis pubescentibus ; 
seminibus obsolete punctulatis. 

Socotra. Abundant. B.C.S. n. 202. 
Distrib. Endemic. 



44 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Certainly, placed alongside typical F. cretica, this appears a very distinct 
species. But with Anderson and Oliver I am driven to regard F. cretica as a 
protean species with its variations more or less constant, yet so gradually 
merging one into the other as to render specific diagnoses hardly possible. 
This Socotran form has a strong individuality, more than in any other one of the 
numerous forms which" have been regarded as species by authors. Its main 
features are the persistently unifoliate leaves, which are large and fleshy, and its 
stipules, reduced to small somewhat membranous scales, never showing a trace 
of spines. By any one who regards F. cretica, as referred to here, an aggregation 
of species, our plant will of necessity be considered a distinct species, and with 
more reason than can be advanced in support of the constitution of many of the 
frequently described species. 

Order XIX. GERANIACE^. 

A considerable order, found chiefly in temperate regions but with repre- 
sentatives all over the globe. There are three genera in Socotra, two having 
many species and with the distribution of the order ; the third is endemic and 
monotypic, with extremely interesting South American alliances. 

1. GERANIUM. 

Geranium, Linn. Gen. n. 832 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 272. 

A large genus widely spread in temperate regions, especially in the northern 
hemisphere, and within the tropics occurring in mountainous districts. 

G. mascatense, Boiss. Diagn. ser. 1, i. 59, and Flor. Orient, i. 882. 

Socotra. On the hills near Galonsir. Common. B.C.S. n. 242. 

Distrib. Arabia. 

A species founded by Boissier on specimens collected by Aucher Eloy on 
hills near Muscat. Specimens are in Kew Herbarium from north Midian 
brought by Burton, and now it turns up in Socotra. 

It is nearly allied to G. molle, Linn. (Sp. 955), but sufficiently separated, as 
Boissier points out, by the more deeply cut leaves with acute laciniae and by the 
rugose non-reticulate fruit valves. Another point of difference lies in the 
corolla. In G. molle the petals are obcordate, only slightly longer than the 
sepals, the corolla of G. mascatense was unknown to Boissier, and as it has not 
been described I give its characters : — " petalis purpureo-nervosis minutissime 
unguiculatis obovatis supra basin ciliatis calyce fere duplo longioribus." The 
petals are altogether narrower and longer than in G. molle. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 45 

2. DIRACHMA. 

Dirachma, Schweinf. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Flores regulares. Calyx 8-partitus, lobis valvatis. Petala 8, perigyna, imbricata. Grlandulse 
disci inconspicuae. Stamina 8, libera, petalis opposita, omnia antherifera ; antherse magnse 
oblongse. Ovarium 8-lobum, 8-loculare, rostratum ; stylus centralis integer, obtusus ; ovula 
in loculis solitaria, adscendentia. Capsula 8-loba in carpella 8 ventraliter debiscentia intus 
lanata secedentia. Semina compressa, in loculis solitaria ; testa nitida ; albumen 
sparsum. — Frutex ramosus plusminusve pubescens. Folia alterna, dentato-serrata, paullo 
revoluta, stipulata. Pedunculi axillares, 1-flori. Flores albi. Calyx 4-bracteatus. 

An extremely interesting monotypic and endemic genus, the nearest 
affinity of which is somewhat puzzling ; but I think its position in this family 
is most satisfactory. We obtained several specimens of the plant, but without 
flower, and it is owing to Schweinfurth's beautiful flowering specimens that I 
have been able to determine its relationship. Its general habit is that of 
Tiliacese, but its imbricate petals, and the definite stamens are features hardly 
reconcilable with its position in that family. Sterculiaceae might almost claim it, 
and indeed there is no character forbidding its inclusion in the family, though the 
free perigynous stamens are exceptional. With Samydacese and allied calycifloral 
orders there are very strongly marked affinities, but the solitary ascending ovule 
seems to exclude it. In Geraniaceae it appears to me to find its most natural 
neighbours in the tribes Vivianiece and Wendtiew. Technically it does not 
exactly fit into either as at present constituted: from the former its alternate 
leaves, solitary ovule, and bracteolate calyx, amongst other points, separate it; 
from the latter its valvate sepals is an easily ascertained diagnostic mark. 
But the general facies of the plant with the sum total of its technical characters 
mark its near alliance with the small South American (Chili and Peru) mono- 
typic genera Wendtia and Balbisia, and with the somewhat larger genus Viviania, 
and in their vicinity I therefore place it. This, it will be observed, is a very note- 
worthy generic affinity, and there are others of like character in the flora of the 
island which are referred to under the respective genera (see Thamnosma, 
Ccelocarpum). 

Such an antipodean relationship is not a peculiar feature in the Socotran 
flora, but, as is pointed out in the Introductory Chapter, is characteristic of the 
islands in the Indian Ocean. But I may here specially direct attention to 
the resemblances which this plant bears to the Samydacese and allied orders; 
for in the monotypic Mathurina, endemic in Rodriguez, with a Central 
American affinity, we have a Turneraceous genus which, as I have elsewhere 
pointed out, (Proc. Linn. Soc. xv. (1877), 162), has many characters of the 
SamydaceaB. And thus two genera, each endemic in an Indian Ocean island 
and belonging to the same alliance of plants, present the same special features 
in the distribution of their immediate allies. 



46 BOTANY OF SOCOTUA. 

As without Schweinfurth's specimens it would have been impossible to 
determine this plant, I applied to him for a generic name, and he suggested 
the local name for the plant which I have adopted, ascribing the genus to 
Schweinfurth. 

D. socotrana, Schweinf. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). Tab. VIII. 

Frutex 10-pedalis ligno odorato ramulisque juvenilibus pubescentibus rectis rigidis, interdum 
humilis tenuiter et intricato-rarnosus. Folia f— 1£ poll, longa J— | poll, lata, in plantis 
hurnilibus multo minora vix \ poll, longa, breviter petiolata, ad ramulos laterales con- 
tractos aggregata, oblonga v. obovato-oblonga apice truncata emarginata v. triangulari- 
dentata basi cuneata, margine dentato-serrata, puberula; petiolus |-£ poll, longus. 
Stipulce \ poll, longse subulatae pubescentes persistentes. Flores solitarii pedunculis 
pubescentibus fere £ poll, longis. Epicalycis lobi lanceolati pubescentes \ poll, longi. 
Calyx extus dense pubescens tubo £ poll, longo, limbi lobis purpurascentibus ^ poll, longis 
angustibus fere linearibus ultime reflexis deciduis. Petala oblanceolata obtusa calycis 
lobis sequilonga basi attenuata intusque glandula villosa instructa calycis tubum inserta. 
Stamina calyci affixa petalis breviora, filamentis subulatis ; antherae lateraliter dehis- 
centes. Ovarium pubescens calyce inclusum. Frudus \ poll, longus obcordatus v. late 
ovatus angulatus dense pubescens atque pilis validis glanduloso-capitatis instructus, 
carpellorurn maturum marginibus intus dense lanatis. Semina glabra. 

Nom. Vern. Dirachma or Rachman (Schweinf). 

Soeotra. On the slopes of Haghier; not uncommon. B.C.S. nn. 285, 
344. Schweinf. n. 528. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

The only species of the genus is a sweetly-scented plant, and it presents 
some variation in the size of leaves and branches. Sometimes it forms very 
shortly and completely branched plants, on which the leaves are very small, 
sometimes only a couple of lines in diameter ; and even on the normally 
developed plants, with longer rigid twigs, one often finds leaves very small and 
inconspicuous amongst the larger ordinary ones. 

3. OXALIS. 

Oxalis, Linn. Gen. n. 582 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 276. 

A large genus, with headquarters in South America and south Africa, but 
including some cosmopolitan weeds. 

O. corniculata, Linn. Sp. 623 ; DC. Prod. i. 692 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 
866 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 296 ; Edgew. and Hook. fil. in Hook. Flor. Brit. 
Ind. i. 436 ; Wight Ic. t. 18. 

Soeotra. Common weed. B.C.S. n. 608. 
Distrib. Cosmopolitan weed. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 47 

Order XX. RUTACE^E. 

A large order, spread over temperate and warmer regions of the whole world, 
but attaining a maximum in south Africa and Australia. Of the three genera 
found in Socotra, two are old-world genera with species often cultivated, and 
the third is otherwise only known in two species from Texas and California. 

1. RUTA. 

Ruta, Linn. Gen. n. 523 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 286. 

A considerable genus, characteristic of the Mediterranean region and 
Atlantic islands, and sparingly spread in western and central Asia. 

R. graveolens, Linn. Sp. 548 ; DC. Prod. i. 710 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 
921; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 304; Hook. fil Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 485. 

var. angustifolia, Hook. fil. (he. cit.). 

B. angustifolia, Pers. Synops. i. 464 ; Wight and Arn. Prod. 146. 

Nom. Vern. Shedah (B.C.S.). 
Socotra. Near Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 434. 
Distrib. From the Canary Islands to Scindh. 
Probably an escape in Socotra. 

2. THAMNOSMA. 

Thamnosma, Torr. et Fr^m. in Fremont 2nd Eep. (1845), 313, and Bot. Whipple Exp. 17, t. 3 ; 
Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 288. 

A tritypic genus, which has been hitherto known from the new world only, 
and there represented by two species, one, T. montana, on which Torrey and 
Fremont founded the genus brought from mountain passes in California, and 
obtained later by Bigelow during the Whipple Expedition ; the other, a Texas 
and north Mexico plant, described and figured by Gray (Sprague and Gray Gen. 
111. ii. 143, t. 155) as Rutosma texana. It is a fact of no little interest to find a 
third species turning up on the hills of Socotra, nor is it any the less so when 
we find that besides the genus Peganum represented by one species, this is the 
only genus of the true Rues found in the new world, and the only one indigenous 
in Socotra. The genus is a very distinct one, marked by its peculiar papulose 
appearance and simple leaves, and separated from all the Kuteae by its 8-lobed 
disk and the bicarpellary ovary. The Socotran species necessitates an emenda- 
tion of the generic character, to the extent that the ovary is sometimes sessile, 
not always stipitate. In Kew Herbarium is a plant from the Transvaal, 
collected by Dr Atherstone, which is not far removed from this genus. The 
floral characters are alike, and the general glandular papulose covering is 
present. It differs, however, in the leaves, which are compound, not simple. 



48 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Whether or no the generic character can be extended to include this plant 
remains for futher discovery to determine, for there are but a few fragments of 
the plant in Kew Herbarium. But its existence only increases the interest 
attaching to the Socotran plant, and illustrates further the intimate relation 
between the south African and the Socotran floras. 

This is the only instance in the flora of a small and well-marked genus with 
Antipodean representation, but we have, as has been already noticed, instances 
of endemic genera whose nearest allies are genera of limited new-world distri- 
bution. Dirachma amongst Geraniacese has been mentioned, and we shall find 
amongst Verbenacese a distinct genus, Ccelocarpum, very closely allied, almost 
congeric with a genus restricted to Bolivia, Brazil, and Mexico, all reminding 
us, as is set forth in the Introductory Chapter, of like features observed in the 
floras of other Indian Ocean islands. 

T. socotrana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy/Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 505. Tab. VI, B. 

Suffraticosa graveolens glanduloso-papulosa ; foliis oblanceolatis v. anguste obovatis ; floribus 
solitariis extra-axillaribus ; ovario sessili ; seminibus longe muricatis. 

Suffrutex ramosus glaber omnino glanduloso-papulosus graveolens. Folia §-1 poll, longa \- £ 
poll, lata simplicia conferta anguste oblonga v. obovata v. oblanceolata obtusa basi atten- 
uata margine revoluta integra crassa. Pedunculi uniflori solitarii extra-axillares v. sub- 
axillares \ poll, longi. Sepala 4 subrotundata ^ P oU - longa- Petala 4 oblongo- 
elliptica £ poll, longa. Stamina 8 petalis breviora, antheris suborbicularibus apiculatis. 
Discus crenato-lobatus. Ovarium sessile. Capsida £ poll, longa. Semina 5-6 reni- 
formia, lateribus levibus dorso longe muricatis 1J poll, longa. 

Nom. Vern. Fighen (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. On the Haghier hills, at an altitude over 1500 feet. B.C.S. n. 
395. Schweinf. n. 619. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Our plant is very strongly odorous, and its leaves are somewhat broader than 
in the new world plants, and it is also distinguished from them by its solitary 
flowers, forming a short raceme at the end of the branches, not arranged in 
lateral racemes, and by its completely sessile ovary. The muricate seeds are 
only present in the Mexican species ; in the Californian one they are smooth. 

3. CITRUS. 

Citrus, Linn. Gen. n. 901 ; Benth. efc Hook. Gen. PI. i. 305. 

A small genus endemic in tropical Asia; but the species are met with culti- 
vated and as escapes all through the tropics. 

C. aurantium, Willd. Sp. iii. 1427 ; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 515. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 49 

Soeotra. On the hills at Adho Dimellus, and also near Feraigeh. B.C.S. 
n. 603. 

We saw a few trees only on the island. 

Order XXI. BURSERACE.E. 

A small order of balsam-producing trees or shrubs, inhabiting tropical 
regions in both the old and new worlds. The two perhaps best known genera 
of the order, Boswellia and Balsamodendron, are represented in Soeotra, and 
there probably more copiously than in any other area of like extent. Both 
genera are restricted in distribution to Africa and western Asia, Boswellia 
having the more limited range. 

1. BOSWELLIA. 

Boswellia, Roxb. PI. Corom. iii. 4, t. 207 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 322. 

A small genus of trees, including five species besides the Socotran ones. 
They are distributed in Nile Land and Somali Land, and one species has a wide 
range in northern India and the Indian peninsula. On Soeotra there are three 
species endemic, and possibly there is a fourth. 

1. B. Ameero, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 505 ; Engl, in 
DC. Monog. Phanerog. iv. (1883), Addit. 536. Tab. IX. 

Arborea cortice papyraceo ; foliis magnis multifoliolatis pubescentibus rhachi tereti, foliolis 
subsessilibus oblongo-ellipticis obtusis crenato-dentatis subrevolutis ; racemis densis foliis 
multo brevioribus, pedicellis longis flores excedeutibus ; capsulis 4-5-gonis turbinates 
breviter stipitatis. 

Arbor balsamiflua cortice papyraceo rurnpente. Rami terminales crassi. Folia 11-16 poll 
longa impari-multifoliolata (11-19) ad apices ramorum conferta, rhachi pubescente ; 
foliola subopposita subsessilia 2-3^ poll, longa f-2j poll, lata oblongo-elliptica v. rarius 
anguste oblonga, basi obliqua subrotundata, apice obtusa, irregulariter crenato-dentata 
venoso-reticulata pubescentia. Racemi densi breves If —3 (rarius 4) poll, longi vix ramosi 
axillares, rhachi paullo pubescente ; pedicelli \ poll, longi pubescentes floribus multo 
longiores. Flores precoces expansi j% P°H- diam. Calycis lobi incrassati minuti deltoidei 
concavi persistentes. Petala 5 interdum 6 ovata v. oblongo-ovata acuta \ poll, longa 
£ poll, lata subtiliter velutina rosea. Stamina purpurea petalis vix eequilonga, filamentis 
subulatis subcornplanatis papillosis ad medium disci extus insertis ; antherse filamentis 
dimidio breviores oblongae sparsim puberulse. Discus purpureus glaber persistans 
5-lobatus, lobis paullo concavis. Ovarium glabrum stipitatum (stipite quadrangulari) 
4— 5-lobatum 4-5-(rarissime 3-)loculare sursum angustatum in stylum tetragonum crassum 
stigmate spongioso subtetragono terminantem. Capsula turbinata 4-5-(rarissime 3-)gona 



_5_ 
12 



poll, longa ^ poll, lata glabra, endocarpio albido 4-cornuto. 



Nom. Vern. Ameero (B.C.S.). Hammira (Schweinf.). Amaro (Wellst.). 

Hab. Soeotra. On the slopes of the Haghier hills about Tamarida ; also 
about Homhill. Abundant. B.C.S. nn. 394, 565. Schweinf. n. 540. Hunter 
n. 19. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDJN. VOL. XXXI. G 



50 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Disthib. Endemic. 

This is the chief gum-resin producing tree of the island, and is a thoroughly 
distinct species. Its nearest allies appear to be the Abyssinian and ^Ethiopian 
B. papyri/era, Ach. Rich. (Tent. Flor. Abyss, i. 148, t. 33), and the Somali 
Land B. Carterii, Birdw. (in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxvii. (1871), 143), but from both 
of them its short, dense inflorescences separate it. Its fruits are much more 
shortly stalked than those in the first mentioned, and have a different outline 
from those of the latter. 

I have named the species from the native name. Wellsted (in Journ. Roy. 
Geog. Soc. v. (1835), 172) speaks of it as the " Amaro-tree," and says " when 
branches are broken they smell strongly of turpentine, but the camels are not- 
withstanding exceedingly fond of them." The gum-resin is obtained by making 
incisions in the bark, when a white viscid substance exudes, which when 
hardened is collected in goat skins. So far as we could learn this is not much 
exported or used. For further discussion of the subject of the gum-resin and 
the structure of the plant, see Appendix and Introductory Chapter. 

2. B. elongata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 505 ; Engl, 
in DC. Monog. Phanerog. iv. (1883), Addit. 537. Tab. X. 

Aiborea cortice papyraceo ; foliis magnis multifoliolatis rhachi tereti tomentosa, foliolis sessili- 
bus elongato-oblongis obtusis erenato-serratis revolutis ; racemis ramosis elongatis foliis 
fere duplolongioribus, pedieellis crassis floribus brevioribus ; capsulis maturis non visis. 

Arbor balsamiflua cortice papyraceo rumpente. Rami terminales crassi. Folia 9-14 poll, 
longa impari-multifoliolata (15-20) ad apices ramorum conferta rhachi tomentoso-pubes- 
cente ; foliola subopposita v. alterna sessilia 1|-3| poll, longa ^— | poll, lata elongato- 
oblonga saape multo ar.gustata basi subdilatata obliqua et rotundata v. subcordata, apice 
obtusa v. late acuta margine revoluta serratu-crenata supra glabra nitida subtus griseo- 
tomentosa venulis primariis prominulis. Racemi tomentosi elongati usque ad 15 poll, 
ramosi, ramis inferioribus elongatis, superioribus brevibus ; bracteorae parvae inferiores 
subfoliaceie integrae, superioreslineares minutaa; pedicelli breves l~l poll, longi canaliculati 
4-angulares crassi floribus subasquilongi v. breviores. Flares expansi § poll. diam. Calycis 
lobi deltoidei persistentes. Petala oblonga subobtusa apice subincrassata inflexa j 3 q poll, 
longa subtiliter velutiua alba. Stamina petalis breviora, filameutis lineari-acutis complan- 
atis papillosis striatis ad basin disci extus insertis ; antherre filamentis vix dimidio 
breviores sparsim puberulie. Discus cupulifonnis vix undulatus glaber. Ovarium quad- 
rangulari-stipitatum tetragonum 4-loculare glabrum in styluui crassum tetragonum sursum 
angustatum, stigmate spongioso capitato. Fruct. mat. non vidi. 

Socotra. On the hill slopes ; not uncommon. B.C.S. nn. 153 ? 657. 

Distiub. Endemic. 

The gum-resin of this tree is not so penetratingly fragrant as that of the 
last species. With B. Carterii, Birdw. (in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxvii. (1871), 143), 
this species has probably its nearest affinity, but it also resembles some forms 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 51 

of B. serrata, Roxb. (ex. Colebr. in Asiat. Res. ix. 379 cum tab.). It is at 
once distinguished, however, by its long inflorescences and large flowers. 

3. Boswellia sp. 

Soeotra. On the hills south-west of Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 724. 

Specimens in leaf of a Boswellia, which may be the juvenile form of one or 
other of the preceding, but it is impossible to decide. It differs somewhat from 
both of them. 

4. B. socotrana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 505 ; Engl, 
in DC. Monog. Phanerog. iv. (1883), Addit. 537. Tab. XI. 

Atboreacortice non papyraceo ; foliis parvis multifoliolatis glabris rhachi alata, foliolis sessilibus 
oblongo-ellipticis obfcusis ssepe emarginatis integris revolutis ; paniculis paucifloris breviter 
pedunculitis foliis brevioribus, pedicellis brevibus floribus brevioribus ; capsulis trigono- 
ovoideis sessilibus. 

Arbor balsamiflua 30-pedalis cortice non papyraceo coriaceo. Rami terminales diametro uniformi 
subcrassi cum baseis foliorum delapsorum rugosi et cicatricosi. Folia ad apices ramorum 
conferta 4-4^ poll, longi impari-multifoliolati glabri, rhachi alata ; foliola 23-27 opposita 
sed prope basin frequenter alternantia sessilia \-} 2 poll, longa \ poll, lata oblongo-elliptica 
v. elliptica v. fere obovata, terminali maximo et nonnunquam pinnatifido, obtusa saepe 
emarginata subobliqua integra revoluta, juvenilia tridentata. Paniculi axillares inter folia 
dispositi pauciflori, pedunculo \ poll, longo subtiliter puberulo ; pedicelli breves crassi 
\~(T\2 P ^- l° n gi- Flores expansi £ poll. diam. Alabastri 5-goni. Calyx ^ poll, longus 
5-lobatus, lobis triangulari-apiculatis incrassatis obscure ciliatis. Petala 5-6 | poll, longa 
ovata carinata apice inflexa basi contracta subtiliter puberula. Stamina alterne minora, 
filamentis complanatis plusminusve subulato-acumioatis extus ad marginem disci inserta ; 
antherse staminum minorum filamentis cequilongae v. longiores sparsim puberulae. Discus 
undulatus intus dense puberulus. Ovarium sessile trigonum triloculare sursum in stylum 
crassum attenuatum glabrum, stigmate trilobato. Capsula sessilia trigono-ovoidea £ poll. 
diam. trivalva margiuibus carpellorum in juga prominentia productis. 

Nom. Vern. Haliof. 

Soeotra. On the Haghier hills. Not uncommon. B.C.S. n. 466. 
Schweinf. n. 530. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

One of the Luban or frankincense trees of the island. It is a very distinct 
species, quite unlike any of the other species of the genus both in foliage and 
flowers. We only obtained specimens with flower-buds, but Schweinfurth 
sends splendid fruited and flowered specimens. The tree produces a consider- 
able quantity of gum-resin, which they say is used as incense in the mosques. 
It is not much prized, however, and I should suppose not much, if at all, exported, 
if one may judge by the ready way the inhabitants gave it to us. But I have 
no precise knowledge as to its being exported. Schweinfurth says the bark of 
this is used as tanners' bark. 



52 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

5. Boswellia sp. 

Socotra. On the limestone plains. B.C.S. n. 708. 

Of a small dwarf tree with hard spiny branches, bearing contracted laterals, 
on which the leaves are clustered, we have specimens. The leaves are unequally 
pinnate, about § inch long, and there are some seven pairs of sessile leaflets. 
All the leaflets are tridentate, quite glabrous, and about -fa inch long, and the 
rhachis is winged. The bark of the tree is dark-coloured, and on the contracted 
lateral branches the persistent insertions of the leaves give rise to a tuberculate 
surface, as in the plant I have just described. Can this be the young condition 
of the foregoing species B. socotrana ? 

2. BALSAMODENDRON. 

Balsamodendron, Kuuth in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser 1, ii. (1824), 348 ; Benth. etHook. Geu. PI. i. 323. 

I have retained Kunth's generic name, which has come into general use, 
although Baillon (Hist. d. Plantes v. (1874), 310), and after him Engler (Bot. 
Jahresb. i. (1881), 41), have adopted the name Balsamea of Gleditsch, for which 
they claim priority. But all evidence proves their assumption erroneous. 
Gleditsch published in 1782 (Schrift. d. Berl. Gesellsch. Naturf. Freunde 103, t. 
8, f. 2) a paper entitled " Bemerkung liber das Geschlecht und die Art der achter 
Balsampflanze von Mecca," in which he describes, under the name Balsamea 
meccanensis, some dried specimens obtained by Achmet Effendi near Mecca. 
He contrasts the characters of this plant with those of Amyris gileadensis, Linn. 
(Mant. 65) — a species described by Linnaeus on specimens sent from Arabia 
by Forskal — and specially points out how very different the two plants are, 
that indeed they could not belong to the same genus. The leaves of his 
plant he describes and figures as bipinnate, the calyx and corolla each of 
five parts, and larger than in the Linnean plant ; the stamens ten, though 
they may be eight or nine, exceeding the corolla ; and the immature fruit with a 
basal pentagonal stipe. He also points out that Linnseus's plant is no Amyris. 
Now Engler, with whom I have corresponded on this matter, whilst admitting 
that the floral characters given by Gleditsch are not met with in any of the 
species of Balsamodendron he has examined, and concluding that " the flowers 
do not belong to the Burseracea? at all," yet considers the branching and 
inflorescence agree well with what is observed in Balsamodendron, and the 
bipinnate leaves he regards as no barrier to such an identification. For my 
part I fail to recognise in Gleditsch's description and figure the characters of a 
Balsamodendron. Engler, too, himself shows his position to be untenable, for 
he identifies Balsamea meccanensis, Gled., as a type of which three Arabian 
plants, viz. : — Balsamodendron opobalsamum, Kunth (in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 1. ii. 
(1824), 348), Balsamodendron gileadense, Kunth (loc. cit.), and Balsamoden- 
dron Ehrenbergianum, Berg (in Bot. Zeit. (1862), 163), are merely forms. Now I 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 53 

agree with him in regarding the three last-mentioned species as one and the 
same, but Berg expressly states that the species B. gileadense is founded on the 
A myris gileadense of Linnaeus, the very plant with which Gleditsch contrasts 
his. How then can the name Balsamea have any claim to adoption and to 
replace Balsamodendron ? What plant Gleditsch described is a question that 
does not concern us here, and indeed it is difficult to tell, but certain is it that 
it is no Balsamodendron. 

Engler has more right on his side when he claims priority for the generic 
name Commiphora of Jacquin. Undoubtedly the plant described and figured 
by Jacquin (Hort. Schoenb. ii. 66. (1797), t. 249) as Commiphora madagascari- 
ensis is a Balsamodendron, and Jacquin 's name is much the older. But surely in 
the circumstances of this case considerations of convenience ought to outweigh 
the demands of arbitrary laws. The significant name Balsamodendron is now 
commonly accepted, not only by botanists but by pharmacists and physicians, 
and is indeed current in general literature, and the substitution of another name 
would be almost impossible, and would certainly lead to much confusion. How 
poor, too, is the name Commiphora beside the suggestive Balsmodendron ! Had 
the alteration to Balsamea been legitimate, such objection would, for obvious 
reasons, have less force. Bentham and Hooker {loc. cit.), with set purpose, place 
Jacquin's name as a synonym of Balsamodendron, and their lead will be 
generally followed. Were Commiphora to be now accepted, it would entail the 
renaming of all the species, some thirty-six, and as they have been already 
renamed by Baillon and Engler under Balsamea, we should have an addition of 
some seventy specific names to the nomenclature. Surely this would be an 
excess of purist zeal and a perversion of means to an end. 

As these pages are passing through the press, Engler's monograph of the 
Burseraceae in the continuation of De Candolle's Prodromus has appeared. In 
it he has discarded Balsamea and adopted Commiphora. I cannot follow 
him in reviving Jacquin's generic name, but retain Balsamodendron as main- 
tained by Bentham and Hooker, an example which I trust will be, in this 
country at least, generally followed. 

A genus including some three dozen species, natives of tropical and south 
Africa, Arabia, and east India. In Socotra there are three endemic species, 
one distributed in south-west Asia, and possibly two others ; but our material is 
not sufficient for identification of the latter. 

1. B. Mukul, Hook, in Kew Journ. Bot. i. (1849), 259, t. 8 ; Boiss. Flor. 
Orient, ii. 3. 
Commiphora Mukul, Engl, in DC. Monog. Phanerog. iv. (1883), 12. 

Socotra. On Kadhab plain. B.C.S. n. 711. 
Distrib. Arabia, Persia, and Scindh. 



54 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

It is interesting to obtain in Socotra this, the plant which yields the gum- 
resin known as " Indian Bdellium," the " Googul " or " Mukul " of the Arabians 
and Persians. We only found it in one locality, and unfortunately did not obtain 
any of the gum-resin. The inhabitants collect this, but I did not learn of its 
being exported or used for any special purpose. 

2. B. socotranum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 505. 
Tab. XII. 

Commiphora socotrana, Engl, in DC. Monog. Phanerog. iv. (1883), Addit. 536. 

Arbuscula ; foliis fasciculatis plerumque 1- (rarius 3-) foliolatis petiolatis, foliolis oblongis v. 
oblongo-ellipticis v. subobovatis obtusis undulatis v. rarius ad apicem vix dentatis pellu- 
cido-venulosis ; inflorescentia sessili 1-3-flora ; floribus sessilibus ; staminibus 4 basi disci 
iusertis, antheris ellipticis. 

Arbor odora resinifera 30-pedalis inarmata sed in locis calcareis aridis ssepe fruticosa cum ramis 
rigidis spinosis, ramulis terminalibus pubescentibus striatis. Folia fasciculata ad apices 
ramorum contractorum v. suppressorum f-1 poll, longa 1-foliolata interdum 3-foliolata ; 
foliola solitaria \~\ poll, longa £— | poll, lata anguste oblonga v. oblongo-elliptica v. sub- 
obovata basi saepe subcuneata in petiolum £-§ poll, longum attenuata, apice obtusa integra 
v. crenato-dentata margine saepius obscure undulata, foliolo trifoliolatorum terminali 
maximo et apice saepissime tridentato, omnia glabrescentia tenuia pellucido-venulosa. 
Florcs <J sessiles precoces v. rarius inter folia evoluti clilute-earnei in cymas 1-3-floras 
sessiles aggregate Calyx poculiformis 4-dentatus in alabastro dense villosus demum sparsim 
pilosus papillosus fa poll, longus. Petala | poll, longa ^ poll, lata acuta subcnspidata 
recurvata. Stamina 4 extus basi disci magni albi undulato-octagoni inserta ; antherce 
obtusae oblongoe v. ellipticse longitudine latitudiuem excedente ; staminodia o. Caet. ignot. 

Nom. Vern. Logahan (B.C.S.). Leggehen (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Abundant. B.C.S. nn. 252, 256. Schweinf. nn. 458, 501, 514. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

One of the commonest of all the gum-resin producing trees in Socotra, and 
presenting somewhat varying features according to situation. In the favouring 
soil of the hill slopes of Haghier, a tree reaching as much as thirty feet high is 
formed, with branches ending in well-clothed twigs of considerable length. In 
such situations, too, the leaves are large, and whilst most commonly unifoliolate, 
are often found trifoliolate. On exposed sites on the dry limestone plains we 
have the opposite extreme, — small trees, or perhaps low shrubs, with short, hard, 
and rigid branches, often ending in spines and clothed with but few small leaves, 
rarely becoming trifoliolate. Unfortunately the plant was not in fruit when we 
were on the island, and Schweinfurth sends no fruit. The plant is very fragrant, 
but I did not learn that the gum-resin is collected in any quantity. 

Specifically the Socotran plant finds its nearest affinity in B. opobalsamum, 
Kth. in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser 1, ii. (1824), 348, a plant widely spread in Arabia, 
and extending into Nubia and Somali Land, and perhaps also to Socotra. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 55 

The foliage of our plant, especially the shape of the leaflets, with their pellucid 
veins, easily distinguishes it. With B. Myrrha, Nees (Plant. Medic, ii. 1828, 
t. 357), a Somali Land plant, there are also resemblances. 

A species sent by Hildebrandt from Somali Land, n. 1383, Schweinfurth 
suggests may be our plant. I doubt it. Dyer regards it as B. opobalsamum, 
Kth. 

For remarks as to the gum-resin and the structure of the plant, see 
Appendix and Introductory Chapter. 

3. B. parvifolium, Ball fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 506. 

Commiphora parvifolia, Engl, in DC. Monog. Phanerog. iv. (1883), Addit. 536. 

Arborea ; foliis puberulis impari-pinnatis fasciculatis rbacbi inter foliola subalata, foliolis sessi- 
libus ellipticis obtusis integris ; floribus sessilibus prtecocibus ; staminibus 4 ad margineni 
disci insertis, antberis oblongis. 

Arbor parva odora resinifera 30-pedalis ramis ultimis subpuberulis nonnunquam spineseentibus. 
Folia puberula ad ramulos breves contractos fasciculata impari-pinnata opposite v. subop- 
posite 3-7-foliolata ^ poll, longa rbacbi supra sulcata inter foliola dilatata v. subalata ; 
foliola sessilia ^ poll, longa elliptica late acuta v. obtusa plana venulosa sparsim puberula 
integra, terminali maximo obovato subpetiolulato et saepe tridentato. Flores ^sessiles v. 
subsessiles precoces ad apicem ramulorum fasciculati in quoque fasciculo pauci (2-3). 
Calyx poculiformis y^ poll, longus brevissime 4-dentatus in alabastro dense villosus pro- 
ventu glaber. Petala \ poll, longa spathulata acuta recurvata. Stamina 4 ad marginem 
disci fusci parvi scutelliformis margine sinuati inserta ; antherte oblongse longitudine 
latitudine duplolongiore. C?et. ignot. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 656. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another gum-resin producing tree, with pinnate leaves, and quite distinct 
from all others in the genus by its small leaflets, which are almost glabrous, and 
its contracted branches, which are larger than is common. 

Our specimens are very poor, and do not afford sufficient data for a very 
good description. We found the plant on the limestone plateaux west from 
Kadhab plain. 

Its nearest ally is probably B. pubescens, Stocks (in Bomb. Trans. 1847, ex 
Hook in Kew Journ. Bot. i. (1849), 264, t. ix. ; A. Benn. in Hook. Flor. Brit. 
Ind. i. 529) ; a Scindh plant. 

4. B. planifrons, Schweinf. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 506. Tab. 
XIII. 

Commiphora ■planifrons. .Engl, in DC. Monog. Pbanerog. iv. (1883), Addit. 536. 

Arbuscula inermis, ramis densis horizontaliter expansis juvenilibus dense tomentosis ; foliis 
breviter petiolatis imbricato-pinnatis ad apices ramorum lateralium brevium confertis 



;3G BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

foliolis 5-10-jugis subsequalibus ellipticis v. ovatis obtusis late revolutis bullosis ; floribus 
praecocibus solitariis v. binis sessilibus minutis; staminibus 4 disci margini 4-lobati in- 
sidentibus, antheris oblongo-cordatis ; frucfcu oblongo-acuto glaberrimo apiculato. 
Arbuscula 3-pedalis ramis succosis aromaticis densis horizontaliter expansis, inermis ad folia 
et partes novellas dense tomentosa. Hamuli brevissimi ad apices fasciculato-foliati. 
Folia petiolata £-£ poll, longa 5-7 imbricato-pinnata sicca griseo-tomentosa dum viva laete 
viridia, petiolo lamina quadruplobreviore ; foliola subsequalia ovata subsessilia late 
revoluta bullosa. Flores ante folia ad ramulorum apices orti singuli v. bini hermaphroditi 
(an semper ?) sessiles. Calyx glaberrimus ad medium 4-5-lobus, lobis triangularibus. 
Petala 4 calyce duplolongiora obovata acuta acumine inflexo, carnea albo-marginata sub- 
plicata. Stamina 4 petalis tertia parte breviora, disci margine 4-lobati insidentia ; antherae 
oblongo-cordatee obtusoe. Stigma profunde 4-lobatum. Drupa glaberrima oblongo-acuta 
apiculata, epicarpio bivalvi, mesocarpio tenuissimo, putaminibus 2 uno abortive 

Socotra. Near Tamarida, and above Kischen at 2400 feet altitude. 
B.C.S. n. 709. Schweinf. n. 671. Hunter n. 3. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A curious species, of which Schweinfurth remarks — " folia illis Boswellice 
neglectw similia sed pinnse sequales et revoluta^. Flores B. opobalsami magni- 
tudine sed petalis et staminibiis brevibribus. Fructifer 1 Mayo 1881. Drupa 
omnino cum B. opobalsamo congruit nisi valvis tantum ternis sed mesocarpio 
ut in illo tenuissimo." 

We only obtained small twigs of this species with no flower or fruit, and 
our specimens, as well as Hunter's, show leaves very much smaller, much 
less hairy, and more revolute than in Schweinfurth's plant. Schwein- 
furth's specimens have both flowers and fruit, and he has kindly supplied the 
description. 

5. Balsamodendron sp. ? 

Socotra. B.C.S. n. 418. 

"We have leafy specimens of another gum-resin producing tree. In respect 
of general habit and form of leaf it resembles B. parvifolium, but the bark is 
not dark in colour but a bright grey. Our specimens do not enable us to 
determine its identity, and we only record its existence. It is probably a 
Balsamodendron, and very near B. parvifolium. 

6. Balsamodendron sp. ? 

Socotra. B.C.S. n. 154. 

Two fragmentary specimens, hardly to be referred to any of the preceding, 
are in our collection. One may be of B. opobalsamum, Kth. One specimen is 
an oldish stem with tcrnate leaves, the leaflets somewhat dentate. The other- 
is a young twig with pinnate (2 pairs of pinna?) leaves, having an odd leaflet and 
ternate or even trifid segments. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 57 

Order XXII. RHAMNE^. 

A considerable order of the warm and temperate regions of both old and 
new worlds. 

ZIZYPHUS. 

Zizyphus, Juss. Gen. 380 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 375. 

A considerable genus of tropical and subtropical trees and shrubs, most 
abundant in Asia and America. Two species occur in Socotra; one is a 
common old world tropical form, the other is limited in its distribution to the 
western parts of Asia and tropical Africa. 

1. Z. Jujuba, Lamk. Diet. hi. 318 ; DC. Prod. ii. 21 ; Hemsl. in Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 379 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 13 ; Laws, in Hook. Flor. Brit. 
Ind. i. 632 ; Wight Ic. t. 99. 

Nom. Vern. Nebek (Wellst.). 
Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 289. 
Distrib. Old world tropics. 

2. Z. Spina-Christi, Willd. Sp. i. 1105; DC. Prod. ii. 20; Hemsl. in 
Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 380 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 13. 

Bhamnus Naleca, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 204. 

Nom. Vern. .Nebek (Wellst.). 

Socotra. Not uncommon. B.C.S. 661. 

Distrib. Tropical Africa and western Asia. 

There can be little doubt that this and the foregoing species are the trees 
spoken of by Wellsted (in Journ. Koy. Geogr. Soc. v. (1835), 151), as Nebek 
trees. He thus writes : " This tree is well known to botanists as the lotus nebea 
— its height is usually from 20 to 30 feet — the bark is light-coloured, rough, 
and crossed longitudinally by numerous fissures ; the leaves are cordiform (or 
heart-shaped) and small, the branches are large, but the foliage is somewhat 
scanty. Notwithstanding the hardness and length of the spines which grow on 
its branches, intermingled with its leaves, the camels, from the cartilaginous 
formation of their mouths, feed on both with much avidity, and without to 
appearance suffering any inconvenience. The fruit, of which they are equally 
jfond, clusters in great abundance amidst its branches, and from its golden 
colour gives to the tree a rich and pleasing appearance ; the natives assert that 
it is produced at all seasons ; it resembles a cherry in form and size, and has a 
peculiar though mild and pleasant flavour. The Arabs pound them between 
two stones into a paste-like consistence, which they mix with ghee, and swallow 
with much apparent relish." 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. H 



;>S BOTANY OF SOCOTRA, 



Order XXIII. AMPELIDE^. 

A small order of plants, frequently climbers, widely spread over the warmer 
regions of the globe, but most abundant in the old world. 

VITIS. 

Vitis, Linn. Gen. n. 284 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 387. 

A genus which constitutes nearly the whole order, and has its distribution. 
It is represented in Socotra by three species, two of which are endemic, and 
the third is a tropical African and Asiatic species. 

1. V. quadrangularis, Wall. Cat. 5992; Baker in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. 
i. 399 ; Laws, in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 645 ; Wight Ic. t. 51. 

Socotra. On the plateau south-west from Galonsir at an altitude over 
1500 feet. B.C.S. n. 304. 

Distrib. Through tropical Africa, Johannas, Ceylon, and India, to Malacca. 

The plant on Socotra is almost leafless, only on the terminal shoots do we 
find leaves, and these are in our specimens rather more attenuated at the base 
of the lamina than is usual in the type. I have, however, but little hesitation 
in referring our plant to this species. 

It grows in small clumps covering the wide plateaux at the western end of 
the island. 

2. V. subaphylla, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 506. 

Dumetosa'ramulis complanatis art nodos contractis non alatis carnosis • foliis paucis integris 
subspathulatis v. oblanceolatis in petiolum attenuates glabris ; cymis brevibus urabellatim 
ramosis ; pedicellis tenuibus ; iioribus tetrameris ; fructu conico viridi. 

Suffrutex caulibus ramisque dense intertextis duuietumque formantibus. Caidcs paullo conferti 
ad nodos contract! interuodiis 2\ poll, longis glabris sed cuticulosquamoso-rumpente carnosis. 
Hamuli juveniles multocompressi sicci valde striati. Folia pauca ad ramulos juveniles 
solum obsidentia rnox decidua simplicia petiolata ^ poll, longa \ poll, lata subspathulata v. 
anguste oblanceolata et in petiolum attenuata subacuta integra glabra carnosula. Cirrhi 
oppositifolii versus basin articulati et ad nodum squama amplexicauli suff'ulti. Flores in 
cymas laterales umbellatim ramosas 2| poll. diam. glabras dispositi ; pedicelli tenues § 
poll, longi. Calyx cyathiformis 4-dentatus. Petala 4. Stylus subulatus; Fructus conicus 
\ poll, longus glaber viridis longe pedicellatus. 

Nom. Vern. Atarha (B.C.S.). Atherhaa (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Very common on the plain near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 81. 
Schweinf. n. 244. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This is quite a distinct species in the simple entire-leaved group of vines. 
Like V. quadrangularis, as found in Socotra, it is nearly leafless, only the 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 59 

younger twigs showing leaves, and these soon fall off. It is one of the commonest 
plants on the limestone plain about Galonsir, forming small clumps with 
intertwined branches. 

3. V. paniculata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 507. 

Scandens caulibus anguste alatis, juvenilibus quadrangulatis carnosis ; foliis magnis breviter 
palmatim 3-5-lobatis basi cordatis late crenatis glabris ; cyrais subumbellatim paniculatis; 
pedicellis tenuibus ; floribus tetrameris ; fructu conico nigrescente. 

Scandens et late patens. Caules altiores subteretes cum alis quatuor angustis, juveniles 
quadrangulares, carnosi ad nodos contracti, internodiis 4 poll, longis cystolitheis 
dense papillosis et siccis corrugatis. Folia magna fere pedalia, lamina |-ped. diam 
breviter palmatim 3-5-lobata basi cordata v. subhastata margine late crenata cum mucrone 
parvo in intervallis ad apices venorum carnosa ; petiolus glaber lamina brevior. Cirrhi 
oppositifolii lignosi articulati apice cochleariformes. Flores in cymas subumbellatim pani- 
culatas patentes | poll. diam. glabras dispositi ; pedicelli tenues £ poll, longi. Calyx 4- 
dentatus. Petala 4 alte cucullata. Stamina 4. Stylus crassus. Fructus £ poll, longus 
conicus glaber nigrescens longe pedicellatus. 

Nom. Vern. Atarha (B.C.S.). Atherhaa (Schweinf.). 

Soeotra. Common, climbing amongst small trees on the hill slopes. 
B.C.S. n. 413. Schweinf. n. 510. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A distinct species, having a distant affinity with V. quaclrangularis, Wall., 
although its nearest ally is probably the imperfectly known V. (Cissus) 
tetragona, Harvey (in Harv. and Sond. Flor. Cap. i. 249), a plant of Natal. Of 
that species, founded by Harvey upon specimens grown by Mr Wilson Saunders 
from plants sent home by Plant, I have seen the type in Kew Herbarium, con- 
sisting of two internodes with three leaves ; and although they much resemble 
some of the Socotran specimens, they are hardly conspecific. It may, however, 
turn out that Harvey's plant is the same as one collected by Schweinfurth in 
central Africa (nn. 274, 401), and sent out as Cissus quadrangularis, Wall. — a 
species which it certainly is not, differing very markedly from the Indian types, 
and also from the other African forms of that species by its longer and more freely 
branching inflorescence and longer pedicelled flowers, as well as in the general 
form of the leaf. These are characters in which it approaches somewhat our 
Socotran plant here described, with which it has altogether many points of 
resemblance. 

A plant abundant all over the wooded slopes of the hills. 

Order XXIV. SAPINDACEiE. 

A very large family, abundantly spread within the tropics, more rare in 
temperate regions. Two genera are found in Soeotra ; one cosmopolitan in 
the tropics, but with its greatest development in America, the other chiefly 
Australian, but with a few representatives in other regions. 



60 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

1. ALLOPHYLUS. 

Allophylus, Linn. Gen. n. 476. 

Schmiddia, Linn. Mant. C7 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 396. 

A large genus of trees or shrubby plants, chiefly inhabiting America, but 
represented all through the tropics of the old world. 

1. A. (Schmidelia) rhoidiphyllus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. 
xi. (1882), 507. 

Arboretis plusminusve pubescens ; foliis trifoliolatis, foliolis obovatis v. oblongo-obovatis v. 
oblongo-ellipticis obtusis v. einarginafcis basi cuneatis revolutis sinuato-crenatis subtus 
petiolisque pubesceutibus ; racemis densis foliis sukequilongis ; pedicellis floribus vix 
longioribus ; petalis staminibusque declinatis. 

Arbor parva caulibus glauco-griseis. Hamuli pubescentes lenticellis punctati saepe rugosi et 
conferti. Folia petiolata trifoliolata magnitudine variantia £-2 poll, longa §-1 poll, lata 
(petiolo y\— 12 P°l^- l° n g°) se d i n exemplis maximis interdum 5£ poll, longa 2 poll, lata 
petioloque 2^ poll, longo ; foliola obovata v. oblongo-obovata v. elliptico-oblonga obtusa v. 
late acuta v. emarginata basi euneata integraque apice sinuato-lobata revoluta subtus 
pubescentia nervisque proininulis ad axillas villosis, supra subglabra nitidaque v. sub- 
pubescentia et saturate viridia, terminali foliolo maximo sessili v. petiolulato petiolulo 
pubescente. Flores breviter pedicellati in fasciculos 2-4-floros ad rbacbim pubescentem 
1^-2 poll, longam foliis subeequilongam solitariam axillarem dense aggregati ; pedicelli 
^j- poll, longi calyce vix longiores. Scpala 4 scapboidea imbricata. Petala 4 irregularia, 
limbo transverse oblongo subtrilobato squamifero. Stamina in fl. 6 exserta, in fl. ? inclusa. 
Ovarium 2-3-lobatum 2-3-loculare compressum pilis adpressis vestitum. Stylus 2-3-fidus 
lobis subulatis. Drupce plerumque solitarne globosre v. subpyriformes \ poll. diam. 
aureae. 

Nom. Vern. Zirkin (B.C.S.). Sirki (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Very common. B.C.S. mi. 160 ? 247, 248, 348, 421. Schweinf. 
nil. 413, 474. 

Distrib. East Africa. 

Under this name I group a number of specimens brought from different 
localities on the island, which I consider to be merely states of one very common 
and variable species. We have not perfect specimens with foliage-leaves, 
flowers, and fruit of all of them, indeed we only obtained flower-buds on one 
form, the others were collected in fruit. Schweinfurth, however, sends beautiful 
flowering specimens of two of the forms, which have enabled us to determine 
the genus and to give a diagnosis. The foliage is so thoroughly that of Rhus, 
that without an examination of flowers, one would certainly refer this plant to 
that genus. The variation in the leaves is very great, not so much in form as 
in size and clothing. In some specimens the leaves are fully five and a half 
inches long by two inches broad, whilst in the smaller leaved states they may 
be but a half-inch long. The plant is sometimes altogether pubescent, in other 
specimens we find an almost glabrous condition. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 61 

In the present most unsatisfactory state of the genus I have not been able 
to refer this plant to any described species, but in Kew Herbarium there are 
specimens collected by Hildebrandt, and labelled — "n. 2321, Ixamtei in 
Duruma. Auf Kikamba : Mussakaongo,"- — provisionally referred to the vicinity of 
A. (Schmidelia) repanda, Baker, which belong to the small leaved form of this 
Socotran plant. Our plant is then not endemic. I have seen no large leaved 
forms from Africa or other locality. 

"With three African species our plant is related : — A. (Schmidelia) rubifolia, 
Hochst. (in Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, i. 103 ; Baker in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. 
i. 423), A. (Schmidelia) alnifolia, Baker, and A. (Schmidelia) repanda, Baker (loc. 
cit.) — all species of somewhat indefinite limitation, and at present including 
forms which may eventually prove to be distinct species. But the Socotran plant in 
any of its states is easily diagnosed. From A. rubifolia its shorter racemes and 
pedicels, its leaves not inciso-repand, and its more globular fruits distinguish it. 
In the other two species mentioned, petals are wanting, and they are glabrous 
with larger inflorescences. A. alnifolia resembles it most in the form of leaf. 

2. Allophylus, sp. ? 

Socotra. On the hill slopes near Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 685. 

Specimens of a plant with coriaceous trifoliate foliage leaves, but without 
flowers or fruit, are possibly referable to this genus, and in it to the vicinity of 
A. (Schmidelia) decipiens, Arn. (in Hook. Lond. Journ. iii. 153), a Cape species. 
It is, however, impossible to decide upon our imperfect material. 

2. DODON^EA. 

Dodoncca, Linn. Gen. ed. I. n. 855 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 410. 

An almost exclusively Australian genus, but with a few scattered represen- 
tatives in the tropics of the globe, and one cosmopolitan tropical species which 
occurs in Socotra. 

D. viscosa, Linn. Mant. 228 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 953 ; Baker in Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 433 ; Hiern in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. i. 697 ; Francb. Sert. 
Somal. in Miss. Revoil 20. 
D. Burmanniana, DC. Prod. i. 616 ; Wight Illustr. i. fc. 52. 

Socotra. On Haghier hills. B.C.S. n. 659. 
Distrib. Cosmopolitan in tropics. 

Order XXV. ANACARDIACE.E. 

A large family inhabiting tropical and warm countries. Two genera are 
represented in Socotra, one of which is dispersed over the whole globe, the 
other being confined to Africa and Asia. 



62 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

RHUS. 
Bhus, Linn. Gen. n. 369 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 418. 

A large genus of the warmer extra-tropical regions, many species occurring 
at the Cape, and but few in the tropics. One Socotran species is endemic, but 
with a near Birmese alliance ; the other is a tropical and south African one. 

1. R. glaucescens, Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, i. 143; Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. i. 437. 

Socotra. On the hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 686. 

Disteib. Tropical Africa and Natal. 

We have specimens of a plant, with foliage-leaves only, which appears to be 
this somewhat variable species. But in this genus identification by foliage is 
not easy, and the Socotran plant might be some other species, or may, indeed, 
fall into a Sapindaceous genus. 

2. R. thyrsiflora, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 507. 

Arborea glabra; foliis trifoliolatis v. unifoliolatis, foliolis oblongis v. oblongo-ellipticis v. 
oblongo-obovatis obtusis integris v. obscure sinuato-lobatis perspicue reticulars ; inflores- 
centia thyrsoidea ; pedicellis subtilibus floribus lorjgioribus ; sepalis petalis multo brevior- 
ibns ; disco piano obscure crenato. 

Arbor parva 20-pedalis omnino glabra paniculis subfciliter puberulis exceptis. Folia palmatirn 
trifoliolata v. unifoliolata ; foliola coriacea ssepe 4£ poll, longa If— 24/ poll, lata sed prope 
extremitates ramulorum minora, oblonga v. oblongo-elliptica, terminali ruaximo frequenter 
oblongo-obovato sessili v. petiolato, obtusa integra v. obscure sinuato-lobata basi attenuata 
nervis plurimis patentibus parallelibus ultime in reticulum perspicuum anastomosantibus ; 
petiolus f— 1\ poll, longus. Funiculi terminales axillarescjue tbyrsoidei ramosissimi s?epe 
9 poll, longi late patentes folia longe superantes; pedicelli subtiles floribus triplolongiores. 
Florcs minuti. Sepala subrotundata interdum subtridentata persistentia sub fructu recur- 
vata. Fetala £ poll, longa ovata subacuta v. obtusa sepalis triplolongiora. Discus planus 
obsolete 10-crenatus. Drupce globosas \ poll. diam. 

Nom. Vern. Zoref (B.C.S.). Surif (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Common on the hill slopes and in the valleys. B.C.S. n. 369. 
Schweinf. nn. 480, 736. Nimmo. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This species, which is one of the commonest small trees on Socotra, is, on 
account of its affinity with a species from northern Birma, of considerable 
interest. So close indeed is its relationship to R. paniculata, Wall. (Cat. n. 993; 
Hook fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 10), from Birma and Yunan, that it is not without 
some difficulty diagnostic marks are obtained, and these are of such a nature as 
might in plants of a different geographical distribution be considered hardly suffi- 
cient to forbid them being regarded as conspecific. The only absolute character 
wherein the species are separated is the form of the disk. In the Birmese 
species it is distinctly cup-shaped with a crenately lobed margin, in the Socotran 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 63 

plant it is flat with an obscurely crenate edge. There are other minor points in 
which differences obtain ; thus, the leaves of the Socotran plant are often uni- 
foliolate, the leaflet being petiolecl, when they are trifoliolate the odd leaflet is, as a 
rule, sessile or nearly so, though in some specimens it becomes distinctly 
petiolate, and all the leaflets are rounded and obtuse at the apex. Now in R. 
paniculata the leaves appear to be always trifoliolate, with a petioled odd leaflet, 
and they are generally broadly acute. Again, R. thyrsiflora has long, much 
branched, spreading inflorescences, with slender terminal pedicels, which are 
always longer than the flower and the fruit, In the Birmese plant, on the 
other hand, the panicle is not so greatly branched, and the flowers are somewhat 
crowded on shorter pedicels at the ends of the branches, the pedicels being 
shorter or about the same length as the fruit. 

It is such a far cry to northern Birma from Socotra, that it is hard to believe 
that the plants in the two regions are conspecific. Possibly future investigation 
of the mainland adjacent to Socotra may lead to the discovery of connecting 
links, which will enable us to unite the two. 

A plant from Nimmo, with the customary label " Red Sea," is in Kew Her- 
barium, and is referred to by Oliver (Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 438) under and as allied 
to R. glaucescens, Ach. Eich., but there is no question as to its being the Socotran 
species. 

ODINA. 

Odina, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 293 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 423. 

A genus of some fifteen species of trees, often producing gum-resin, a few 
being natives of India, the others inhabiting tropical and subtropical Africa. 
Both Socotran species are endemic. 

1. O. ornifolia, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 507. 

Arborea ramis pubescenti-velutinis ; foliis magnis 5-7-foliolatis, foliolis ovatis obliquis subcus- 
pidatis sessilibus v. subsessilibus velutinis ; racemis vix ramosis axillaribus sub fructu 
foliis sequilongis, pedicellis brevibus ; calyce 4-partito persistente ; fructu globoso velutino- 
pubescente. 

Arbor 50-pedalis cortice exfoliante. Rami ad extremitates rugosi, juveniles pilis simplicibus 
fusco-velutini. Folia 8-9 poll, longa velutina 5-7-foliata ; foliola 2-2f poll, longa l£-lf 
poll, lata sessilia v. subsessilia ovata v. oblongo-ovata basi rotundata v. subcordata apice 
subcuspidata v. abrupte subacuminata margine integra subrevoluta, foliolo terminali ssepe 
oblongo v. obovato basi cuneato. Racemi fructiferi axillares solitarii 8-9 poll, longi sub- 
recurvi fusco-velutini ramulis lateralibus brevibus 1-3-floris ; pedicelli fructus vix ^ poll, 
longi crassi. Calyx sub fructu persistens 4-lobatus, lobis ovato-acutis pubescentibus. 
Fructus globosus £-£ poll, longus pubescens aurantiacus, stylis non persistentibus. 

Nom. Vern. Uksha (B.C.S.). Eksche (Schweiuf.). Ukshare (Wellst). 
Socotra. A not uncommon tree. B.C.S. n. 276. Schweinf. n. 504. 



64 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

We have no flowers of this plant, but it is quite a distinct species, finding its 
nearest allies in Lannea (now Odina) velutina, Guill. et Perr. (Flor. Seneg. 
i. 154, t. 42), and 0. Barteri, Oliv. (Flor. Trop. Afr. i. 446), from Upper Guinea- 
From some forms of the Indian O. Wodier, Roxb. (Flor. Ind. ii. 293), it is not 
far removed. Oliver (loc. cit.) mentions a plant, 0. fraxinifolia, Fenzl., and in 
Schweinfurth's catalogue of .^Ethiopian plants the same name occurs for a 
Nubian plant ; but apparently no description has been published. The name 
would lead one to expect it must have some resemblance with our species. 

Wellsted (in Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc. v. (1835), 199), thus writes of this tree : — 
" One of the largest trees on the island is the Ukshare, which produces a species 
of wild grape, bearing however but little resemblance to that fruit, unless in its 
clustering form and rounded shape. The distribution of the branches of this 
and all the other large trees (excepting the eshaib) is fantastic, tortuous, and 
knotty." 

2. O. asplenifolia, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Eclin. xi. (1882), 508. 

Arborea ramis glabris interdum spinosis ; foliis parvis 13-21-foliolatis ad apices ramulorum 
lateralium abbreviatorum cont'ertis rhachi alata ; foliolis subrhomboideis v. obcuneatis v. 
subobovatis apice dentatis v. subintegris sessilibus v. subsessilibus sursum sensim minori- 
bus glabris glaucis ; racemis tenuibus axillaribus. 

Arbor parva balsaniiflua cortice albo-griseo. Rami glabri, juveniles brunnei saepe spinosi v. 
ab extremitate deorsum marcescentes, laterales ssepe contracti v. subsuppressi. Folia 
aspleuioidea ad ramos juveniles alterne dispersa sed ad apices lateralium ramorum abbrevi- 
atorum conferta, sessilia v. subsessilia 1^-1 f poll, longa rhachi anguste alata, 13-21- 
foliolata glabra ; foliola opposita sed s?epe versus basin rhacheos alterna, versus apicem 
gradatim minora \ poll, longa v. minora rarissime \ poll, longa \ poll, lata subrhomboidea 
v. obcuneata v. subobovata apice 3-5-dentata v. subintegra, a medio deorsum integra 
cuneataque, foliolo terminali saepissime maximo plerumque pinnatifido acuto v. obtuso, 
venulis primariis prominulis albidisque in pagina glauco-viridi. Racemi axillares tenues 
subpubesceutes; bracteolse amplexicaules pubescentes. Alabastri globosi. Flores tetra- 
meri. Caet. ignot. 

Socotra. On the hill slopes, often at a high elevation. B.C.S. n. 710. 

Distrtb. Endemic. 

A small tree, of which we have incomplete specimens, fully developed 
flowers and fruits being unknown. From the young inflorescence, however, I 
have been able to determine the genus, and there is no doubt that it is a new 
species. 

It is a very graceful tree, with small asplenium-like leaves. It yields a gum- 
resin. I obtained, however, no definite information regarding the collection 
of, or the special attributes of this, except that it is a bad Luban. In this 
respect the tree is homotonous with the 0. obovata, Hook. fil. (Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. i. 447), from Somali Land, which is said to yield a poor Luban not collected 
by the Somalis. In that species our Socotran plant finds the nearest affinity, 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 65 

but the obovate larger leaves with fewer leaflets, and the sparse stellate 
tomentum, are quite diagnostic. 

I am not certain from our specimens that the leaves are always so small as 
I have described. One leaf attached to the older wood of a branch bearing a 
young twig shows leaflets much larger and fewer than those ordinarily occur- 
ring. The tree from which we took our specimens was not an immature one, 
as it had young inflorescences, so that the smaller leaves are not a juvenile 
form. 

Order XXVI. LEGUMINOS^. 

This vast natural family, the second largest of flowering plants, is represented 
in Socotra by twenty-six genera, and of no other family excepting Gramineae 
have we so many genera from the island. Of the genera, nineteen have a less 
or greater range over the tropical regions of the world, some extending to 
subtropical and temperate regions, some of them spread by cultivation ; three 
are old world genera of some range, one is peculiarly a south-west Asiatic genus, 
two are peculiarly genera of the Indian peninsula, one of them occurring also in 
Mauritius, and one is endemic. 

1. CROTALARIA. 

Crotalaria, Linn. Gen. n. 862 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 479. 

A large genus, spread in the warmer regions of both old and new worlds, 
attaining a maximun in tropical Africa. There are five species in Socotra, three 
of which are endemic, a fourth is a tropical African form, and the fifth is a native 
of the East Indies now widely spread in Africa and America. 

1. C. spinosa, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. i. n. 150 ; Baker in 
Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 17. 

Socotra. A plant of the sandy plains. B.C.S. n. 501. Schweinf. in lit. 
Distrib. Tropical Africa. 

2. C. retusa, Linn. Sp. 1004 ; DC. Prod. ii. 125 ; Baker in Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. ii. 13, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 75 ; Bot. Mag. t. 2561. 

Socotra. Not uncommon on the plains near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 662. 
Schweinf. n. 680. 

Distrib. A common East Indian species. Introduced in Africa and 
America. 

3. O. strigulosa, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 508. 

Omnino strigulosa ramis elongatis tenuibus prostratis ; foliis unifoliolatis angustis linearibus v. 
latis et ellipticis v. oblongo-ellipticis subsessilibus; racemis terminalibus elongatis pedicellis 
brevibus ; calycis lobis tubo longioribus ; corolla exserta ; legumine oblongo breviter 
exserto pubescente 6-spermo. 
TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. I 



66 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Herba perennis ramulis juvenilibus dense senioribus sparsiin pilis albis adpressis vestitis \- 2- 
pedalibus prostratis tenuibus. Folia unifoliolata sessilia v. subsessilia plerumque sub- 
obliqua saepe angusta linearis v. oblongo-linearia late acuta f-1 poll, longa \-\ poll, lata 
sed ad formas ellipticas v. oblongas v. oblongo-ellipticas obtusas v. subacutas variantia 
strigulosa. Stipulce perspicuae setiformes mox deciduae. Eacemi saepe 8 poll, longi 4-8- 
flori terminales et foliis oppositi ; bracteobe minutae ; pedicelli I poll, longi bracteolis 
triplolongiores ultime deflexi. Calyx £ poll, longus alte 5-fidus, laciniis subaequalibus v. 
superioribus latioribus acuminatis tubum niulto excedentibus extus piloso-strigulosis. 
Corolla crocea calycem parum superans ; vexillum £ .poll, longum rotundatum rutilo- 
venosum ; carina rostrata antice breviter villosa. Legumen oblongum -j^ poll, longum \ 
poll, latum dense pubescens longe exsertum. Semina sex. 

Socotra. Common on the sandy plains. B.C.S. nn. 72, 663. Schweinf. 
nn. 656, 721. 

Like so many of the Socotran plants, this species shows considerable 
variation in the leaves, both as to size and to form. Schweinfurth sends a 
specimen (n. 656) from Wadi Kischen, which I take to be merely a form of our 
plant, but it has pubescent almost hirsute stems and leaves, and these latter are 
larger than is usual and entirely elliptic. The floral pedicels in this form are 
stouter and the fruit longer, attaining fully half an inch. I do not, however, 
see how it can be separated from the type. 

The closest affinity of the Socotran plant is probably with C. triquetra, 
Dalzell (in Hook Kew Journ. ii. (1850), 34 ; Baker in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. 
ii. 71), a plant of the Deccan peninsula and Ceylon; but it is a glabrescent 
plant, and the pods are 15-16-seeded. With C. prostrata, Eoxb. (Hort. BeDg. 54; 
Baker, loc. cit. 67), from the same localities, there is also a resemblance, and 
especially through Schweinfurth's form (n. 656) ; but the glabrous pods, 12-15- 
seeded, and the absence of stipules separate the Indian plant. C. evolvuloides, 
Wight (in Wall. Cat. 5410 ; Baker, loc. cit. 68), of like distribution with these 
mentioned, may be regarded as an ally, but is altogether a more hairy plant. 

4. C. leptocarpa, Balf. fil. Tab. XIV, A. 

C. alubia, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 508. 

Omnino strigulosa ramis tenuibus late patentibus ; foliis petiolatis palmatim trifoliolatis, 
foliolis sessilibus lineari-lanceolatis et ad formas obovatas variantibus ; racemis elongatis 
oppositifoliis paucifloris ; pedicellis capillaribus brevibus ; calycis lobis tubo quadruplo- 
longioribus ; corolla longe exserta ; legumine oblongo submembranaceo venuloso pubes- 
cente 12-spermo. 

Herba humilis caule lignoso parvo subterraneo. Rami subfiliformes copiosi internodiis longis 
late patentes saepe 1^-pedales decumbentes strigulosi v. substrigosi. Folia palmatim 
trifoliolata petiolata (petiolo \-\ poll, longo) basi villosa ; foliola (terminal! longissimo) 
ssepius lineari-lanceolata acuminata et \-l^ poll, longa sed per intermedias ad formas 
obovatas mucronatas \ poll, longas J poll, latas variantia, omnia sessilia v. subsessilia 
strigosa. Stipulm minutae subulatae. Racemi elongati cum internodiis f-1 poll, longis 
terminales et oppositifolii pauciflori ; bracteolae minutissimae ; pedicelli capillares J poll, 
longi. Calyx \ poll, longus extus pilis adpressis brevibus sparsim vestitus, laciniis angustis 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 67 

acuminatis £ poll, longis, superiore latiore. Corolla flava longe exserta ; vexillum suborbi- 
culare mucronatum -^ G poll, longum; carina niargine inferiore ciliata. Staminum filamenta 
alterne sursum dilatata in tubum supra fissum connata. Ovarium stipitatum ; stylus 
incurvus £ poll, longus superne circumcirca barbatus dilatatus complanatus, stigmate 
bilobo extus obliquo lobis complanatis. Legumen (an maturum ?) -^ poll, longum £ poll, 
latum breviter stipitatum oblique oblongum compressum membranaceum venulosum 
pubescens. Semina 12. 

Socotra, Common on the plains. B.C.S. n. 149. Schweinf. n. 722. 
Distrib. Aden. 

I originally published this species under the name C. dubia. This name, I 
find, has been already given to an Indian plant (Grah. in Wall. Cat. 5404 ; 
Baker in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 73), and I have therefore here renamed 
the Socotran plant. 

This plant, which in its general habit and structure is thoroughly 
Crotalarioid, resembling much the species last described — C. strigulosa — and 
like it having leaves of diverse forms, differs so decidedly from the type of the 
genus that it is with difficulty one can include it as a species. The fruit is not 
at all inflated or tumid, and the valves are quite thin and membranous with 
beautiful veining. In addition, there is a divergent character in the stigma, 
which is distinctly two-lobed, each lobe being flattened and pointed. But if 
we exclude the plant from this geuus, I can find no other in which to place it, 
and the characters are perhaps hardly sufficient to warrant at present the 
creation of a new genus. 

Schweinfurth, when at Aden recently, discovered the plant there, and has 
sent home specimens, now in Kew Herbarium (Schweinf. Exp. Bieb. n. 44). 
He says it grows abundantly " behind Ma'alla." I find the Aden plant does 
not show distinctly the lobing of the stigma visible in the Socotran flowers. 

5. C. pteropoda, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 508. Tab. 
XIV, B. 

Procumbens sericeo-canescens; foliis petiolatis alterne digitatim trifoliolatis, foliolis ellipticis 
v. obovatis obtusis ; floribus solitariis oppositifoliis ; pedicellis tetraquetris crebris; calyce 
bilabiato corolla longiore ; legumine tumido pubescente polyspermo. 

Herba parva ramis procumbentibus sericeo-canescentibus. Folia 3|- poll, longa petiolata 
(petiolo sericeo-canescente \ poll, longo) digitatim alterne trifoliolata; foliola^ P°fi- longa 
\ poll, lata (terminali maximo) subsessilia elliptica v. obovata obtusa ssepe mucronulata 
argenteo-sericea subtus pallidiora. Stipulaz obsoletse. Flores solitarii oppositifolii ; pedicelli 
crebri tetraquetri v. 4-alati \ poll, longi canescentes. Calyx f poll, longus corolla longior 
bilabiatus extus argenteo-sericeus, labio superiore arete bifido lobis oblongo-ellipticis diver - 
gentibus, inferiore trifido lobis angustioribus. Corolla purpurea ; vexillum obovatum 
acutum brevissime unguiculatum supra unguem 2-callosum ; alae obovatae obtusae vexillo 
breviores ; carinas petala vexillum parum excedentia rostrata a basi late cobserentia. 
Staminum antherse alternse longae basifixee alternse breves versatiles. Ovarium I poll, 
longum ovoideum pubescens ; stylus £ poll, longus abrupte deflexus dum recurvus superne 
intus barbatus. Legumen pubescens oblongum polyspermum turgidum. 



68 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Socotra. On the hills south-west of Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 140. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A curious trailing plant, which is referred to this genus, with the majority 
of characters of which it conforms; but it has a calyx quite exceptional in the 
genus, and the winged pedicel is also an aberrant feature. An Abyssinian 
plant C. (Phyllocalyx) Quartiniana, Baker (in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 42), has 
a large calyx of somewhat like character. 

2. PRIOTROPIS. 

Priotropis, Wight and Arn. Prod. 180 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 480. 

A genus of two species only, one of which is limited to the mountainous 
regions of eastern India, and the other is Socotran. 

P. socotrana, Balf. fil. inProc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 509. Tab. XV. 

Fruticosa; foliis trifoliolatis, foliolis oblongo-ellipticis obtusis emarginatis brevissime petiolatis; 
pedicellis brevibus ; legumine longe stipitato longitudine dimidio latitudinem excedente 
pubescente 2-spermo. 

Frutex 10-pedalis habitu Lulurni ramulis pubescentibus. Folia trifoliolata petiolo striguloso 
1-1 f poll, longo ; foliola 1^-lf poll, longa §—J poll, lata oblongo-elliptica obtusa emarghiata 
subapiculata brevissime petiolulata (petiolulo pil oso) supra glabra infra subtiliter brevissime 
strigulosa membranacea conspicue curvatim venosa. Stipulce setiformes. Bacemi ter- 
minates ramosi pilis brevibus adpressis vestiti ; pedicelli £ poll, longi bibracteolati, bracteolis 
rninutis. Calyx poculiformis \ poll, longus extus pubescens, lobis acutis subsequalibus tubo 
subsequilongis. Corolla longe exserta; vexillum unguiculatum subrotundatum eniarginatum 
-fz poll, longum ; alae oblongae ; carina rostrata. Ovarium longe stipitatum compressurn 
dense pilis adpressis vestitum ; stylus \ poll, longus lateraliter compressus. Legumen \ 
poll, longum \ poll, latum pubescens 2-spermum compressurn, stipite calyci aequilongo. 

Socotra. A shrub of the higher levels on the Haghier hills. B.C.S. n. 
688. Schweinf. n. 645. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

In this plant we have a species of a hitherto monotypic Indian genus. P. 
cytisoides, Wight and Arn. (Prod. 180 ; Baker in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 65), the 
species on which the genus was founded, is a plant of the tropical parts of the 
eastern Himalayas — from Khasia to Sikkim, and the occurrence of this second 
species in Socotra is an interesting fact of distribution. From the Himalayan 
type the Socotran plant is distinguished by its obtuse not pointed leaves, and 
by its shorter and narrower legumes. 

3. TRIGONELLA 

Trigonella, Linn. Gen. n. 898 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 486. 

A considerable genus of, frequently odorous, herbs, dispersed over Europe, 
Asia, and North Africa. A few occur at the Cape, and one in Australia. 

T. falcata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 509. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 69 

Annua ; foliis trifoliolatis, foliolis obovato-cuneatis, terminali longe petiolato ; inflorescentia' 
capitato-racemosa 2-5-flora foliis brevior; calycis laciniis linearibus tubo multobrevior- 
ibus ; stylo ovario multobreviore ; leguinine falcato longo tenui. 

Herba ramosa ramis subdecumbentibus parum elongatis quadrangulis striatis glabris. Folia 
1\ poll, longa trifoliolata, petiolo capillari £-§ poll, longo ; foliola membranacea obovato- 
cuneata dentata ssepe emarginata sparsini birta, terminali maximo cum petiolulo ^ poll, 
longo. Stipidce semisagittatse, inferiors basi unilateraliter arete incisse. Ehachis infloves- 
centise \-^ poll, longa filiformis hirtella foliis brevior apice ultra 2-5 flores croceos 
brevissime pedicellatos aristata ; pedicelli ^ poll, longi. Calyx \ poll, longus pilis paucis 
adpressis vestitus, laciniis linearibus § lin. longis. Corolla l poll, longa ; vexillum ungui- 
culatum ellipticum. Ovarium ^ poll, longum compressum lineare pubescens ; stylus 
^2 P°lb longus. Zegumen valde arcuatum lineare leviter compressum fere 1 poll, longum 
2^ poll, latum subglabrum (juvenili birtello) nervis duobus suturalibus validis lateri- 
busque oblique elevatim nervoso-reticulatis. Semina 12 oblonga levia. 

Socotra. Sandy places. B.C.S. n. 665. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A species nearly allied to T. hamosa, Linn. (Sp. 1094 ; Sibth. Fl. Grsec. t. 
764), a native of Nile Land, Egypt, and the Cape, but not found further eastwards, 
unless T. uncata, Boiss. et Noe (Diagn. ser. ii. 2. 12 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 84), 
be the same species. This latter one, which is found through Syria, Persia, 
and Afghanistan, differs from T. hamosa only in the calyx, which has lacinise 
about ^ the length of the tube, whilst in T. hamosa the calyx tube is only 
slightly toothed. 

The Socotran plant resembles most Boissier's species, as it has calyx lobes 
nearly half the length of the tube, but it differs from both of them in the short 
peduncles of the inflorescence, the style greatly shorter than the ovary, and in 
the long thin many-seeded pods, and upon all of these characters the species is 
constituted. 

4. MEDICAGO. 

Medicago, Linn. Gen. n. 899 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 487. 

A considerable genus, ranging through Europe, western Asia, and northern 
Africa, and containing several species introduced and now common weeds in 
many parts of the world. The three Socotran species have a wide distribution, 
almost that of the genus. 

M. denticulata, Willd. Sp. iii. 1414 ; DC. Prod. ii. 176 ; Baker in Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 51, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Tnd. ii. 90 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, 
ii. 102 ; Syme Eng. Bot. t. 338. 

Socotra. Common on the plains. B.C.S, n. 666. 
Distrib. Northern hemisphere of the old world. 

The Socotran plant appears to be the form described by Willdenow as M. 
apiculata, having short spines and few spires to the fruit. 



70 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

M. minima, Lamk. Diet. iii. 636 ; DC. Prod. ii. 178 ; Baker in Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. ii. 51, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 91 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 
103 ; Syme Eng. Bot. t. 340. 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 667. 

Distrib. Europe and west Asia, extending to Abyssinia and to Afghanistan 
and Kashmir. 

M. laciniata, All. Flor. Peel i. 316 ; DC. Prod. ii. 180 ; Baker in Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 51, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 90 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, 
ii. 104. 

Socotra. On sandy plains. B.C.S. n. 668. 

Distrib. From the Canary Islands and Mediterranean region eastwards to 
Beloochistan, in Abyssinia, and at the Cape. 

5. MELILOTUS. 

Mclilotus, Juss. Gen. 356 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 487. 

A small genus of temperate and subtropical regions in the northern hemi- 
sphere of the old world Some forms are now cosmopolitan weeds. 

M. parviflora, Desf. Atl. ii. 192 ; DC. Prod. ii. 187 ; Baker in Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. ii. 52, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 89 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 108. 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 351. 
Distrib. A common tropical weed. 

6. LOTUS. 

Lotm, Linn. Gen. n. 897 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 490. 

A genus widely spread in the temperate zones and upon mountains in tropi- 
cal regions of both hemispheres. Of the three representatives in Socotra, one is 
an African and south-west Asiatic species, the other two are endemic, and are 
interesting in connection with the constitution of the genus. 

The two endemic species are L. ononopsis and L. mollis. Their affinity is 
with£. Garcini, DC. (Prod. ii. 212; Baker in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 63), a plant 
of Nile Land, Persia, and Scindh ; but from it there is in each case considerable 
specific difference. All three species occupy an exceptional position in the genus 
Lotus. Whilst possessing the habit and the majority of Lotoid characters, in 
their leaves and their anthers they diverge from the type of Lotus and approach 
Ononis, from which, however, their inflorescence, diadelphy, and the absence of 
stipules separate them. 

Jaubert and Spach (111. PI. Orient, i. 96) describe and figure a plant from 
Persia as Ononis Aucherii, creating for it at the same time a sub-genus, Lotopsis, 
characterised by the solitary axillary flowers, and by the absence of stipules. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 71 

This plant, as Bentham and Hooker (Gen. PI. I. 485) point out, is L. Garcini, 
DC, and they suppress the sub-genus Lotopsis, preferring to retain the plant in 
the genus Lotus. 

It is a fact of considerable interest to find in Socotra two species aberrant 
from the generic type of Lotus on the same lines as L. Garcini. 

It is a question then how far such variation is permissible in Lotus, and 
whether the peculiarities exhibited by these three species are not to be considered 
generic. We are certainly, I think, justified in establishing a distinct sub-genus 
in Lotus for their reception, and this I name and characterise thus : — 

Sub-genus — Ononidium, Balf. fil. 

Folia trifoliolata ; flores solitarii axillares ; staminum filamenta alterna sursum dilatata, 
antheree alternae versatiles alternse paullo longiores et basifixse. 

This sub-genus includes at present the three species L. Garcini, DC, L. 
ononopsis, Balf. fil. and L. mollis, Balf. fil. A fourth species, L. Stocksii, Boiss. 
(Flor. Orient, ii. 174), will also belong to this sub-genus if it is distinct from L. 
Garcini, DC, which I much doubt. 

1. L. arabicus, Linn., var. trigonelloides, Webb et Berth. Phytog. 
Canar. ii. 86. 

L. trigonelloides, Webb et Berth. Phytog. Canar. t. 65. 

Socotra. On sandy plains. B.C.S. n. 669. 

Distrib. From the Canary Islands through north Africa to Arabia and Persia. 

The Socotran plant is very small and dwarfed. 

2. L. (Ononidium) ononopsis, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 
509. Tab. XVI. 

Diffusus fere omnino glaber suberassus ; foliis subsessilibus ; foliolis lanceolatis et ad formas 
suborbiculares variantibus ; floribus pedicellatis ; calycis lobis subaequalibus ; corolla 
exserta ; stigmate capitato ; legurnine lineari glabro 8-12-spermo. 

Perennis subsucculentus glaber pedicellis floribus partibusque juvenilibus subtiliter pilis 
adpressis vestitis exceptio, caule hypogeeo lignoso cortice erythro. Rami elongati 
diffusi decumbentes ^-2-pedales angulati complanati v. subalati striati. Folia trifolio- 
lata sessilia v. subsessilia ; foliola a forma lanceolata ad ellipticam v. obovatam v. orbi- 
cularem variantia acuta v. obtusa ^-^ poll, longa £-^ poll. lata. Stipulm nullae. 
Flores solitarii in axillis foliorum pedicellati racemosque laxos paucifloros ita formantes ; 
pedicelli -^-f poll, longi inferne recti et sparsim strigulosi, superne sub flore articulati et 
arcuati denseque strigulosi. Calyx \ poll, longus extus strigulosus, lobis subaequalibus 
acuminatis tubo sequilongis. Corolla aurea cum carina? rostro purpureo ; vexillum orbicu- 
lare unguiculatum ^ poll, longum ; alae obovatee v. subpanduriformes. Stamina 
diadelphia vagina extus scabrida, filamentis alternis sursum dilatatis ; antherse alternatim 
versatiles alternatim paullo longiores et basifixae. Stylus £ poll, longus ovario aequilongus, 
stigmate capitato. Legumen 1\ poll, longum ^ poll, latum lineare glabrum subtorulosum 
intus septulatum 8-12-spermum. Semina levia. 



72 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Socotra. Abundant on the hills at a high altitude. B.C.S. nn. 400, 491. 
Schweinf. n. 555. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very attractive species, on account of its slightly fleshy character, its pale 
yellow-green foliage, and brilliant yellow flowers. It is essentially a plant of 
the higher regions of the island, and like many other Socotran plants it is 
somewhat diverse-leaved, at times showing almost orbicular forms, in other 
instances the shape is lanceolate or pointed. 

3. L. (Ononidium) mollis, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 
509. Tab. XVII, A. 

Diffusus canus dense strigosus ; foliis sessilibus, foliolis oblanceolatis v. obcuneatis exstipulatis ; 
floribus sessilibus v. subsessilibus ; calycis lobis subsequalibus ; corolla longe exserta ; stig- 
Hiate capitato ; legumine lineari glabro 8-spermo. 

Perennis depressus albidus mollis ramosissimus caule hypogaeo lignoso, per totum albis pilis 
sericeis adpressis dense vestitus. Rami diffusi late depresso-decumbentes elongati 
pedales angulati saepe internodiis brevibus. Folia trifoliolata sessilia saepe conferta ; 
foliola £— £ poll, louga -fe-\ poll, lata oblanceolata v. obcuneata obtusa v. subacuta mollis- 
sirna. Stipidcc nullse. Flores sessiles v. subsessiles axillares solitarii versus apicem ramu- 
lorum singillatim evoluti. Calyx £ poll, longus, lobis linearibus tubum aequantibus margine 
ciliatis extus dense sericeo-strigosis. Corolla aurea longe exserta ; vexillum late obovatum 
emarginatum fere -fa poll, longum ; alae oblongae ; carina obliqua subrostrata apice pur- 
purea. Stamina diadelphia vagina extus scabrida filamentis alternis sursum dilatatis ; 
antherae alternaj versatiles alternae paullo longiores et basifixse. Ovarium breviter stipi- 
tatum; stylus \ poll, longus ovario aequilongus, stigmate capitato. Legumen *-| poll, 
longum -^2 poll, latum calycem multo superans lineare subtorulosum glabrum. Semina 
circa 8 globularia levia. 

Socotra. On the limestone cliffs south-west from Galonsir, at an 
altitude over 1300 feet. B.C.S. n. 670. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very characteristic plant of the lofty limestone plateau at the north-west 
end of the island. Easily distinguished from the preceding species by its soft 
leaves covered with silky white hairs. 

7. PSORALEA. 

Psoralca, Linn. Gen. n. 894 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 491. 

A large genus, distributed over the whole world, but most abundant in south 
Africa and North America. 

P. corylifolia, Linn. Sp. 1075 ; DC. Prod. ii. 218 ; Baker in Hook. Flor. 
Brit. Ind. i. 103 ; Bot. Mag. t. 665. 

Socotra. About dwellings. B.C.S. n. 671. 
Distrib. India and Ceylon, and in Arabia. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 73 

8. INDIGOFEEA. 
Indigo/era, Linn. Gen. n. 889 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 494. 

A very large genus of the warmer parts of the globe, attaining a maximum 
in tropical and south Africa. Ten species are found in Socotra. Of these, two 
are endemic; three are Arabian and south-west Asiatic species, one of them 
also reaching Nile Land ; three are tropical African and southern Asiatic forms, 
two of which also extend to Australia ; one is north Indian only, and the tenth 
is a widely cultivated species. 

1. I. nephrocarpa, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 509. 
Tab. XVIII, A. 

Depressa canescens ; foliis alterne trifoliolatis petiolatis strigosis ; stipulis inconspicuis ; 
racemis paucifloris subsessilibus v. filiformiter pedunculitis ; legumine minuto 1-spermo 
reniformi ; stylo persistente. 

Perennis depressa lignosa a basi rarnosissima congesta v. diffusa. Rami bumifusi saepe late 
patentes fere pedales scabriduli. Folia alterne trifoliolata in forniis congestis |— £ poll, 
longa brevissime petiolata dense pilis albis adpressis vestita, in diffusis | poll, longa 
petiolo filiformi £ poll, longo sparsimque strigosa sed inter extremas multos gradus exhi- 
bentia ; foliola obovata v. ssepe oblonga nee quam \ poll, longa majora subcrassa. Stipitla; 
rninutse inconspicuse. Mores parvi 3-6 ad extremitatem rbacheos filiformis \-^ poll, longae 
(in plantis congestis fere absentis) axillaris capitato-racemosee conferti ; pedicelli ^ poll, 
longi ; bracteolae minutissimie setiformes. Calyx ^ poll, longus extus pilosus, lobis subu- 
latis subaequalibus tubo inultolongioribus. Corolla purpurea ; vexillum orbiculare vix 
unguiculatum ^ poll, longum extus pubescens ; alae angustae truueatse carina vexilloque 
parum breviores. Stylus ovario quadruplolongior multoincurvatus. Zegumen fy poll, 
diarn. reniforme curvatum strigosurn stylo persistente longo terminatuni 1-spermum. 

Socotra. A common plant of the plains. B.C.S. nn. 85, 104, 336 ? 
Schweinf. n. 237. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Amongst the one-seeded species of Indigofera this is easily recognised by 
its fruit, which is so much bent upon itself as to become quite kidney- shaped f 
and the long persistent style coils round it. 

As is so common in Socotran plants, its appearance when growing on the 
harder portion of the limestone plains differs from its aspect when in more 
congenial localities. In the first-mentioned circumstances it forms a hard, tufted 
depressed plant (n. 85), with branches, at times almost spiny, always greatly 
shortened, and hence the leaves, and the flowers, and fruit, which latter are in 
almost sessile clusters, become aggregated into a compact form. When under 
more favourable conditions, it gives off spreading branches with elongated 
internodes, and the leaves are longly and delicately petioled, whilst the flowers 
and fruits are in capitate racemes on slender rhachi (n. 104). 

We have a specimen (n. 336) from the island which I think is to be referred 
to this species, but the leaflets have become long linear lanceolate, often a half- 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. K 



74 BOTANY OF SOCOTEA. 

inch or more long. If this be so, the species exhibits variation in foliage 
similar to that we have described in Crotalaria strigulosa, Balf. fil. (seepage 66). 

2. I. cordifolia, Roth. Nov. Spec. 357 ; DC. Prod. ii. 222 ; Baker in Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 72, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 93. 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 672. Schweinf. n. 272. 
Distrib. From Nile Land through south-west Asia to the Malay Islands 
and north Australia. 

3. I. paucifolia, DelileFlor. Egypt. 107, t. 37, ff. 2,2'; DC. Prod. ii. 224 j 
Baker in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 88', and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 97 ; Boiss. 
Flor. Orient, ii. 190 ; Wight Ic. t. 331. 

Socotra. About Galonsir and elsewhere. B.C.S. n. 673. 

Distrib. Tropical Africa, Arabia, and through south-west Asia to Java. 

4. I. intricata, Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 190. 
Nom. Vern. Sideri (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Very abundant on the plains, especially on Habidu plain. 
B.C.S. n. 107. Schweinf. n. 298. 

Distrib. Arabia, Persia. 

Our plant differs slightly from Boissier's Arabian and Persian types, as 
represented in Kew Herbarium from Aucher Eloy's collections, in having the 
leaves on young shoots unifoliolate and linear, reaching as much as T 5 Y inch long, 
and the pod is somewhat larger, sometimes § inch long. Boissier describes 
the pedicels as exceeding the leaves. In our specimens the pedicels are shorter 
than the leaves. 

The plant is said to be abundant about Mascate. It is a thoroughly desert 
species, being hard-wooded, much branched, and twiggy, sometimes almost 
spinose, and covered with a greyish- white indumentum. In Socotra the small 
dwarf bushes studding the plains at wonderfully regular intervals give a peculiar 
appearance to the landscape. 

The nearest ally to this species is /. spinosa, Forsk., another Arabian form 
occurring also in India, Abyssinia, and Egypt. 

5. I. leptocarpa, Hochst. et Steud. in herb. Schimp. Arab. n. 771 (nom. 
sol.) ; Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 510. 

Socotra. On the limestone plains ; not common. B.C.S. n. 674. 
Schweinf. n. 389. 

Distrib. Arabia, Nubia. 

The plant is not a conspicuous one, and the Socotran forms are rather 
more woody and rigid than the Arabian type. It is a thoroughly desert 
form. Schweinfurth informs me he has collected the plant in Nubia. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 75 

There are specimens in Kew Herbarium, collected near Jeclclah by 
Schimper, and distributed under this name and number. There are also plants 
of the same species brought by Fischer from the same locality, but I do not 
find that the name has been anywhere taken up, and Hochstetter and Steudel 
do not appear to have published a description. Amongst my diagnoses of 
Socotran plants, I published one of this species, and I append here a fuller 
description, — 

Herba bumilis rigida cana strigosa basi ramosa. Rami internodiis longis late patentes decum- 
bentes subfastigiati subcompressi angulati. Folia %-£% poll, longa digitatim trifoliata 
petiolata (petiolo ^~l poll, longo) ; foliola omnia sessilia ovata v. elliptica acuta v. obtusa 
omnino rigide strigosa. Stipulat \ poll, lougae. Baccmi 5 poll, longi basi nudi floribusque 
versus apiceru dispositis ; pedicelli ^ poll, longi ; bracteolae setiformes. Calyx \ poll, 
longus, lobis acutis superiore tubo aequilongo caeteris brevioribus. Corolla parva ; vexillum 
£ poll, longurn obovatum unguiculatum carina paruni longior. Ovarium stylo crasso 
aequilongum. Lcgumcn §-1^ poll, longum ^ P°U- latum lineare strigosum nee torulosum 
6-8-cc -spermum. 

6. I. viscosa, Lamk. Encyc. iii. 247 ; DC. Prod. ii. 227 ; Baker in Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 81, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 95 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, 
ii. 189 ; Wight Ic. t. 404. 

Socotra. Common on the limestone plains. B.C.S. n. 675. Schweinf. 
n. 719. 

Disteib. From Cape de Verde Islands through tropical Africa and south- 
west Europe to the Eastern Archipelago and north Australia. 

7. I. marmorata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 510. Tab. 
XVIII, B. 

Suffruticosa argeuteo-canescens ; foliis alterne trifoliolatis v. pinnatis petiolatis ; foliolis 3-7 
oblanceolatis v. obovatis supra marmorato-strigosis ; racemis paucifloris floribus secundis; 
legumine brevi subtetraquetro rostrato bispermo. 

Suffrutex 5-pedalis argenteo-canescens ramulis elongatis juvenilibus multo compressis jugoque 
centrali prominente instructis. Folia -j^-lf P ^- l° a g a (petiolo £-§ poll, longo) decidua 
rarius trifoliolata saepissime alterne pinnata ; foliola 3-7, terminale maximum lineare basi 
gradatim attenuatum v. oblanceolatum truncatum mucronatum v. apiculatum et 1 poll, 
longum sed saepe obovatum emarginatum v. retusum et £ poll, longum semper petiolulatum 
lateralia minora obovata v. obcuneata emarginata apiculata brevissime petiolulata, omnia 
plus minusve strigosa sed supra pilis adpressis in pannos densiores pinnatim aggregatis 
atque superficiem laminae regulariter et marmoratim obtegentibus. Stipulaz minutae 
obliquse margine subfitnbriatae. Bacemi axillares foliis longiores 2-8-flori, floribus 
secundis; pedicelli ^ poll, longi; bracteolae obsoletas. Calyx ^ poll, longus cyathiformis, 
lobis deltoideis sequalibus margine glandulis rutis ciliatis. Corolla luteo-purpurea petalis 
subaequilongis; vexillum sessile suborbiculare v. oblongo-orbiculare extus strigulosum -f 6 
poll, longum ; alae angustae oblique obovatae versus basim ubsaccatse ; carinae petala later- 



76 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

aliter longe saccata. Stylus longus incurvatus ovario fcriplolongior. Leguvicn sparsim 
strigosum \-\ poll, longum \ poll, latum suturis ambis incrassatis lateraliter dilatatum 
subtetraquetrum apice subfalcatum rostratum bispermum. 

Nom. Vern. Sidereh (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the hill slopes at an elevation of over 1000 feet. B.C.S. n. 
370. Schweinf. n. 503. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A species of very striking character. Its fruit alone completely separates 
it from any described form, and coupled with its peculiar foliage, supplies an 
easily observed diagnostic mark. The foliage leaves are somewhat variable in 
form ; especially is this the case in the terminal leaflets of the base of young 
shoots ; but all present the curious mottled appearance on the upper surface, 
due to the distribution of the adpressed hairs, from which I have taken the 
specific name. These hairs are not uniformly disposed over the lamina, but on 
each side of the midrib densely clothed and sparingly covered patches alter- 
nate. The hairy patches extend from the midrib outwards and upwards to 
the margin of the lamina on each side, but the patches do not always 
correspond on opposite sides of the midrib, and thus a feathered appearance is 
produced on the surface. Usually there are two or three densely hairy patches 
on the smaller leaves ; on the larger ones there may be many. 

The local name for this species is apparently the same as for I. intri- 
cata, Boiss. 

8. I. G-erardiana, Grah. in Wall. Cat. n. 5486 ; Baker in Hook. Flor. 
Brit. Ind. ii. 100. 

Socotra. On the higher regions of the hills at an altitude over 2000 feet. 
Abundant on Haghier, south from Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 463. Schweinf. n. 595. 

Distrib. From Afghanistan eastwards through the subtemperate and 
tropical Himalayan regions. 

This very showy shrub, with flowers much larger than are common in the 
genus, has not hitherto been found west of Afghanistan. Our Socotran plant 
is undoubtedly the species, presenting only very slight differences from the type 
in the size and form of the leaflets. In the type these are lanceolate and rarely 
over a half-inch long. In our plant they are elliptic or elliptic oblong, with 
truncate or emarginate apices, and may be as much as one inch long. 

A named variety — heterantha—oi this species, with smaller and more 
numerous leaflets, is figured in the Botanical Register, 28, t. 57 as Indigo/era 
Dosua. This is not, however, the true Indigo/era Dosua, Hamilt. (see Baker 
in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 102). 

9. I. tinctoria, Linn. Sp. 1061 ; DC. Prod. ii. 224 ; Baker in Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. ii. 99, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 99 ; Wight Ic. t, 365. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 77 

Socotra. Everywhere near villages on the plains. B.C.S. n. 676. 
Schweinf. n. 283. 

Distkib. Universally cultivated in tropics. 

10. I. argentea, Linn. Mant. 273 ; DC. Prod. ii. 224; Baker in Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. ii. 97, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 98 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 
190 ; I/Her. Stirp. t. 79. 

Socotra. Common about Galonsir and Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 22. 

Distrib. Nile Land, Arabia, Scindh. 

9. TEPHROSIA. 

Tephrosia, Pers. Synops. ii. 328 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 496. 

A considerable genus, widely spread in warmer regions of both worlds, but 
with its headquarters in south Africa and tropical and subtropical Australia. 
A few species are North American. Of the six Socotran species, one is endemic, 
three are entirely tropical African, of which two are restricted to the northern 
districts, one species is common to north tropical Africa and south-west Asia, 
and the fifth is cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

1. T. (Brissonia) odorata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Eclin. xiii. (1883). 

Herbacea parva plusminusve strigosa ; foliis tligitatim trifoliatis ; foliolis vix £ poll, longis 
oblanceolatis ; stipulis minutis ; floribus solitariis axillaribus odoratis purpureis. 

Horba humifusa ramis strigosis. Folia digitatim trifoliata 1-1^ poll, longa, petiolo angulato ; 
foliola subsessilia oblanceolata .v. subcuneata circa J poll, longa ^-\ poll, lata acuta v. 
cuspidata v. truncata emarginata v. mucronulata venis parallelis a costa obliquis lineata 
subtus pilis adpressis vestita. Stipulce liberse setaceae ^ poll, longa;. Flores magni odori 
in cymas bifloras v. solitarias axillares dispositi ; pedicelli strigosi \ poll, longi. Calyx 
\\ poll, longus extus strigulosus lobis 2 superioribus in labium bifidum tubo vix aequi- 
longum connatis. Corolla purpurea ; vexillum \ poll, longum breviter unguiculatum orbi- 
culare truncatum extus sparsim strigulosum ; alse falcatse transversim plicatad rugosae ; 
carinse petala falcata obtusa alis latiora. Staminum filarnenta apice non dilatata ; antherae 
muriformes alternse basifixae alternse versatiles. Ovarium -f^ poll, longum breviter stipi- 
tatum 5-ovulatum pilisque adpressis dense vestitum ; stylus incurvus longus intus apice 
longitudinaliter barbatus, stigmate obliquo. Legumen ignotum. 

Socotra. On the cliffs south-west from Galonsir at an altitude over 
1500 feet. B.C.S. n. 180. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A lovely little species, with conspicuous purple flowers, and very strongly 
scented. We only found it in one locality near Galonsir. 

It is very distinct, the trifoliolate leaves and the solitary axillary flowers being 
an uncommon feature in the section Brissonia to which it belongs, and with 
the small habit of the plant separate it from all other species. 

2. T. (Eeineria) subtriflora, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Abyss ed. Hohenack. 
n. 2312 ; Baker in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 117. 



78 BOTANY OF SOCOTKA. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 677. 

Dtstrib. Abyssinia. 

A small plant, of which we have two specimens with fruit only, appears to 
be this species, or one nearly allied to it. Our specimens differ from the type 
in the clothing of the stems. These have a covering of grey silky adpressed 
hairs, whilst in the Abyssinian plant the stems are coated with short spreading 
hairs. Our material is not sufficient to determine the identity with certainty. 

3. T. (Reineria) anthylloides, Hochst. in herb. Kotschy. Nub. sect. i. 
n. 87 ; Baker in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 118. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 168. 
Distrib. Tropical Africa. 

4. T. (Reineria) vicioides, Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, i. 188 ; Baker 
in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 117. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 652. Schweinf. n. 295. 
Distrib. Nubia, Abyssinia. 

5. T. (Reineria) purpurea, Pers. Synops. ii. 329; DC. Prod. ii. 251; Baker 
in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 124, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 112. 

T. indiyofera, Bert. Misc. xix. 9, t. 5. 

Socotra. On the plains ; common. B.C.S. n. 60. 
Distrib. Cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

The Socotran plant appears to be the form found in tropical Africa, and 
named by Baker as a variety — pubescens. 

6. T. (Reineria) Apollinea, DC. Prod. ii. 254 ; Baker in Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. ii. 124 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 192 ; Franch. Sert. Somal. in Miss. Revoil 28. 

Galega Apollinea, Delile Flor. Egypt. 144, t. 53, f. 5. 

Socotra. Common on the plains. B.C.S. nn. 30, 61, 71. Hunter n. 9. 
Distrib. North-east tropical Africa, and through Arabia to Scindh. 

10. TAVERNIERA. 

Taverniera, DC. Mem. Leg. 339, t. 52; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 511. 
A small genus of desert species inhabiting south-west Asia, 

T. sericophylla,Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 510. Tab. XIX. 

Suli'ruticosa argenteo-sericea; foliis alterne trifoliolatis dense sericeis; foliolis ellipticis ; stipulis 
inagnis late amplexicaulibus non-scariosis. 

Siiilrutex lignosus prorsus argenteo-sericeus ramis abbreviatis stipulorum baseisque persistenti- 
bus gerentibus. Folia alterne trifoliata petiolata 1^-2 poll, longa, petiolo \-% poll, longo 
geniculato et apice articulato subpersistente ; foliola subcrassa mollissirna elliptica obtusa 
ssepe stibapieulata sinuata involuta J-l poll, longa j^— \ poll, lata, terminali petiolulato. 
Slipuke in squamas subovatas late amplexicaules nonscariosas oppositifolias £ poll. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUB. 79 

longas apice bifidas connatse. Eacemi breves 1^ poll, lougi 3-4-flori ; pedicelli ^ poll 
longi ; bracteolee obsoletse. Flores mox decidui. Calyx £ poll, longus extus sericeus, lobis 
subaequalibus apice setosis tubo parum longioribus. Corolla puniceo-purpurea ; vexillum 
£ poll, longum subrotundatum carina triente brevior. Ovarium biovulatum sericeum ;. 
stylus filiformis puberulus ovario dimidio longior. Zegumen ignotum. 

Soeotra. On sandy spots near the sea at Galonsir, and on Kadhab plain. 
B.C.S. nn. 103, 338. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very distinct species. Most members of the genus are unifoliolate, and 
from the trifoliolate species, which are T. lappacea, DC. (Prod. ii. 339), from 
Nubia, T. Stocksii, Boiss. (Flor. Orient, ii. 509), from Beloochistan, and T. 
Spartea, DC. {loc. cit.), a Persian plant, the Socotran form is readily distinguished 
by its dense silvery silky covering, and by its large persistent not scarious 
stipules. We do not know the fruit of our plant, and a first glance might 
suggest its being an Indigofera, for like plants of that genus it contains a 
quantity of brilliantly coloured purple juice, easily expressed on squeezing the 
leaves ; but it wants the hairs of Indigofera, and the stamens are not gland - 
tipped. 

11. ORMOCAKPUM. 

Ormocarjoicm, Beauv. Flor. d'Ow. et Ben. i. 95, t. 58 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 515. 

A small genus of, often glutinous, shrubs, one species of which is spread in 
Asia and Africa, three are peculiar to tropical Africa, two are Mexican, one is 
found in Australia, and one is Socotran. 

O. cseruleum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 511. Tab. XX. 

Fruticosum; foliis imparipinnatis subsessilibus, foliolis 5-7 crassis glabris medio subtus 
porpbyreo puberulo excepto; racemis brevibus paucifloris, pedicellis tenuibus sub floribus 
bibracteolatis; calyce glabro ; corolla caerulea. 

Frutex 10-pedalis ramis glabrescentibus erectis lignosis nunc paucifoliosis nunc spinosis angu- 
latis et rugosis, juvenilibus terminalibus quadrangulatis elongatis puberulis, lateralibus 
ssepe contractis. Folia imparipinnata \ poll, longa subsessilia v. brevissime petiolata 
(forsan petiolo ^ poll, longo subtiliter puberulo) mox decidua ad ramos laterales conferta ; 
foliola 5-7 sessilia v. subsessilia \— £ poll, longa \ poll, lata v. mulfco minora oblongo- 
elliptica v. obovata v. obcuneata crassa, supra glabra glanduloso-punctulata cum jugo 
medio caualiculato sursum evanescente, infra per aream mediam similem porpbyreo-colorata 
subtiliterque puberula. Stipule parvse ^ poll, longa? sublanceolatee v. ovatae subacuminatae 
striata? margine membranacese. Eacemi axillares breves § poll, longi pauciflori seel saepe 
abortu uniflori cum flore pseudoterminali ; rhacbis puberula 4-5-articulata nodis tumidis 
quoque cum 1-2 oppositis striatis puberulis subovatis v. ellipticis concavis -J poll, longis 
bracteolis instructo ; pedicelli tenues \-^ poll, longi ; iuvolucrum bibracteolatum, bracteolis 
calycis basim amplectentibus. Calyx \ poll, longus extus glaber, lobis tubo longioribus 
superioribus 2 subconnatis obtusis, caeteris lanceolatis. Corolla caerulea mox decidua ; 
vexillum \ poll, longum. Ovarium \ poll, longum stipitatum ; stylus -^ poll, longus. Leg%- 
men perfectum non vidi sed immaturum breve glabrum venosum multoque compressum. 



80 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Nom. Vern. Hamerhamere. 

Socotra. Not uncommon on the plains and on the hill slopes at low 
altitudes. B.C.S. nn. 80, 98, 293, 485. Schweinf. nn. 375, 498. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A small shrub with beautifully coloured flowers. Its habit varies much 
with locality. On the limestone plains it forms a woody shrub bearing few very 
small leaves and short branches with a tendency to become spinose. Whilst 
in more favourable situations on the better soil of the hill slopes, it has long 
delicate less woody branches. A very curious feature in the plant is the 
coloured patch on the under surface of the leaves. This is spread over an area 
exactly similar to the extension on the upper surface of a median ridge which 
tapers off into the midrib near the apex of the leaf. 

It is quite a distinct species. Probably its nearest ally is 0. Kirkii, S. 
Moore (in Trim. Journ. Bot, N. S. vi. (1877), 290), a plant collected in Somali 
Land by Kirk and at Zanzibar by Hildebrandt ; but it is a subaculeate form, 
and wants the coloration on the under surface of the leaf. 

12. ARTHROCARPUM. 

Arthrocarpum., Balf. fil. in Proc. Hoy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 510. 

Calycis decidui tubus brevis, interne angustus subcylindricus, supra ovarium connivens, lobi in 
labia 2 sequilongia dispositi, superior 4-dentatus latior, inferior integer angustior. Corolla 
basi calycem adboerens ; vexillum orbiculatum, unguiculatum ; ake obliquiter oblongte, 
transverse plicatse ; carina angusta, incurva, obtusa, alas subaequans, petalis vix cobterenti- 
bus. • Stamina omnia in vaginam supra fissam connata, calycem adbserentia, filamentis non 
dilatatis ; autberee uniformes. Ovarium sessile, co -ovulatum, in tubo calycis inclusum; 
stylus filiformis, longissimus, leviter curvatus, stigmate minuto terminali. Legumen 
compressum, sericeo-pubescens, inter semina constrictum, articulis subellipticis utrinque 
alatis et bi-trinervoso-angulatis lignosis, endocarpio spongioso. Semina anguste obovoidea, 
stropbiolata. — Arbor parva. Folia imparipinnata foliolis paucis exstipellatis. Stipube 
persistentes. Flores flavi axillares, solitarii v. rarius cymosim biui. Involucrum 4-bracteo- 
latum, persistens. 

A new monotypic and endemic genus of the Iledysarece. It has all the 
characteristics of the sub-tribe JEscliynomeneaz, and in general facies as well as 
in many technical characters closely resembles the group of American genera 
including Ckcetocalyx, Nixsolia, &c. With the foregoing genus, Ormocarpum, 
it has also very strong affinities. From all the genera in the sub-tribe, 
however, it is distinguished by the very remarkable character of the calyx. 
The base of this is cylindrical, and forms a tube in which is included the ovary, 
and at the base of the style the tube is slightly constricted, again expanding 
upwards. Up to the top of the basal part of the tube the corolla and stamens 
are completely adherent to the calyx, and for a short distance above the con- 
stricted throat the corolla and stamens adhere. The whole appearance is thus 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 81 

not unlike an epigyny. This is quite an exceptional feature in the tribe, 
and with other characters is sufficient to warrant the constitution of this 
new genus. 

A. gracile, Balf. fil. (loc. cit). Tab. XXI. 

Arbor 30-pedalis ramulis strictis angulatis tenuibus pubescentibus. Folia 1^-lf poll, longa 
petiolata (petiolo £ poll, longo) ; foliola 5-7 longe obovata et ad basim attenuata breviter 
petiolulata Jpl poll, longa obtusa emarginata v. apiculata iritegra supra glabra viridia 
subtus albida v. pallidiora obscureque puberula. Stipulce ^ poll, longse subulatae pubeso 
entes. Pedicelli tenues strigulosi ^-| poll, longi ; bracteolse involucri imbricatse late 
obovatae cuspidatae ^ poll, longae extus pubescentes. Calyx extus adpresse puberulus, 
tubo \ poll, longo, labio superiore oblongo \ poll, longo, inferiore lanceolato. Corollm 
vexillum vix \ poll. diam. Ovarium glabrum breve -j\y poll, longum pauciovulatum ; 
stylus glaber \ poll, longus exsertus. Lcgumen breve f poll, longum £ poll, latum 2-5- 
articulatum sed saepe abortu 1-articulatum. 

Nom. Vern. Heimha (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the hills near Tamarida and elsewhere. B.C.S. nn. 368, 
449. Schweinf. n. 511. 
Distrib. Endemic. 
A very beautiful tree, and the only species of the genus known. 



13. ZORNIA. 

Zornia, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1076 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i 518. 

A small genus of American distribution, but with one south and west 
African species, and another (the plant in Socotra) polymorphous one, found 
everywhere in the tropics. 

Z. diphylla, Pers. Synops. ii. 318 ; Baker in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 158, 
and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 147 ; Benth. in Mart. Flor. Bras. xv. i. 80, tt. 
21, 22. 

Socotra. On Haghier near Hadibu plain. B.C.S. n. 258. 

Distrib. Everywhere in the tropics. 

The Socotran plant is the commonest Asiatic and African form, with the 
leaflets of the lower leaves small and, ovate, and those of the upper ones 
lanceolate and linear. 

14. DESMODIUM. 

Desmodium, Desv. Journ. Bot. i. (iii. 1813), 122, t. 5, f. 15 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 519. 
TRANS. ROY. S0C. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. L 



82 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

A very large genus of tropical regions in both hemispheres, a few species 
extending into extra-tropical zones. 

D. triflorum, DC. Prod. ii. 334 ; Baker in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 166, 
and in Hook Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 173. 

D. triflorum, B., Wight Ic. t. 292. 

Socotra. Not uncommon. B.C.S. n. 471. 
Distrib. Cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

15. ALYSICARPUS. 

Alysicarpus, Neck, ex Desv. Jo-urn. Bot. i. (iii. 1813), 120, t. 4, f. 8 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 522. 

A genus generally distributed in tropical Asia and Africa. One species, 
that found in Socotra, is now common in America. 

A. vaginalis, DC. Prod. ii. 353 ; Baker in Oliv. Flor Trop. Afr. ii. 170, 
and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 158. 

A. Harnieri, Schweinf. Reliq. Kotsch. 24, t. 19. 

Socotra. Occasional weed. B.C.S. n. 380. Schweinf. n. 495. 

Distrib. Tropics of old world. In America, introduced. 

The form of this somewhat variable plant which occurs in Socotra, is that 
described as a species under the name A. nummularifolium, DC. (loc. cit). 
It occurs both in the state with long delicate inflorescences and in that with 
clustered flowers. 

16. TERAMNUS. 

Teramnus, Swartz Flor. Ind. Occid. iii. 1238, t. 25 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 530. 

A tropical genus of four species, of which two are American, and two 
are Asiatic, one of them reaching Africa. 

T. labialis, Spreng. Syst. Veg. iii. 235 ; Baker in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 
180, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 184. 

var. mollis, Baker in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 184. 

Glycine mollis, Wight Ic. t. 168. 

Kennedya arabica, Hochst. et Steud. in herb. Schimp. Arab. Sect. i. n. 900. 

Socotra. At Tamarida and Galonsir. B.C.S. nn. 143, 243. Schweinf. 
n. 287. 

Distrib. Tropics of both hemispheres. 

The Socotran plant is clothed with long spreading hairs, such as occur in 
the variety mollis, and in the type of Kennedya arabica, Hochst. et Steud. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 83 

17. ERYTHRINA. 

Erythrina, Linn. Gen. n. 855 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 531. 

A world-wide genus in warmer regions, containing only a few species. 

Erythrina sp. 

A species of Erythrina occurs on the island. It is a plant, so far as our 
specimens show, with a thin very fibrous bark bearing strong dark-brown 
prickles, slightly decurved, f inch long, clothed at the base with a short grey 
tomentum. The leaves, of which we have but a few, are all obtuse and emar- 
ginate, wide and suborbicular. Unfortunately we have no flower, and the 
material is not sufficient for determination. 

Socotra. Hills south from Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 653. 

18. CANAVALIA. 

Canavalia, Adans. Fam. ii. 325 (Canavali) ; DC. Mem. Leg. 375 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 537. 
A small genus of wide distribution in the tropics. 

C. ensiformis, DC. Prod. ii. 404 ; Baker in Oliv. Trop. Afr. ii. 190, and in 
Hook. Flor. Brit Ind. ii. 195. 

C. polystachya, Schweinf. Reliq. Kotsch. 25, t. 20. 
Dolichos gladiatus, Jacq. Icon. Bot. t. 560. 

Nom. Vern. Dhoodha (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the hill slopes. Not uncommon. B.C.S. n. 424. 

Distrib. Tropics generally. 

19. VIGNA. 

Vigna, Savi Mem. Phas. iii. 7 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 539. 
A widely dispersed tropical genus. 

V. luteola, Benth. in Mart. Flor. Bras. xv. i. 194, t. 50, f. 2 ; Baker in 
Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 205, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 205. 

Nom. Vern. Habetli (B.C.S). 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 377. Schweinf. nn. 462, 500. 

Distrib. Cosmopolitan in the tropics and at the Cape. 

20. CYLISTA. 

Cylista, Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 1, iii. 512; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 542. 

A monotypic genus, very near Rhynchosia, but distinguished therefrom by 
its peculiar membranous irregular calyx ; hitherto known only in the Indian 
peninsula and in Mauritius. 



84 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

C scariosa, Ait. (loc. cit.) ; DC. Prod. ii. 410 ; Baker in Hook. Flor. Brit. 
Ind. ii. 219; Roxb. PI. Cor. i. 62, t. 92. 

Nom. Vern. Sedhat (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. A not uncommon twiner on the hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 382. 
Schweinf. n. 534. 

Distrib. Of the genus. 

In Baker's account of the British Indian Leguminosse, the Indian peninsula 
alone is mentioned as a habitat for this plant. But in Kew Herbarium I find 
a single specimen labelled " Ins. Maurit., Telfair." It is not, however, referred 
to as a Mascarene plant in Baker's Flora of Mauritius and Seychelles. 

The Socotran plant, which has a more falcate and less widely expanded odd 
calyx-lobe, and thinner and less hairy leaves than in the Indian and Mascarene 
type, is an interesting find, forming a centre connecting the extreme areas of 
distribution of the species as hitherto known. 

21. RHYNCHOSIA. 

Rhynchosia, Lour. Flor. Cochinch. 460 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 542. 

A large genus of the warmer regions of the globe. Some species are extra- 
tropical in South America and south Africa. One Socotran species is 
cosmopolitan in the tropics, the other is a tropical African and south-west 
Asiatic species. 

1. R. minima, DC. Prod. ii. 385 ; Baker in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 219, 
and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 223 ; Benth. in Mart. Flor. Bras. xv. 204, t. 54, 
f.2. 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. nn. 145, 266. Schweinf. n. 712. 
Distrib. Cosmopolitan in the tropics. Cape and United States. 

2. R. Memnonia, DC. Prod. ii. 386 ; Baker in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 
220, and in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 224 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 625. 

R. puherulenta, Stocks in Hook. Kew Journ. Bot. iv. (1852), 147 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. 

Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 17. 
Dolichos Memnonia, Delile Flor. Egypt. 110, t. 38, f. 3. 

Socotra. On the hill slopes. Common. B.C.S. n. 458. Schweinf. n. 
801. 

DisTitiB. Tropical Africa, Arabia, and Scindh. 

The Socotran plant is the form found in Arabia and Scindh, which has been 
described as R. 2>ulverulenta by Stocks. This Baker refers to De Candolle's 
tropical African species, and I think rightly. It differs from the type R. Mem- 
rnonia in its less whitely pubescent and less prominently veined leaves, in the in- 
florescence, calyx-teeth, and the coloration of the seeds, and also in having smaller 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 85 

pods. From extreme forms exhibiting these differences, there appears to be a 
complete series of transition stages to the type ; the most constant of all the 
differences is the colour on the seed coat, which in true R. Memnonia is mottled, 
in R. pulverulenta is monochrome. 

22. CASSIA. 

Cassia, Linn. Gen. n. 514 ; Beuth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 571. 

A large genus, widely dispersed in warm and tropical countries of both old 
and new worlds, especially abundant in the latter. Of the five species in 
Socotra, two are tropical cosmopolitan, one is common in the old world tropics, 
and two are tropical African and south-west Asiatic and Indian. 

1. O. Sophera, Linn. Sp. 542; DC. Prod. ii. 492; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. 
ii. 274 ; Baker in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 262. 

C. chinensis, Jacq. Icon. Bot. t. 73. 

Socotra. Common about villages on the plains. B.C.S. n. 5. Schweinf. 
n. 384. 

Distrib. Cosmopolitan in the tropics. Said to be indigenous only in Asia. 

Most of the Socotran plants have small leaves and fewer leaflets than usual. 
Boissier says it is frequent in the vicinity of Mascate on the Arabian coast. 
Schweinfurth notes "leguminibus teretibus ! " on his specimens. 

2. C. Tora, Linn. Sp. 538 ; DC. Prod. ii. 493 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 275 ; 
Baker in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 263. 

Socotra. In the vicinity of villages. B.C.S. n. 658. 
Distrib. Cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

3. C. Obovata, Collad. Hist. Cass. 92, t. 15a ; DC. Prod. ii. 492 ; Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 277 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 631 ; Baker in Hook. Flor. Brit. 
Ind. ii. 264. 

Socotra. Near Tamarida. Schweinf. n. 335. 

Distrib. Tropical Africa, and from Arabia eastwards to the Indian 
peninsula. 

Schweinfurth, who has alone got this from Socotra, tickets it as " aff. C. 
obovatse sed foliis carnosulis aliisque notis diversa," but it appears to be only 
this species. 

4. C. holosericea, Fresen. in Flora 1839, 54 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 
278 ; Franch. Sert. Somal. in Miss. Bevoil 30. 

Senna ovalifolia, Batka Monog. Senn. 35, t. 4. 



86 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Socotra. Common on the plains about villages. B.C.S. n. 654. 
Schweinf. n. 330. 

Distrib. Nile Land and Arabia to Scindh. 

5. C. Absus, Linn. Sp. 537 ; DC. Prod. ii. 500 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 
279 ; Baker in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 265. 

Socotra. Not common near kabitati ons. B.C.S.n. 655. 
Distrib. Common in the tropics of the old world. 

23. TAMARINDUS. 

Tamarindus, Linn. Gen. n. 46 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 581. 

Monotypic. The only species now cultivated everywhere in the tropics. 

T. indica, Linn. Sp. 48 ; DC. Prod. ii. 488 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 308 ; 
Baker in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 273. 

T. officinalis, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4563. 

Nom Vern. Sobha (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. A few trees in several localities. B.C.S. n. 414. 

Distrib. Of the genus. 

24. ENTADA. 

Entada, Adans. ex DC. Mem. Leg. 419, tt. 61, 62 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 589. 

A small genus, chiefly of African species, a few are American, and one is a 
common tropical weed. 

Entada sp. 

A beautiful and graceful tree, of which our material is too fragmentary to 
permit identification, is provisionally referred to this genus. It has some 
resemblance with Acacia pennivenia, Schweinf. (see page 88), and the inhabitants 
of Socotra give to it the same name. The following is a brief description, so 
far as our specimens allow : — 

Arbor gracilis glabra rarnis elongatis pendulis leviter verrucosis ; foliis tenuibus bipinnatis 
3| poll, longis, pinnis 2-3-jugis 1£ poll, longis, foliolis 11-17 oppositis v. suboppositis v. 
alternis oblanceolatis v. obcuneatis sessilibus glaucis \-fy poll, longis ^V~8 P ^- ^ a ^ s > 
stipulis non-spinosis caducis. 

Nom Vern. Tomhor (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the slopes of Haghier. B.C.S. n. 635. 

25. DICHROSTACHYS. 

Dichrostachys, DC. Mem. Leg. 428, t. 67 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 592. 

A small genus of tropical Africa and Asia, and also found in Australia 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 87 

D. dehiscens, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 511. Tab. XXII. 

Fruticosus ; ramulis foliisque juvenilibus pubescenti-hirtis; pinnis 2-5-jugis glandulis stipi- 

tatis, foliolis 8-15-jugis oblongis obliquis ; spicis cylindraceis ; legumine debiscente. 
Frutex glabrescens ramis teretibus ramulisque juvenilibus angulosis pubescenti-hirtis axillari- 
bus saepe spinosis. Folia ungue molli terminata pinnis 2-5-jugis rhaebi cum glandulo 
umbilicato stipitato inter jugas instructa; foliola sessilia 8-15-juga obliqua oblonga sub- 
mucronulata \ poll, longa. Flores in spicas densas solitares axillares pedunculatas 1£ 
poll, longas congesti. Bractece scapboideae minutse ciliatae calyci subaequilongae. Calyx 
minute dentatus ^ poll, longus breviter ciliatus. Corolla ^ poll, longa deltoideo-lobata, 
petalis per partem superiorem quartam liberis ; glandulae staminibus breviores. Stamin- 
odia contorta. Ovarium breviter stipitatum villosum. Lcgumen planum rectum v. vix 
tortuosum oblanceolatum, 1£ poll, longum £ poll, latum 4-5 ad apicem pedunculi conferti , 
valvis extus pubescentibus sublignosis maturibus recur vis Semina £ poll. diam. exalbum- 
inosa. 

Socotra. On Kadhab and Hadibu plains. B.C.S. n. 365. Schweinf. n. 689. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

The facies of this plant is decidedly Dichrostacyoid, yet it is not without 
violence to the generic character that it is included in the genus. Like all the 
genera of the Mimosean tribe Adenantherece, this genus has exalbuminous 
seeds. It has also a dehiscent thick legume. Now in both these characters our 
plant differs from the generic type, and resembles the genera of the tribe Pipta- 
deniece, and in that tribe its nearest ally is Piptadenia itself. But as the whole 
habit, the presence of neuter flowers at the base of the spikes, and the stipitate 
glands between the pairs of pinnae on the leaves are so characteristic of 
Dichrostachys, and as Piptadenia is essentially an American genus, having only 
three specific representatives in the old world, we have placed our plant in the 
genus Dichrostachys. 

26. ACACIA. 

Acacia, Willd. Spec. PI. iv. 1049 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 594. 

A vast genus of warmer regions, especially abundant in Australia and 
Africa. There are three species in Socotra, and of them two are endemic, and 
the third, as yet imperfectly known, is probably also endemic. 

1. A. socotrana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 511. 
Tab. XXXIII. 

Suffruticosa glabrescens ; spinis primum tomentosis rectisque, demum glabris apiceque lente 
recurvis foliis aequilongis ; pinnis 7-8-jugis, foliolis 10-20-jugis parvis oblongis obtusis ; 
involucello pedunculi persistente ; legumine stipitato foliis duplolongiore marginibus planis 
valvisque velutinis nervosis lignosis. 

Suffrutex spinosus cortice papyraceo glabrescens. Rami subprostrati, ramuli juveniles pubes- 
centes v. subtomentosi. Spina} stipulares f— 2 poll, longi primum tomentosae rectae demum 
glabrae albidae apiceque lente recurvatae subfusco-nigrae. Folia bipinnata apice subspinosa 
rhachi pubescente prope basim glandula unica concava substipitata pilis radiatis cincta 
instructa; pinnae 7-8-jugae subspinosae; foliola 10-20-juga oblonga obtusa subtus pallidiora 



88 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

£ poll, longa. Pedunculi axillares 1-3-conferti pubescentes | poll, longi. Involucellum 
5-lobatum. Capituhtm globosum. Florcs pilosi. Calycis dentes subciliati rotundati 
■^ poll, longi. Corolla \ poll, longa, petalis in parte superiore quarta liberis laciniis 
deltoideis. Legumen stipitatum 4-5f poll, longum £ poll, latum compressum vix lente 
curvatum v. fere subfalcatum ad extremitates ambos angustatum subtorulosum, margini- 
bus planis, valvis lignosis intus septulatis extus convexis obscure lineari-venosis. Semina 
6-8 globosa fusco-nigra. 

Nom. Vern. Sumach (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the plains near the sea on the north side of the island, 
especially in the vicinity of Delishi. B.C.S. n. 191. Schweinf. n. 260. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This gummiferous acacia is a very distinct species, referable to the vicinity 
of A. abyssinica, Hochst. (Benth. Monog. Mimos. 510), and A. nubica, Benth. 
(loc. cit. 511), the habitats of which are indicated by their names. The last 
mentioned, however, probably extends into Arabia, about Mascate. Our plant 
may be readily distinguished from A. abyssinica, by its shorter petioles, long 
spines equalling the leaves, and by the woody and velvety valves of the pods. 
From A. nubica its flat-margined pod-valves, as well as the long spines, separate 
it. Bentham (loc. cit.) notes that Mimosa orfata, Forsk. (Flor. ^Egypt. Arab. 
177), must be near his A. nubica, but its spines are described as equalling in 
length the leaves. By this character it would approach more nearly our 
Socotran plant. 

The bush is very common on the plains in many places. About Delishi, a 
village east from the Hadibu plain, there are a great number of plants, and there 
it is that the inhabitants collect the gum in quantity. The gum exudes in tears, 
and is called " Sumach," the same name as is given to the bush. Although 
they collect gum, the only use, so far as I could learn, to which they put it is in 
making ink. It is a simple process. Some soot is mixed with water, and to 
the mixture a little powdered gum added. A small split stick serves as a pen. 

For further remarks on the gum, see Appendix and Introductory Chapter. 

2. A. pennivenia, Schweinf. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). Tab. 
XXIV. 

Arbor ramis glabris fuscis ; foliis glaberrimis 2-3-pinnatis glandulis nullis ; foliolis laxe 
7-9-jugis oblongo-obovatis nervo fusco medio dimidiatis venis utrinque 3-4-pinnatis ; 
floribus albis in capitula racemum laxum formantia v. subpaniculatim dispositis, involucello 
infra medium basin versus pedunculi griseo-tomentosi subcaduco ; calycis lobis rotundato- 
ciliatis; corolla calyce dimidio longiore; staminibus exsertis ; legumine ignoto. 

Arbor 30-pedalis glaber. Rami fusci inermes lenticellis verrucosi, juveniles adventi angulosi 
nigri spinis binis stipularibus fuscis rectis divaricatis £-£ poll, longis basi incrassatis et 
connatis armati, fertiles congesti trifoliosi. Folia glaberrima 2-3-pinnata rhachi subalata 
3 poll, longa basi incrassata glandulis nullis ; pinnae 2-3-jugae 2£ poll, longae laxe et 
alterne v. opposite 15-20-foliolatre; foliola \-^% poll, longa \ poll, lata oblongo-obovata v. 
eubobcuneata obtusissima v. emarginata basim versus gradatim acutata sessilia v. subsessilia 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOK BAYLEY BALFOUR. 89 

insequilateralia subcrassa nervo medio fusco dimidiatis venis utrinque 3-4-pinnatis ; folia 
ad ramos spinosos minora foliolaque pauciora. Pedunculi axillares griseo-tomentosi 
f— | poll, longi ad apices ramorum defoliatorum pseudofasciculati, fasciculi racemum 
laxum formantes v. subpaniculati. Involucellum annulare trilobatum puberulum sub- 
caducum. Capitula globosa ; bracteolse spatbulato-lineares apice ciliatae. Mores albi 
inodori. Calyx -^ poll, longus bracteas sequans, lobis rotundatis brevissimis ciliatis. 
Corolla \ poll, longa, lobis oblongis obtusis tubo dimidio brevioribus. Stamina triente 
corollam excedentia. Ovarium stipitatum glabrum ; stylus infra apicem affixus dimidio 
ovario longior. Legumen ignotum. 

Nom. Veen. Tamhor (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. A handsome tree of the hill slopes of Haghier. B.C.S. nn. 
212, 345. Schweinf. nn. 459, 519. Hunter n. 17. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

We only obtained specimens of this handsome tree in leaf, and with unde- 
veloped flower buds, and whilst I could not identify it as a described species, I 
hesitated to found a new one upon our imperfect material. Schweinfurth 
fortunately got specimens in full flower, which warrant the constitution of a new 
species, and I have adopted the name he has suggested. 

The plant belongs to the gummiferous section of the genus. Perhaps its 
nearest allies are, as Schweinfurth points out, A. arabica, Willd. (Sp. iv. 1085), 
and A. Wightii, Baker (in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 298). In the inflorescence, 
size of flower, ciliated calyx, and unarmed flower-branches, it comes especially 
near A. arabica, though it has more numerous flowers in the heads, and more 
stamens in each flower. In A. horrida, Willd. (Sp. iv. 1082) there is an 
inflorescence such as our plant shows, and in A. nilotica, Desf. (Cat. Hort. 
Par. ed. ii. 208, A. vera, Willd. Sp. iv. 1085), unarmed flowering branches are 
seen. The exact affinities cannot, however, be determined until we obtain fruit 
and seeds. 

Like many plants from this region it shows adventitious twigs differing very 
markedly from the adult form, possessing features which are probably those of 
the young seedling plant. Only on such twigs (B.C.S. n. 345, Schweinf. n. 459) 
do we find spines ; the ordinary branches of the adult plant are characteristically 
bare of them. 

Camels are particularly fond of the twigs of this tree. 

3. Acacia sp. 

We have specimens in leaf of another species of Acacia belonging to the 
gummiferous section of the genus. It is a small dwarf spiny shrub of the lime- 
stone plains near the sea. We collected it near Galonsir. Our guides told us 
it was one of the gum-trees. I have not been able to match it with any 
described species, and our fragmentary specimens do not permit of a new 
specific determination. Schweinfurth, to whom I sent a portion, supposes it to 

TRANS. ROY. S0C. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. M 



90 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

be an Aden species, probably A. eburnea, Willd. But I cannot find in Kew 
Herbarium any Aden plant like it, and it is very different from A. eburnea as 
there represented. 

The following is a description so far as is possible : — 

Suffrutex glaber ramis albidis striatis ; spinis stipularibus nitentibus albis apice nigris divaric- 
atis rectis foliis sequilongis v. longioribus ; foliis bipinnatis, pinnis 1-jugis rhacbi sub 
strumis villosa ; foliolis 2-3-jugis \ poll, longis oblongis obtusis crassis glabris. Cast, 
ignot. 

Socotra. On the plains near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 96. 

Order XXVII. CRASSULACE^E. 

A considerable family, chiefly found in temperate and cooler regions of 
Europe, west Asia, south Africa, and North America. Of the two Socotran 
genera, one has a wide distribution over the globe, the other has a maximum in 
south Africa, but extends into Asia, and even to Brazil. 

1. TILL^EA. 

Tillcea, Linn. Gen. n. 177 J Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 657. 
A cosmopolitan genus. 

T. pentandra, Royle Illust. Bot. Himal. 222 ; Britten in Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. ii. 386 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 412. 

Soeotra. Common on the hills. B.C.S. n. 560. Schweinf. n. 599. 
Distrtb. Across tropical Africa and on the Himalayas and Nilghiris. 

2. KALANCHOE. 

Kalanchoe, Adans. Fam. ii. 248 ; Bentb. et Hook. i. 659. 

A small genus, chiefly of tropical and south Africa, but ranging into 
tropical Asia, and one species reaches Brazil. Three of the Socotran species 
are endemic, and the fourth is south African. 

1. K. rotundifola, Haw. Phil. Mag. 1825, 81; Harv. Flor. Cap. ii. 379. 

Nom. Vern. Bugulhan (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the higher parts of Haghier. B.C.S. n. 472. Schweinf. 
n. 752. 

Distrib. South Africa. 

I have not seen Haworth's description nor his specimens, and the identifica- 
tion is made on the basis of Harvey's statement. He, however, says, " I am 
uncertain whether this be Haworth's plant or not." Whether the plant referred 
to under this name by Harvey be Haworth's species or no, certain is it that 
our Socotran plant is the same as Harvey's Cape one. So that, if eventually 
Haworth's plant be proved to be a different species, it will not invalidate the 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 91 

identification of a Socotran with a south African plant in this genus, which 
comprises such very local forms. 

This Socotran plant we brought to England living, and it flowered at 
Kew in June 1881. 

2. K. farinacea, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 512. 

Caulescens glauca caule subtereti saspe procumbente ; foliis obovato-orbicularibus integris 
sessilibus subfarinaceis ; inflorescentia terminali bipartim corymboso-paniculata compacta; 
corollas tubo £— f^ poll, longo ; staminibus corollis vix asquilongis ; squamulis linearibus 
obtusis integris ; carpellis tubo corollse asquilongis. 

Glauca. Caulis erectus v. primum procumbens 6-12-pollicaris transverse rugosus subteres. 
Folia 1^-2 poll, longa circa 1 poll, lata omnino obovato-orbicularia integra apice obtusa 
interdum eraarginata sessilia late inserta, juniora farinacea. Inflorescentia terminalis com- 
pacta corymboso-paniculata rhacbi glauca quadrangulari vix alata ; bracteolas minutas sub- 
ulatas ; pedicelli \ poll, longi. Calyx ^ poll, longus ad medium 4-fidus, segmentis triangul- 
aribus incrassatis concavis erectis. Corolla flammea, tubo \ - f 2 poll, longo glabro, 
limbi lobis oblongis ellipticis £ poll, longis acutis apice brunneo-punctatis. Stamina 
corolla? vix"a3quilonga. Squamulce lineares apice obtusas et rotundatas integras albas ^ poll, 
longas. Carpella tubum corollas asquantia glabra angusta ; ovarium \ poll, longum in 
stylum persistentem gradatim attenuatum. 

Socotra. Common on the limestone plains of the higher parts of the 
island. B.C.S. n. 521. Schweinf. n. 753. Hunter n. 15. 
Distrib. Endemic. 
A distinct species of the upper plains, occupying the crevices rotted in the 
limestone. It is now growing at Kew. 

3. K. robusta, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 512. 

Caulescens erecta valida glauca ; Eoliis ad apicem caulis crassi aggregatis late insertis spathul- 
atis magnis integris; floribus in terminales tbyrsoideos paniculos dispositis ; corollas tubo 
circa 1 poll, longo ; staminum filamentis tubo corollas brevioribus versus apicem abrupte 
attenuatum ; squamulis latis suborbicularibus integris ; carpellis corollas asquilongis. 

Erecta robusta ramosa pedalis v. sesquipedalis. Caulis validus teres griseus rugosus basi saspe 
1£ poll. diam. Folia 1£-2| poll, longa 1-1£ poll, lata ad apices ramorum evoluta elliptica 
v. oblonga obtusa sursum angustata basi in petiolum brevem attenuata glauca marginibus 
rubescentibus. Inflorescentia terminalis paniculata glauca ; pedicelli £ poll, longi. Calyx 
4-partitus segmentis acumiaatis £ poll, longis glabris v. sparsim glandulosis. Corolla 
cinnabarina, tubo 1\ poll, longo angusto subglabro, segmentis \ poll, longis \ poll, latis 
oblongis cuspidatis. Stamina exserta. Squamulce rotundatas subcrenatas ^ poll, longas. 
Carpella 1£ poll, longa glabra ; ovarium f poll, longum. 

Socotra. On the plains at the east end of the island only. B.C.S. n. 151. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very clearly marked species. Of this one we brought home living speci- 
mens ; one of these has flowered in the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, 
and from it our description is taken. 
• 



92 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

4. K. abrupta, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Edin. xi. (1882), 512. 

Caulescens erecta robusta, caule tereti griseo rugoso ; foliis ad apices ramorum evolutis ellipticis 
v. oblongis obtusis vix petiolatis glaucis ; inflorescentia terminali paniculata ; corollee tubo 
1£ poll, longo angusto ; staminibus exsertis ; squamulis rotundatis subcrenatis ; carpellis 
corolla3 aequilongis. 

Erecta perennis pedalis v. sesqupedalis. Caidis crassus teres fulvus saepe £ poll. diam. nonnuti- 
quam sed rarius ramosus transverse rugosus basi nudus apice foliis vestitus. Folia 3£-4 
poll, longa 1^-lf poll, lata omnino spathulata apice obtusa rotundata basi attenuata et late 
inserta glauca. Inflorescentia terminalis erecta valida glabra tbyrsoideim et opposite ramosa 
ramis in corymbosas cymas divisis, rhachi terete ; bracteolee obovatae ; pedicelli crassi \- £ 
poll, longi. Calyx 4-partitus £ poll, longus lobis crassis remotis acutis. Corolla subinfundi- 
buliformis flanimeo-rubra, tubo £ poll, longo, limbi lobis \ poll, longis rotundatis cuspidatis 
crassis. Stamina omnia tubo corollas breviora, filamentis versus apicem abrupte attenu- 
atis. Squamulce breves late lateraliter expansae albidae integrae crassae. Carpella |- poll, 
longa glabra ; ovarium \ poll, longum. 

Socotra. Only on the plains towards the eastern end of the island. 
B.C.S. n. 512. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another new species of the stoutly caulescent group. It has the peculiar 
feature, which I do not find described in any other species, of the staminal 
filaments abruptly thinning into slender threads a short distance below the 
anther, so that they have an appearance as if there were an articulation 
at that point. 

Order XXVIII. LYTHRARIE^. 

A small family represented in all parts of the world. Two of the Socotran 
genera have the distribution of the order, the third is essentially Persian, but 
is now, by cultivation, found in all parts of the globe. 

1. AMMANNIA. 

Ammannia, Linn. Gen. n. 155 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 776. 

A genus of species inhabiting marshy and moist regions of the warmer 
and tropical regions of the globe. Of the two Socotran species, one is an old 
world tropical form, the other is south-west Asiatic. 

1. A- baccifera, Linn. Sp. 175 ; Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 478 ; 
Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 569. 

A. indica, Lamk. Illustr. i. 311 ; DC. Prod. iii. 77. 
A. verticillata, Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 743. 

Socotra. About Galonsir, Tamarida, and elsewhere. B.C.S. n. 511. 
Schweinf. nn. 230, 488, 688. 

DlSTBlB. Warmer regions of the old world. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 93 

2. A. multiflora, Roxb. Flor. Ind. i. 426; DC. Prod. iii. 79; Boiss. Flor. 
Orient, ii. 743 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 570. 

A. senegalensis, Lamk., var. multiflora, Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 477. 

Soeotra. Near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 714. 

Distrib. India, Afghanistan, Persia, and tropical Africa ? 

I am not certain that the tropical African plants are this species. 

2. LYTHRUM. 
Lythrum, Linn. Gen. n. 604 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 779. 
A cosmopolitan genus. 

L. hyssopifolium, Linn. Sp. 642 ; DC. Prod. iii. 81 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, 
ii. 739 ; Jacq. Flor. Austr. ii. 20, t. 133. 

Soeotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 699. 

Distrib. Widely spread over the globe. Absent from India. 

3. PUNICA. 

Punica, Linn. Gen. n. 618 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 784. 

The genus Punica, presenting as it does a most peculiar feature in fruit 
structure, has been the subject of much investigation, and its position and 
affinities have been frequently debated. The plant from Soeotra which we 
refer to this genus differs in a very remarkable way from the type of the 
genus in the fruit-character which has been its most distinguishing feature 
hitherto, and thus necessitates a modification in the generic description 
which I shall now notice. I shall, however, only say so much here regarding 
the structure of the fruit as may be required to explain the difference in the 
types, and as will suffice for a basis of a few remarks on the systematic 
position of the genus. In the Appendix will be found a fuller morphological 
account of the genus. 

The true structure of the fruit was first satisfactorily indicated by Lindley 
(Introd. Syst. Nat. (1830, 64), and his account has been the basis of all 
subsequent explanations, the subsequent detailed work of Payer and Berg 
confirming the essentials of his description. The structure briefly is, — there 
are two rows of carpels, an upper, comprising five or more, with parietal 
placentas, and a lower of three or four, with central placentation. There 
appear, therefore, in the fruit to be two tiers of carpels superposed, each 
containing many seeds arranged on placentas of different position in the tiers. 
Development shows that these two tiers of carpels are primarily concentric 
whorls, the upper being at first outside the other ; but in the evolution of the 
carpels the external whorl is carried upwards, and eventually lies above the 
other. An interesting further modification is described by Payer (Organogenies 



94 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

467) in a variety cultivated in Paris as Punica granatum flavum, in which 
three tiers of carpels are found, and these are primarily concentric. 

Now in our Socotran plant there is but one row of five to seven carpels, and in 
each carpel there are numerous ovules which are arranged over the floor of the 
loculus. In fruit it is found that they are spread over the walls of the loculi to 
some extent, the base of the ovary, as it were, having grown upwards, just as 
it does in many species of Mesembryanthemum (Eichler Bliithendiagr. ii. 123, 
f. 46). There is no trace of a second whorl of carpels ; the only row present 
is that which becomes uppermost in the flowers with two and with three tiers; 
and it thus appears that we have in the Socotran plant a simpler condition of 
fruit of the type Punica than in the well-known pomegranate. 

A frequent supposition regarding the pomegranate is that its fruit 
structure is a monstrous condition developed in cultivation, and we know it 
has been in cultivation for a very long period. Wight and Arnott (Prod. 327) 
indeed suggest " perhaps in a truly wild state the upper or adventitious verticel 
of carpels may occasionally disappear." But even from the districts where it 
is presumed to be wild — Persia, Kurdistan, Afghanistan, and Beloochistan — (see 
Alph. De Candolle Origiue des Plantes Cultivees 1883, 189, for an interesting 
account of the source and early records of the pomegranate) — the pomegranate 
has been hitherto reported with the doubly verticillate carpels. Here, however, 
from Socotra we now have a type with a single carpellary whorl. We know 
so little of the flora of the adjacent Asiatic continent, and there are so many 
Socotran plants amongst those known therefrom, that it is not unlikely this plant 
may be found in that region. But, in any case, this plant having the facies so 
markedly of the pomegranate, differing indeed, except in fruit only in a few 
minor technical details, might, I think, be considered the type of the primitive 
stock whence Punica granatum, as it is known in cultivation, has sprung. A 
further point of considerable interest in the morphology of the carpels is the 
almost free condition of the ovary in the flower. In the pomegranate the 
ovary is inferior. This character, too. leads us back to an earlier stage in the 
evolution of the type. 

Punica was first placed in the natural system by Jussieu in Myrtacese, and 
his lead has been followed by many botanists, including Lindley (loc. tit), 
Meissner (Gen. 107), Endlicher (Gen. n. 6340), Berg (in Mart. Flor. Bras. xiv. 
1. 514), Baillon (Hist, des PI. vi. 330, 378), and Eichler (Bliithendiagr. 
ii. 488, some considering it deserving of a tribal distinction, others not con- 
ceding this. Again, Don (in Edin. New. Phil. Journ. 1826, 134) questioned 
Jussieu's allocation, remarking that the character of the fruit has been quite 
misunderstood (though his explanation which follows is indeed the most absurd 
of any that have been advanced), and proposed to make of it a new family, 
Granatese, of which the affinities he states are uncertain. This family of Don 
has been kept up by De Candolle (Prod. hi. 3), Martius (Mat. Med. Bras. 50) 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 95 

Wight (in an elaborate essay Illustr. ii. 2), Payer (loc. tit.), and Boissier (Flor. 
Orient, ii. 736). 

Bentham and Hooker (Gen. PI. i. 784) place it as an anomalous form in 
Lythrarieae, and, so far as I know, they are the first authors who have done so. 

In this account of the Botany of Socotra I have followed Bentham and 
Hooker, as a careful study of the whole question, in the light of our new 
Socotran plant, convinces me that their judgment is the correct one, and that 
Punica has its most natural position in Lythrarieae. Those who would have 
the genus as a distinct family find but little support in morphology. The 
fruit-character, upon which stress was laid, is now proved by this Socotran plant 
to be what Lindley long ago pointed out was the case, and Berg, Eichler, and 
others more recently have maintained, merely a special development of a con- 
dition comparable with that in the several families with which the genus has 
undoubted alliance. 

With Myrtaceae there is undoubtedly a very near affinity. The general facies 
of the plant encouraged its union, and Lindley placed it in the vicinity of 
Sonneratia, which he also included in the order. Of technical characters the 
inferior ovary is a strong myrtaceous feature ; but this character is disposed of by 
the discovery of our plant, and the differences separating Punica from Myrtaceae 
are several and important, viz. : — the valvate calyx, plicate petals, nonstamini- 
ferous disk, ovary not always inferior, pulpy seeds, and convolute cotyledons. 

The character of the ovules is one in which the genus approaches 
Melastomaceae in the tribe Memecylece, but the calyx and stamens are quite 
diagnostic. 

With Lythrarieae, in which it is here placed, it has a vast preponderance of 
features in common. The sepaline, petaline, and staminal characters which 
exclude it from Myrtaceae and Melastomaceae are just those of Lythrarieae, 
the superior or half superior ovary of our Socotran plant is a thoroughly 
Lythrarioid character, and breaks down the chief objection urged by Eichler 
to Bentham and Hooker's allocation. In the pulpy seeds and convolute 
cotyledons it is still an exceptional type in Lythrarieae, but Sonneratia, which 
is included by Bentham and Hooker in this order, shares with it the 
cotyledonary characters. So that the only aberrant condition of this genus, 
when placed in Lythrarieae, is the pulpy seed coat, and I therefore consider 
Bentham and Hooker's recognition of its affinity as the correct one. 

The discovery of our plant necessitates a recasting to some extent of the 
generic character, and this I now give :— 

Calycis persistentis crasse coriacei tubus turbinatus, angulatus, ampliatus, liberus v. ovario 
adnatus ; lobi 5-7. Petala 5-7, calycis fauci inserta, lanceolata v. obovata, corrugata. 
Stamiua perplurima calycis fauci multiseriatim inserta, filamentis filiformibus incurvis ; 
antherae versatiles, ovatae v. elliptic*. Ovarium liberuin sessile v. semi-inferum, v. inferum, 
multiloculare, loculis 5-7-seriatis fuudo ovulifero v. plurmis 2- rarissime 3-seriatim 



96 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

super-positis inferioribus axim versus, superioribus parietem versus, ovuliferis; stylus 
liexuosus v. rectus filiformis v. valid us, stigmate spongioso ; ovula placentis multiseriatim 
conferta. Bacca infera, sphaerica, calycis limbo coronata, cortice crasse coriaceo, rnultilocu- 
laris, loculis nunc verticellatis nunc irregulariter superpositis co-sperrnis, septis tenuibus. 
Semina majuscula angulata, testa coriacea pulpa aquosa induta; cotyledones foliaceae, 
spiraliter convolutse, basi 2-auriculatse; radicula brevissiina. — Arbuscula ramosa ramulis 
teretiusculis saepe spinesceutibus. Folia opposita subopposita et in ramulos brevissimos 
fasciculata, oblonga v. obovata, obtusa, integerrima. Flores breviter pedicellati, axillares, 
solitarii v. subfasciculati, ampli, coccinei. Pedicelli validi bibracteolati. 
Species 2, altera in oriente et in India boreali-occidentali indigena, late per regiones subtropicas 
culta, altera insulae Socotrae incola. 

P. protopunica, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 512. 
Tab. XXV. 

Arbuscula 10-pedalis glabra. Folia petiolata elliptica v. oblonga v. obovata 1£-1£ poll, longa 
|-1 poll, lata v. angustiora saepe £ poll, lata nonnunquam fere orbicularia et 2 poll, diani. 
obtusa subemarginata coriacea ; petiolus \ poll, longus. Pedicelli ^-^ poll, longi ; bracte- 
olae rotundatae sub floribus late insertae. Calycis lobi 5-7, \ poll, longi. Petala 5-7 obcord- 
ata v. obovata apice rotundata v. truncata emarginata basi acuta ^ poll, longa \ poll, 
lata. Antherw ellipticae. Ovarium superum v. seminiferum 5-7-loculare, loculis 1 seriatis ; 
stylus rectus validus basi paullum incrassatus ; ovula cujusque loculi fundum dense 
vestentia. Bacca 5-7-locularis 1 poll. diam. glabra nitida rubescens superne calycis limbo 
coronata apiceque umbilicata. Semina loculorum fundum lateraque obtegentia. 

Nom Vern. Rehina (B.C.S.). Eehane (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. A common tree on the higher parts of the Haghier range. 
B.C.S. nn. 263, 505. Schweinf. n. 506. Hunter. 

Distmb. Endemic. 

This is a very distinct and interesting species. Its phylogenetic and 
morphological importance has been referred to above, under the genus, and in 
the Appendix will be found an extended account of its morphologically 
interesting features. 

A small tree, it grows in abundance over the plateaux sloping southwards 
from the Haghier peaks. In general habit it is not unlike the pomegranate, 
but its leaves are larger and coarser, and it wants the delicate character of the 
foliage of that species. The flowers, too, are somewhat smaller, and their 
turbinate base is more angular. The fruit is very much less in size. 

We may, I think, with much probability, expect that this species will be 
found on the adjacent mainland of Asia. 



Order XXIX. ONAGRARIE^E. 

A considerable order, chiefly of temperate regions of the globe, more rarely 
found in the tropics. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOE BAYLEY BALFOUR. 97 

LUDWIGIA. 

Ludvngia, Linn. Gen. n. 153 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 788. 

A genus containing chiefly North American species, but a few are widely 
spread in the old world. 

L. palustris, Ell. Bot. Car. Georg. i. 211 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 752 ; 
Syme Eng. Bot. t. 510. 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 346. Schweinf. n. 636. 
Distrib. Europe, Cape of Good Hope, and North America. 

Order XXX. CUCURBITACE.E.* 

A large order, chiefly of tropical regions, of the whole world. All twiners 
except our Socotran plant. There are representatives of six genera in Socotra. 
One of these is endemic, one is tritypic with a species in Angola, one in central 
Africa, and one in Socotra ; a third is a Mediterranean, south-west Asiatic, and 
tropical African genus, whilst the three remaining are widely spread tropical 
or sub-tropical genera. 

1. EUREIANDRA. 

Eureiandra, Hook. fil. in Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 825. 

A tritypic genus, one species being found in Angola, one in central Africa, 
and the other in Socotra. 

E. Balfourii, Cogn. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). Tab. XVII, B. 

Caule glabro ; petiolo brevissime sparseque puberulo demum glabro ; foliis utrinque breviter 
sparseque aspersis demum albo-callosis plerumque leviter 3-5-lobatis, lobis ssepius triangul- 
aribus apice subacutis ; floribus progenere parvis,masculis brevissime racemosis subfascic- 
ulatis ; calycis tubo late infundibuliformi subcampanulato, staminum filamentis glabris ; 
ovario oblongo ; fructu ovoideo-subfusiformi, apice longiuscule acuteque rostrato. 

Caulis gracilis angulato-sulcatus levis cinereus. Petiolus satis gracilis striatus levis vel 
demum interdum leviter rugosus %-2\ poll, longus. Folia tenuiter membranacea ambitu 
ovata supra lsete viridia subtus paulo pallidiora 3-6 poll, longa et fere totidem lata 
rarius fere usque ad medium lobata, lobis margine undulato-crenulatis mucronulatisque, 
mediano paulo longiore ad basim non constricto ; sinus basilaris subrectangularis |-1£ 
poll, profundus latusque. Cirrhi graciles elongati teretes glabri. Pedunculus communis 
masculus gracilis sulcatus leviter puberulus multiflorus £-l£ poll, longus ; pedicelli fili- 
formes recti puberuli §-f poll, longi. Calycis tubus puberulus longitudinaliter tenuissime 
nervosus superne satis dilatatus inferne longiuscule attenuatus £-£ poll longus et apice 
totidem latus ; segmenta linearia \— f poll, longa ^ poll. lata. Corolla subglabra, 
segmentis ovato-oblongis acutis 3-5-nerviis margine brevissime ciliatis | poll, longis. 
Staminum Qlamenta ad basim non dilatata ^ Q -\ poll, longa ; antherse biloculares apice 

* I am indebted to M. Cogniaux for the determination of some of the difficult forms and 
fragmentary specimens in our collection. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. N 



98 . BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

levitcr lobata) £ poll, longa: | poll, lataj. Florcs feminei solitarii vel rarius geminati. 
Staminodia lanceolata puberula ^ 6 poll, longa. Stylus subfiliformis i poll, longus 
Palioicultts fructiferus satis gracilis leviter flexuosus f-2 poll, longus. Fructus glaber 
leviter verrucosus inferne leviter attenuatus obtususque 2 poll, longus f poll crassus. 
Semina (immatura) ovoidea leviter compressa distincte marginata utrinque levia basi 
minute bidenticulata f - poll, longa ^— £ poll. lata. 

Nom. Vern. Daclisliana or Dichshani (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. A species spread over the island. B.C.S. n. 281. Schweinf. 
nn. 502, 541, 640, 647. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This dioecious plant M. Cogniaux has kindly determined and described for 
me. The female plant we did not obtain, but Schweinfurth sends two 
specimens of it (nn. 541, 747), and it is to this form the native name as given 
by him is applied. He labels them as probably Coccinea, upon which Cogniaux 
remarks — " Cette plante a assez le porte d'un Coccinea ; mais elle parait bien 
le pied femelle des nn. 502 et 640, qui ne peuvent se rapporter a ce genre, 
car ils ont les fleurs males a examines entierement libres et ins^re'es au milieu 
du tube du calice, tandis que les Coccinia ont les examines inserts au fond du 
tube au centre de la fleur, et les filets soud^s en colonne." Our specimens have 
no flowers. 

An interesting find, in view of the distribution of the genus, which has but 
two other representatives, as yet known from limited areas in tropical Africa. 

2. MOMOEDICA. 
Momordiea, Linn. Gen. n. 1090 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 825. 

A genus attaining its maximum of development in Africa, but a few species 
are dispersed over tropical and sub-tropical regions of both old and new 
worlds. One of the Socotran species is an old world one, now introduced in 
America, the other is cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

1. M. Balsamina, Linn. Sp. 1433 ; Ser. in DC. Prod. iii. 311 ; Hooker in 
Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 537 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 757 ; Clarke in Hook. 
Flor. Trop. Ind. ii. 617; Cogn. in DC Monog. Phanerog. iii. 439; Lamk. 
Illustr. t. 794, f. 1. 

Socotra. Near Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 698. 

Distrib. Africa, Asia, and Australia ; also America where it is introduced. 

2. M. Charantia, Linn. Sp. 1433 ; Ser. in DC. Prod. iii. 311 ; Hook. fil. 
in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 537 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 616 ; 
Cogn. in DC. Monog. Phanerog. iii. 436, 

var. abbreviata, Ser. in DC. Prod. iii. 311 ; Cogn. in DC. Monog. 
Phanerog. 437. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 99 

Soeotra. Near Galonsir. B.C.S n. 162. 

Distrib. Of both the species and variety, — through the tropics generally. 

3. CUCUMIS. 

Cucumis, Linn. Gen. n. 1092 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 826. 

A genus of the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the globe. The three 
Socotran species are all of south-west Asiatic and tropical African distribution. 

1. C ficifolius, Ach. Eich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, i. 294, t. 53 bis ; Cogn. in 
DC. Monog. Phanerog. iii. 493 ; Franch. Sert. Somal. in Miss. Revoil 32. 

C. Figarei, Delile Cat. Hort. Monsp. ex Naud. in Ann. Sc. Nat. s&\ 4, xi. (1859), 16 ; Hook. fil. 
in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 543 ; 

var. echinophorus, Naud. in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 4, xi. (1859), 16 ; Cogn. 
loc. cit. 494. 

Soeotra. Not uncommon. B.C.S. nn. 52, 169. Schweinf. nn. 359, 746. 
Distrib. Arabia and tropical Africa. 

2. C prophetarum, Linn. Sp. 1436 ; DC. Prod. iii. 301 ; Hook. fil. in 
Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 545 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 758 ; Clarke in Hook. 
Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 619 ; Cogn. in DC. Monog. Phanerog. iii. 495. 

Soeotra. Not uncommon. B.C.S. n. 682. 

Distrib. Tropical Africa, and through Arabia and Persia to India. 

3. O. dipsaceus, Ehrenb. in Spach Veg. Phan. vi. 211 ; Hook. fil. in Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 543 ; Cogn. in DC. Monog. Phanerog. iii. 500 ; Eev. 
Hortic. 1860, 209, c. ic. xyl. 

Nom. Vern. Thana (Schweinf.). 

Soeotra. At Tamarida. Schweinf. n. 435. 

Distrib. Arabia and tropical Africa. 

4. CITRULLUS. 

Citrullus, Schrad. in Eckl. et Zeyh. Enum. 279 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 826. 

A genus of two species inhabiting the Mediterranean region, west Asia, and 
tropical Africa. 

O. Colocynthis, Schrad. in Linneea xii. (1838), 414 ; Hook. fil. in Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 548 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 759 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. 
Brit. Ind. ii. 620 ; Cogn. in DC. Monog. Phanerog. iii. 510 ; Wight Ic. t. 498. 

Soeotra. Occasional about villages. B.C.S. n. 36. Boivin n. 1061. 
Distrib. In the Mediterranean region, tropical Africa, and western Asia. 



100 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

5. MELOTHRIA. 

Melothria, Linn. Gen. n. 50; Bentli. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 830. 

A considerable genus of the warmer regions of the globe, but most abundant 
in Africa. 

% M. punctata, Cogn. in DC. Monog. Phanerog. iii. 615. 

Zehneria scabra, Sond. in Harv. and Sond. Flor. Cap. ii. 486 ; Hook. fil. in Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. ii. 560. 

Socotra. Near Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 353. 

Distrib. South Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Abyssinia, and East Indies. 
A very poor specimen is doubtfully referred to this species by Cogniaux. 

6. DENDROSICYOS. 

Dendrosicyos, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 513. 

Flores monoici. Fl. £ fasciculati. Calycis tubus infundibuliformis, dentibus 5 patentibus 
lanceolatis integris. Corolla fauci calycis inserta ad basin 5-partita, segmentis lineari- 
lanceolatis integris. Stamina 3 ori calycis inserta, corollas adnata, filameatis liberis ; 
antlierse arete cohserentes, una 1-locularis, cetera? 2-loculares, loculis rectis, connectivo 
nonproducto. Ovarii rudimentum 0. Fl. ? . . . — Arbor parvus trunco magno atque 
ramis paucis ad apicern fasciculatis. Folia palmatim 5-lobata v. partita, aculeata, scabrida. 
Cirrbi 0. Flores $ magni, straminei. 

A very remarkable genus. Unfortunately I am not able to give a complete 
diagnosis. We brought to this country plenty of specimens, but they have 
been mislaid, and I am dependent therefore for my description upon some 
male flowers preserved in alcohol, and a fragmentary leafing specimen sent by 
Schweinfurth. Should our specimens be discovered, it may be possible in the 
Appendix to say something more regarding the character of the plant. 

Here I may state that by the habit of the tree, which shows a soft rapidly- 
tapering gouty stem, this genus is distinguished from all other Cucurbits, and 
forms a most exceptional one in the family. Its alliances I am, in the absence 
of female flowers, unable to determine. 

D. socotrana, Balf. fil. loc. tit. Tab. XXVI. 

Arbor podagrica trunco crasso succulento ssepe 3 ped. diam. albido corticali. Rami subpend- 
entes tenues plus minusve aculeato-scabridi rugosi, juveniles dense papilloso-aculeati. 
Folia sparsa 3 poll. diam. v. majora petiolata rotundato-cordata plus minusve 5-lobata 
palmatinervia margine dentata aculeata scabrido-papillosa, juvenilia palmatisecta lobis 
aculeatis scabridis et setis albidis nitidis vestita. Flores in fasciculos axillares breviter 
pedunculatos conferti, foeminei pauci centrales terminales, masculi plures extend basales ; 
pedicelli pubescentes striati ^-£ poll, longi ; bracteola? lanceolatce pubescentes J poll, 
longae. FL $ : — Calycis tubus f-1 poll, longus, lobis acutis £ poll, longis scabridis. Pdala 
acuta extus scabrida \ poll, longa. Staminum filamenta glabra £ poll, longa perfectorum 
latiora apiceque bifida; antherse oblong* £ poll, longae. Fl. ? : — Fructus glanduloso-hirsutus. 

Nom Vern. Gamha or Gamhen (Schweinf.). Camhane (Wellst). 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 101 

Soeotra. A tree found in many parts of the island. B.C.S. n. 210. 
Schweinf. n. 243. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Etym. AevBpov, tree and o-ikvos, cucumber. 

Schweinfurth had this growing at Cairo, but he tells me it did not thrive. 
The examination of the anatomy of the stem would be of great morphological 
interest, and I hope to have some specimens from Schweinfurth's plant, of 
which an account will be given in the Appendix. 

The tree never attains any great height, but its soft, bare, and stout stems, 
surmounted by a tuft of few slightly pendant branches, give it a weird and 
fantastic look possessed by only one or two other plants on the island, e.g., the 
Adenium midtijlorum, Klotzsch, and the Dorstenia gigas, Schweinf. Writing of 
this tree, Wellsted (in Journ. Eoy. Geog. Soc. v. (1835), 198) says : — "The most 
singular among the trees are two varieties which are called, in the language of 
the island, Assett and Camhane ; both grow in very rocky places, and derive 
nourishment from the soil lodged in cells and cavities. The whole diameter of 
their trunks consists of a soft, whitish cellular substance, so easily cut through 
that we could divide the largest of them with a common knife. Camels and 
sheep feed on the leaves of the Camhane, but reject those of the Assett. A 
milk-white juice exudes from the trunk and leaves of both, the nature of 
which is so acrid, that if it penetrates to the eyes the pain is almost intolerable. 
Several stems branch forth from the same family of roots, and the Assett 
trees mostly divide, at a short distance from the ground, into several branches. 
From the relative proportion between their height and diameter, and the few 
leaves of foliage borne by them compared to their bulk, the most singular and 
grotesque appearances are often produced ; some are not more than five feet in 
height, while their base covers a greater extent in diameter. Both varieties, 
during the north-east monsoon, bear a beautiful red flower. Since leaving 
Soeotra, I have met the same trees in the vicinity of Maculla, but I can find no 
mention made of them in any work within my reach." And again (page 141), 
he says that near Kadhab he saw " inscribed on the soft and yielding bark of a 
Camhane tree some Arabic inscriptions dated as far back as 1640." 

The Assett tree mentioned by "Wellsted is, I doubt not, the Adenium multi- 
jlorum, Klotzsch (q.v.). I do not understand Wellsted's remark that the 
flowers of the Camhane are red. All we obtained were yellow. One of the 
mountain tribes of Soeotra, according to Wellsted and Captain Hunter, bears 
the name of this tree — " Camahane." This tribe, which lives "in Haghier and 
the hills above the Hadibu plain, claims to have its origin from the intermarriage 
of the aborigines with the Mahri Arabs from the opposite coast." 

Amongst the few plants from the Arabian coast known to botanists, the 
Camhane does not occur. It may, as Wellsted states, grow on that coast, but 
in absence of confirmatory evidence, I here regard the plant as endemic. 



102 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Order XXXI. BEGONIACE^E. 

A family of only two genera, but many species, widely spread through the 
tropics of both old and new worlds. 

BEGONIA. 

Begonia, Linn. Gen. n. 1156 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 841. 
A vast genus, with the distribution of the order. 

B. socotrana, Hook. fil. in Gard. Chron. xv. n. s. (1881), 8, c. ic. xyl., 
and Bot. Mag. t. 6555. 

Erecta sparse patentim hirsuta ; foliis peltatis orbicularibus disco intruso infundibuliformi, 
marginibus recurvis crenatis ; floribus monoicis roseis; fl. masculis nunierosis perianthii 
segmentis 4 obovatis, staminibus in globum confertis, filamentis brevibus liberis, antberis 
clavatis recurvis apice rotundatis postice dehiscentibus ; fl. foemineis solitariis perianthii 
segmentis 6 elliptico-obovatis oblongis obtusis, stylis brevibus ramis patenti-incurvis non 
tortis, stigmatibus cordatis v. hippocrepibus linea papillosa conjunctis, ovario 2-gono 
3-loculari loculis alatis sed ala dorsali maxima, placentis integris. 

Bulbifera. Caulis validus et succulentus pauciramosa circa pedalis. Folia 4-7 poll. diam. 
longe petiolata, petiolo 6-9 poll, longo. Stipulcc subrotundatse deciduse. Flores in cymas 
(1-2 fceminei cum masculis plurimis in quaque cyma) laxas oppositifolias pauciramosas 
folia excedentes dispositi, pedicellis ultimis f poll, longis ; bracteis late ovatis v. subrot- 
undatis. Fl. $ saepe 1£ poll. diam. Fl. ? masculis minores. Fructus £ poll, longus 
alis membranaceis glabris. Semina foveolata. 

Nom. Vern. Saiberbher (B.C.S.). 

Soeotra. On the Haghier hills under the shade of boulders. B.C.S. n. 419. 
Schweinf. in lit. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This curious species is a plant of the higher regions of the granitoid Haghier 
hills, and is very striking on account of its orbicular leaves. We were fortunate 
to bring home bulblets in a living condition, and from those planted in April 
1880, several plants were raised in the Eoyal Gardens, Kew, and they flowered 
in December of the same year. From these plants Sir Joseph Hooker described 
the species. Writing of it from a horticultural point of view, Sir Joseph 
Hooker remarks that it flowers " at a season when such a plant is doubly 
welcome to the cultivator, as similar Begonias of the Andes, which make so 
magnificent a show in the conservatory during the summer and autumn months, 
are then all long past flowering. It is easily propagated by its bulblets, and as 
the Kew plants continued in flower for two months in a warm conservatory, it 
will doubtless prove a great favourite." The stock has been acquired by Messrs 
Veitch and Sons, of Chelsea, and the plant, which has obtained a first-class cer- 
tificate from the Eoyal Horticultural Society, has been introduced to the public. 

As to its affinities I may again quote Sir Joseph Hooker : — " From the 
geographical position of the island the affinity of this discovery may be con- 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 103 

jectured to be either Asiatic or African, and upon the whole, though referable 
to none of the sixty sections of the genus founded by Klotzsch and De 
Candolle, it must, I think, be placed in the African one of Augustia, from the 
character of which it differs chiefly in the male perianth having four segments, 
in the shorter filaments, rounded top of the anther, in the six lobes of the 
female perianth (instead of five), and the intwisted arms of the style — characters 
all of which, except the last, occur in the Natal B. geranioides, Hook. fil. 
(Mag. t. 5583), to which B. soeotrana is unquestionably closely allied." 

This plant is remarkable in the genus as being bulbiferous, and from the 
bulbs is easily propagated. These are quite different from the tubers of the well- 
known tuberous Begonias, and for an account of their structure see Appendix. 

Order XXXII. FICOIDE^E. 

A considerable tropical order. Of the five genera represented in Socotra, 
two are found all over the world in the tropics, two have a more limited old 
world distribution, and the fifth is a genus of sub-tropical regions and shore 
districts, attaining a maximum in south Africa. 

1. TETRAGONIA. 

Tetragonia, Linn. Gen. n. 627 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 854. 

A small genus, with a general range over the sub-tropical regions of the 
world, but attaining a maximum in south Africa. Only one species is known 
from tropical Africa, and there are none from the adjacent Asiatic coasts. 

T. pentaildra, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Herba glabra ramis longe patentibus ; foliis deltoideo-ovatis remotis; floribus binis axillaribus; 
staminibus quot tot calycis lobis ; nucumento pentagono obconoideo. 

Herbacea prostrata a collo ramosa, ramis tenuibus late patentibus sparse versus extremitates 
ramentaceis. Folia remota longe petiolata \\- 1-J poll, longa J— § poll, lata v. majora ovata 
v. deltoideo-ovata obtusa basi abrupte contracta in petiolum \— \ poll, longum rnembranacea 
viridia. Flores rninuti bini in axillis subsessiles. Calycis lobi sequales 5 oblongi obtusi 
subincurvi glabri margine membranacei. Stamina 5 filamentis subulatis ; antberse ellipt- 
icae. Styli 3 calyci sequilongi. Fructus obconoideus truncatus pentagonus apice convexus 
j^poll.longusl-locularisl-spermuSjpericarpiocoriaceoglabro. »Seme?i aitidum testa foveolata. 

Socotra. Near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 37. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Quite a distinct species of this genus, being distinguished from the majority 
of species by the small number of stamens, and from all by its small, obconoid, 
smooth, almost sessile fruits. With the south African T. microptera, Fenzl. 
(ex Harv. and Soncl. Flor. Cap. ii. 455), and T. echinata, Ait. (Hort. Kew. ii. 
177), it has probably nearest affinity, but the fruits are quite diagnostic. 



104 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

2. AIZOON. 

Aizoon, Linn. Gen. n. 629 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 854. 

A small old world genus of species mostly African, but occurring also in 
south Europe and western Asia. One is Australian. 

A. canariense, Linn. Sp. 700 ; DC. Prod. iii. 453 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. 
ii. 584 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 765 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 659. 

Soeotra. Common on the plains. B.C.S. n. 56. Schweinf. n. 349. 

Distrib. From the Canary Islands, through tropical Africa and Arabia, to 
Scindh. Also at the Cape of Good Hope. 

3. TRIANTHEMA. 

Trianthema, Linn. Gen. n. 537 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 855. 

A small genus of tropical and subtropical regions, chiefly of the old world, 
but occurring also in the West Indies. 

T. pentandra, Linn. Mant. 70 ; DC. Prod. iii. 352 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. ii. 588 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 766 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 660. 

Soeotra. Near Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 63. Schweinf. n. 367. 
Distrib. Tropical Africa, Persia, and north-west India. 

4. ORYGIA. 

Orygia, Forsk. Flor. ^Egypt. Arab. 103 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 856. 

Monotypic, the species being widely spread in warmer Africa (north and 
south), Arabia, Scindh, and India. 

O. decumbens, Forsk. Flor. ^Egypt. Arab. 103 ; DC. Prod. iii. 455 ; 
Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 755 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 589 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. 
Brit. Ind. ii. 661. 

Orygia mueronata, Klotzsch in Peters' Mossamb. 140, t. 25. 

Soeotra. Common on the plains of Galonsir, Hadibu, and elsewhere. 
B.C.S. n. 297. Schweinf. n. 521. 

Distrib. Pretty widely spread in tropical Africa, the Cape of Good Hope, 
in Beloochistan, Scindh, and India. 

5. MOLLUGO. 

Molhigo, Linn. Gen. n. 106 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 857. 

A small genus common in the warmer regions of both the old and new 
worlds. 

M. hirta, Thunb. Flor. Cap. 120 ; DC. Prod. i. 391 ; Clarke in Hook. 
Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 662. 

M. Glinus, Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, i. 48 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. ii. 590. 
Glinus lotoides, Linn. Sp. 663 ; Sibth. Flor. Grrec. t. 472 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 755. 



PHANEROGAM/E— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 105 

Soeotra. Near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 713. 

Distrib. Common in all warmer regions of the globe. 

Order XXXIII. UMBELLIFER.E. 

A very large order, most numerously represented in the temperate and 
cooler regions of the northern hemisphere. Five genera are found in Soeotra. 
One of these is endemic, and the others are genera of considerable range 
in both old and new worlds, or in the old world alone. 

1. HYDROCOTYLE. 

Hydrocotyle, Linn. Gen. n. 325 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 872. 

A large genus dispersed over the warmer and temperate regions of the globe. 

H. asiatica, Linn. Sp. 338 ; Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 6 ; Clarke 
in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. ii. 669 ; Wight Ic. t. 565. 

Soeotra. On the banks of many streams. B.C.S. n. 390. Schweinf. n. 590. 
Distrtb. Tropical and subtropical districts. 

2. NIRARATHAMNOS. 

Nirarathamnos, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 513. 

Calycis dentes minuti, acuti. Petala lata acumine longo bificlo induplicato, ob costam impressam 
emarginata. Discus margine subcrenato cum stylopodiis conicis confluens; styli breves. 
Fructus ovoideus, utrinque ad commissuram angustam constrictus; carpella 5-gona; juga 
primaria prominula, subaequalia, exalata ; vittte ad valleculas solitaries. Carpophorum 
bipartitum. Semen semiteres, ad vittas sulcatum, facie leviter concavum. — Suffrutex 
lignosus, rigidus, glaberrimus, aromaticus. Folia rotundata, margine revoluta, crenata, 
reticulato-venosa. UmbellcB compositae pauci-radiatae. Involucri et involucellorum 
bractese subfoliacece persistentes radiantes. Flores albo-virentes, pedicellati. 

A new monotypic genus, nearly allied to the naturally limited Bupleurum. 
Indeed the plant appears almost a member of that genus. But the form of 
its petals, the conical and not flattened stylopod, and the non-compressed 
fruit separate it sufficiently. The shrubby habit it presents is not common 
in Bupleurum, although it is occasionally seen. 

The name is derived from the hero of a legend connected with the spot 
where we discovered the plant. This is near the summit of the Sicante ridge 
of the Haghier range, in a gorge at an altitude of nearly 4000 feet. Spanning 
the chasm is a large granite boulder, regarding which the following legend, 
which I quote from an account of the island given by Captain Hunter in the 
Bombay Gazette for May 1876, is related : — ■" On the lofty granite peaks, in 
former times, there dwelt a ,man Nisara, with his wife Nowseoo. They were 
of gigantic stature, and each ate half an ox at every meal. They had a son 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 



106 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

named Nirara, in order to make a swing for whom his mother broke off a piece 
of the granite cliff, and cast it across a chasm between two peaks. From this 
lofty bridge she hung her infant's swing cradle." 

N. asarifolius, Balf. fil. loc. cit. Tab. VII, A. 

Suffrutex parvus caulibus tortuosis foliorum demissorum baseis incrassatis tubcrculatis. Folia 
If poll, longa radiatim venulosa supra glabra nitentia subtus glanduloso-punctulata ; 
petiolus \- £ poll, longus basi incrassatus sublignosus. Bractcce ovata?. Pedicelli ^ poll 
longi. Fntctus \ poll, longus \ poll, latus. 

Nom Vern. Dbehoma (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. Near the summit of Sicante, north from Tamarida, at 4000 feet 
elevation. B.C.S. n. 440. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A sweetly aromatic plant, exhibiting a strong tendency to form tricarpellary 
fruits. 

3. CAKUM. 

Carum, Linn. Gen. n. 365 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 890. 

A considerable genus, chiefly found in temperate and subtropical regions of 
the old world, but some species occur in America. Both Socotran species are 
endemic, and belong to a section of the genus spread through the Mediter- 
ranean region, Central Asia, India, and South Africa. 

1. C. (Trachyspermum) pimpinelloides, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. 
xi. (1882), 514. 

Glabrescens diffusum ; foliis petiolatis tripartitis. segmentis in lacinias lanceolatas acutas 
1-2-trifidis ; umbellis breviter pedunculitis oppositifoliis 5-8-radiatis ; bracteis 5-7 ; 
pedicellis 5-7 validis ; fructu oblongo v. suborbiculari, jugis prominulis glabris v. hispidis, 
commissura multo constricta. 

Herba pusilla vix \ V e &- alta diffusa a basi ramosissima caulibus parurn striatis primum sparsim 
pubernlis demum glabris. Folia inferiora longe petiolata 1 poll, longa in segmenta trifida 
v. bifida I poll, longa tripartita v. bitripartita, superiora minora tripartita segmentis trifidia 
laciniis lanceolatis acutis, glabrescentia ; petiolus basi expansus amplexicaulis vagina 
ciliata. Umbcllm terminales oppositifolue (pedunculis 1\ poll, longis) 5-8-radiata3 radiis 
brevibus vix \ poll, longis ; bractese involucri angustse lineari -lanceolate 5-7 persistentes 
herbaceae puberulo-ciliatie radiis sequilongse ; pedicelli angulati validi 5-8 in fructu breves 
vix fructui tequilongi; bracteolaa pedicellis multo breviores. Petala ciliata acumine bifido 
staminibus breviora. Fructus oblongus et glaber v. elliptico-orbicularis cum jugis promin- 
ulis undulatis hispidis, vittis solitariis, commissura angusta valde constricta, stylis deflexis 
longis, stylopodio conico. 

Socotra. On the shore between Kadhab and Galonsir. B.C.S. nn. 367, 
459, 504. 

Distrib. Endemic. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 107 

A species having a near alliance with C. dichotomum, Benth. and Hook. (Gen. 
PI. i. 891), a plant of Morocco, which differs, however, in its pinnatisect leaves, 
its umbels, and its fruit. 

Our plant we gathered only in one locality, and our specimens show con- 
siderable variation. In some the fruit is quite glabrous and the ridges are 
prominent, somewhat undulate and rough. An examination of these under a 
sufficient magnifying power shows that they are covered with a number of 
irregular projections like undeveloped hairs. 

In another set of specimens (n. 459) these processes have developed into 
short firm hairs, curved at the apex, and the whole fruit is thus somewhat 
hispid. 

A third series (n. 564) shows the hispid character of the fruit very clearly, 
and even in the ovary in a very young condition this feature is exhibited. 
Along with this character is associated a tendency in the lower leaves to be cut 
into longer and more linear segments ; the upper leaves are occasionally linear 
and undivided, and the primary rays of the umbels are elongated and exceed in 
length the bracts. In all of these characters there is an approach to the next 
species we describe from the island — C. calcicolum, Balf. fil. 

2. O. (Trachyspermum) calcicolum, Balf: fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. 
(1882), 514. 

Glabrescens nudum erectum, caulibus angulosis ; foliis basalibus longe petiolatis in lacinias 
longas lineares tripartitis v. bitripartitis, superioribus filiformibus sessilibus ; umbellis longe 
pedunculatis oppositifoliis 2-4-radiatis, radiis bracteis 2-4 multo longioribus, pedicellis 
8-12 tenuibus ; fructu ovoideo, jugis nonprominulis hispidis, commissura non multo con- 
stricta. 

Herba gracilis erecta 9 poll, alta dichotome ramosa depauperata. Caules primum puberuli 
demum glabrescentes internodiis elongatis. Folia pauca, radicalia circa 2 poll, longa 
longe petiolata in lacinias ^ poll, longas angustas lineares acutas integras tripartita v. 
bitripartita glabra, superiora ssepe filiformia basi dilatata amplexicaulia. Umbellce. 
oppositifolise pedunculis 1|— 2 poll, longis sparsim puberulis ; radii primarii 2-4 in fructu 
capillares ^ poll, longi striati bracteis 2-4 lineari-filiformibus berbaceis puberulo-ciliatis 
triplo-longiores, secundarii 8-12 in fructu £ poll, longi bracteolis breviores. Petala 
ciliata acumine integro acuto. Fruchis dense hispidus jugis non prominulis, valleculis 
uuivittatis, commissura constricta sed non angustata ; stylis deflexis, stylopodio conico. 

Socotra. Very common on the limestone plains near the sea. B.C.S. nn. 
190, 357. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very slender annual, greatly depauperate, which differs from the type of 
the last species in habit, in its angular and purple stems, its few linearly cut 
leaves, the few primary branches of the umbels much longer than the bracts, 
and in its densely hispid fruit without a much narrowed commissure. 

As I have mentioned, under the last species there are forms of it which 



108 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

approach this species in many characters. And we have likewise a specimen 
(n. 190), undoubtedly of this species, which by its somewhat contracted and 
stouter habit affords a step towards the foregoing. It may be that these are 
forms of one species, but as there is no complete transition, I have kept them 
distinct. 

4. FCENICULUM. 
Fosnimlum, Adans. Fam. PL ii. 101 ; All. Flor. Pedem. ii. 25 ; Beuth. et Hook. Gen. PI. i. 902. 
A small genus, including species in cultivation all over the world. 

F. vulgare, Gartn. Fruct. i. 105, t. 23, f. 5 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. 
Ind. ii. 095 ; Wight Ic. t. 515. 
F. officinale, All. Flor. Ped. ii. 25 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, ii. 975. 

Nom Vern. Kommor (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. Cultivated at Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 456. 

Distkib. Cultivated widely. 

5. PEUCEDANUM. 

Peucedanurn, Linn. Gen. n. 339 ; Bentli. et Hook. Gen. PL i. 918. 

A vast genus, chiefly spread in the northern hemisphere of both worlds, but 
also found in South America and South Africa. 

P. cordatum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 544. 

Annuum glabra m erectum; foliis bipinnatisectis, segmentis latis planis plerumque sessilibus 
palmatim trifidis, laciniis acute dentatis v. subincisis membranaceis ; umbellis primariis 
10-20-, secundariis 8-12-radiatis ; fructu pedicello breviore elliptico basi alte-cordato, 
vittis vallecularibus solitariis, cornmissuralibus biuis approximatis, alis fructui a?quilatis. 

Herba annua erecta circa 2-pedalis, radice fusiformi cauleque pallido tereti striato vix ramoso. 
Folia longe petiolata basi dilatata amplexicaulia, radicalia fere pedalia, caulina 4 poll, 
louga, pinnatisecta 3-jnga, pitinis infimis pinnatisectis petiolulatis, supremis subsessilibus 
et incisis segmentis planis latis magnitudine variantibus nunc 2 poll, nunc f poll. diam. 
lateralibus palmatim trifidis terminalibus sa;pe purpureis, laciniis acute dentatis v. subin- 
cisis basi subcordati3 v. subcuneatis v. borizontaliter expansis inoequalibus glabris 
subpunctulatis membranaceis margine subtiliter revolutis. Umhellarum rhacbis 3-5 poll, 
longa rarius sub umbellis ramosa ; umbelke primaria3 10-20-radiatse radiis in fructu 
1-lf poll, longis, secundaria; 8-12-radiatao radiis J— | poll, longis. Invohicra et 
involucella circa 8-pbylla phyllariis herbaceis subulatis obtusis. Flores ignoti. Fructus 
\ poll, longi pedicellis breviores elliptici basi cordati ad faciem commissuralem albido- 
furfuracei glabri, alis subasquilatis, jugis prominulis, vittis vallecula3 angustis solitariis, 
commissural binis latis approximatis. 

Socotra. Common on the hills. B.C.S. n. 290. Schweinf. n. 572. 
Distkib. Endemic. 

A broad-leaved species, easily distinguished from others in the genus by the 
manner of cutting of the leaves, and especially by the cordately based fruits. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 109 



GAMOPETALJEL 

Order XXXIV. RUBIACE^. 

A vast natural order, represented in Socotra by nine genera. One of these 
is endemic, and one is a small genus of a limited range in Madagascar and 
east tropical Africa; four are spread over the warmer regions of the world, 
one of them having a maximum in temperate regions ; and three are old world 
genera, two of which are however restricted to the Mediterranean region and 
Western Asia. 

1. DIRICHLETIA. 

Dirichletia, Klotzscb in Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berol. 1853, 494, and in Peters' Mossamb. Bot. 
tt. 4*7, 48 ; Beuth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 56. 

A small genus, consisting now of seven species, inhabiting east tropical 
Africa, Madagascar, and Socotra. Four species are found in Socotra, no less 
than three being endemic, and the fourth is a Somali Land plant. 

The development of this genus in Socotra is exceedingly interesting, and 
the discovery of our specimens enables us to complete the generic description 
in Bentham and Hooker's Genera Plantarum, and also necessitates slight 
emendation of the generic characters. In the only species of which we have 
flowers these are dimorphic, and possibly this is characteristic of the whole 
genus. The calyx limb is dilated into a wing, sometimes 5-lobed ; the lobes of 
the corolla and the stamens are often five. The disk is often quite glabrous, 
and the style is often-four cleft. The testa is very tough and the albumen 
may be fleshy. The following, then, is the amended generic character : — 

Calycis tubus parvus, obconicus ; limbus in laminam arnplissimam reticulatum concavam 
obliquam late unilabiatam v. 4-5-lobatain excrescens, membranaceus, persistens. Corolla 
infundibularis v. tubulosa, tubo gracili elongato fauceque intus glabro v. piloso ; limbi 
lobi 4-5, breves, triangulares, reduplicatim valvati. Stamina 4-5, infra faucem corolke 
inserta, filamentis filiformibus ; antberaa inclusae, dorso affixse, liueari-oblongae, utrinque 
obtusae. Discus tumidus glaber v. pubescens. Ovarium 2-loculare ; stylus filiformis 
inclusus ramis 2-4 undique papillosis ; ovula in loculis pauca, ad apicem placentae carnosse 
columnaris a basi loculi adscendentis sessilia. Fructus coriaceus irregulariter debiscens, 
oblongus, incurvus, 2-locularis, loculis 1-spermis. Semina erecta, oblonga, obtusa, testa 
coriacea, albumine corneo v. carnoso ; cotyledones foliaceae ; radicula cylindrica. — Suffrut- 
ices ramosi, ramulis 4-gonis, pubescentes v. tomentosi. Folia opposita, petiolata mem- 
branacea, ovato-lanceolata, nervosa, nervis obliquis. Stipulae 3-cuspidatae v. 3-5-setosae. 
Flores dimorphici in cyrms terminale= corymbosas dispositi. 



110 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

1. D. glaucescens, Hiern. in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 51. 
Soeotra. On Haghier hills south from Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 477. 
Distrib. Somali Land. 

A small branching bush, of which we obtained specimens with foliage leaves 
only, appears to be this species. 

2. D. venulosa, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 834. Tab. 
XXVII, C. 

Fruticosa; foliis oblongis v. oblongo-lanceolatis basi angustatis vix petiolatis acutis v. obtusis 
coriaceis margine revolutis, subtus venulis nigris perspicuis nervoque medio sparse 
puberulo; seta media stipulari lateralibus triplolongiore; floribus brevissime pedicellatis ; 
fructu glabro disco promiuulo convexo, calycis limbo expanso foliaceo panduriformi nigro- 
venuloso nitido. 
Frutex 10-pedalis v. minor. Rami omnes elongati glabri. Folia 1-2 poll, longa \-\ poll, lata 
versus extremitates ramorum disposita oblonga v. oblongo-lanceolata nonnunquam sub- 
obovata basi angastata vix petiolata acuta v. obtusa saepe subcuspidata margine obscure 
crenata revoluta coriacea subtus venulis nigris perspicuis venisque primariis sparse puber- 
ulis. Stipulm vagina parva cuspideque centrali lateralibus duplolongiore. Mores dimorpb- 
ici in paniculos parvos terminates breviter pedunculatos dispositi; pedicelli brevissimi 
vix -^2 poll, longi. Calyx accrescens. Corollm tubus elongatus apice ampliatus intus 
birsutus £ poll, longus, limbus 4-5-lobatus lobis apice subbamato-inflexis villosis \ poll, 
diam. Antherce leves glabrae. Discus glaber. Stylus 2-4-fidus lobis supra papillosis 
Fructus 2- rarius 3-locularis £ poll, longus turbinatus calycis limbo dilatato foliaceo panduri- 
formi acuto saepissime nigriter 3-venuloso \ poll, longo discoque convexo promiuulo coron- 
atus. Seminum testa lenta, albumine carnoso. 
Nom. Vern. Shohat (B.C.S.). 

Soeotra. Only on the higher parts of Haghier. B.C.S. n. 320. 
Schweinf. n. 616, in part. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

Very distinct from all the African and Madagascar species. In the short- 
styled flower the style is divided into four short subulate lobes, but in the long- 
exserted-styled flowers there are three lobes, which are longer and recurved. 

3. D. lanceolata, Balf. fil. in. Proc. Boy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 835. 

Fruticosa parva ramulis tomentosis ; foliis lanceolatis v. elliptico-lanceolatis sessilibus v. sub- 
sessilibus vaginis amplis acutis coriaceis supra subnitidis nervis puberulis subtus pubesc- 
entibus ; cuspide media stipulari lateralibus triplolongiore ; floribus breviter pedicellatis ; 
fructu pubescente disco paruin convexo, calycis limbo expanso elliptico acuto foliaceo 
coriaceo puberulo. 

Frutex parvus ramis ultimis pubescentibus ramulisque omnibus elongatis. Folia lanceolata v. 
ovato-lanceolata acuta lf-2£ poll, longa 3£-l£ poll, lata sessilia v. subsessilia versus 
extremitates ramulorum solum apparentia, margine integra v. obscure crenata v. revoluta, 
basi lamina petiolo brevi adnata, subtus pallidiora nervis pubescentibus caeteroquin 
puberula. Slipula; vagina ampla cuspideque media lateralibus triplolongiore. Flores in 
paniculos pubescentes deusos terminales aggregati ; pedicelli breves ^ poll, longi. Calyx 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. Ill 

in fructn accrescens unilateraliter in laminam expansam ^ poll. diam. ellipticam acutara 
coriaceam opacam venulosam scabro-puberulam dilatatus. Fructus puberulus \ poll, longus 
sub calyce expanso et disco glabro vix convexo coronatus. 

Socotra. On Haghier hills south from Tamarida and elsewhere. B.C.S. 
n. 422. Schweinf. n. 616, in part. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another distinct species, differing from the other Socotran ones by its 
pubescence, and therein resembling Klotzsch's Mozambique D. pubescens (in 
Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berol. 1853, 495, and in Peters' Mossamb. Bot. t. 48 ; 
Hiern. in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 51), from which it is readily diagnosed by its 
leaves and fruits. 

4. D. obovata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 835. Tab. 
XXVII, A. 

Fruticosa ; foliis obovatis breviter petiolatis truncatis emarginatis saepe mucronatis rarissime 
acutis crassiusculis coriaceis, supra nitidis, venulis ultimis inconspicuis, margine obscure cili- 
atis ; seta media stipulari lateralibus duplolongiore ; floribus capillariter pedicellatis ; fructu 
glabro disco piano, calycis limbo expanso membranaceo pellucido-punctulato venuloso nitido. 

FrutexlO-pedaliscauleerectosuperneramoso. Rami cortice cinerascente ramulos lateralesplurim- 
os saepissime contractos gerentes, juveniles puberuli. Folia 1—1^ poll, longa |--| poll, lata 
breviter petiolata obovata truncata emarginata saepe mucronata v. augustata obtusa rariss- 
ime acuta, margine obscure ciliata vix revoluta coriacea glabra supra nitida venulis ultimis 
inconspicuis. Stipulce conspicuae cuspide centrali maxima. Flores in fasciculos parvos 
terminales breviter pedunculatos 7-10-floros subumbellatos dispositi, bracteas primaries 
foliaceae stipulatae ; bracteolae minutae, pedunculi ^-\ poll, longi ; pedicelli capillares J- § 
poll, longi saepe puberuli. Calyx in fructu accrescens unilateraliter et circumcirca expansns 
et alam supernam \-\ poll. diam. 1-5-lobam v. integram subpeltatam membranaceam non- 
nunquam glabram pellucido-punctulatam venulosam nitidam formaus atque cum disco sub- 
piano fructum coronans. Fructus sub calyce ^ poll, longus turbinates saepe basi carneus. 

Socotra. Common everywhere on the hills. B.C.S. n. 172. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

This is one of the commonest little shrubs on the island, and is widely 
distinct from all known species. 

var. albescens, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). Tab. 
XXVII, B. 

Ramis albescentibus ; foliis ad ramulos laterales contractos plurimis confertis lanceolatis 

v. oblanceolatis acutis valde revolutis crassiusculis ; floribus saepe solitariis ; pedicellis 

longissimis tenuibus; calyce in fructu plerumque concavo. 

Nom. Vern. Sehat (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. On the plains about Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 592. Schweinf. n. 250. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This plant, I think, must be taken asa variety of the foregoing species. It 
is on the limestone plains about Galonsir one of the commonest shrubs, and it 
differs from the hill form chiefly in those features which are characteristic of 



112 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

dry plain plants, — shortened lateral branches with clustered leaves, hard some- 
what brittle wood, and leaves more fleshy. The pedicels, too, are here longer 
than in the hill form. 

2. PLACOPODA. 
Placopoda, Balf. til. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Ecliu. xi. (1882), 835. 

Calycis tubus parvus, obconicus ; limbi lobi 4, breves, acuti, asquales, persistentes, dentibus 
minutis fere obsoletis interjectis. Corolla tubulosa, tubo brevi intus piloso ; limbi lobi 4, 
breves, triangulares, valvati. Stamina 4, infra faucem corollas inserta, filameutis brevibus 
subulatis ; antheroe inclusas, dorso affixse, lineari-oblongoe, utrinque obtusse. Discus 
tumidus, crenatus, glaber. Ovarium 2-locidare ; stylus filiformis, exsertus, ramis 2 uudique 
papillosis ; ovula in loculis pauca 2-3, in apice placentas carnosae colunmaris a basi loculi 
adscendentis sessilia. Fructus corneus, indebiscens (?) compresso-campanulatus, parum 
bialatus, lateribus trinerviis nervis elevatis, 24ocularis, loculis 1-spermis. Semiua vertic- 
alia, oblonga, obtusa, cylindracea, testa minute corrugata, albumine carnoso ; cotyledones 
angustaa ; radicula teres. — Suffrutices ramosi, ramulis 4-gonis, pubescentes proventu glabri. 
Folia parva, petiolata, subcrassa, elliptico-oblonga, in ramulis brevissimis verticillatis fas- 
ciculata. Stipulse minutissimae. Flores in cymas umbellatas simplices terminales dispositi. 

A most interesting genus is this monotypic one, and the more so from the 
great development in Socotra of Dirichletia, with which it is very intimately 
connected. Like that genus it differs from all other Hedyotidea? in the mode 
of attachment of the ovule. The placenta forming a stout support rising from 
the base of the ovarian loculus, on the summit of which is seated the ovule. 
From Dirichletia its fruits at once distinguish it, for we do not find the 
persistent calycine wing so characteristic of the genus ; but we have here a 
(possibly indehiscent) small compressed ribbed fruit, on the top of which the 
small calyx lobes are visible. 

Etym. 7r\a£, anything flat or broad, and ttovs, foot. 

1. P. vigata, Balf. fil., loc cit. Tab. XXVIII. 

Suffruticosa virigata ramulis rectis divaricatis ; foliis plurimis fasciculatis ellipticis v. obovatis 
petiolatis. 

Sufi'rutex parvus ramis ultimis elongatis rectis laterales ramulos plurimos gerentibus cum 
foliis pluribus ad apices fasciculatis. Folia breviter petiolata 8-12 in quoque fasciculo 
elliptica v. oblongo-elliptica v. obovata acuta v. obtusa et apiculata \— \ poll, longa ^ poll, 
lata (petiolo^g poll, longo) margine revoluta, glabra coriacea Flores inter folia fasciculati 
ad apices ramulorum lateralium ; pedicelli capillares -^-\ poll, longi. Calycis lobi ovati 
subacuti ■£% poll, longi glabri. Corollce tubus £ poll, longus. F'ructus \ poll, longus 
\ poll, latus glaber nitidus. 

Nom. Vern. Difeth (Schweinf). 

Socotra. Abundant on the plains. B.C.S. n. 25. Schweinf. n. 476. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

A very distinct plant, and characteristic of the plains ; especially abundant 
on lladibu plain. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 113 

var. nana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Nana ramis validioribus et ramulis brevibus prostratis ; foliis plerumque minoribus paucioribus 
et solum 2-5 in quoque fasciculo distincte obovatis crassiusculis. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 86. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A form of this species with quite a different appearance from the type, but 
which cannot be separated as a species. The plant branches with no long rigid 
twigs, and the smaller leaves few in each cluster, are very characteristic. 

3. HEDYOTIS. 

Hedyotis, Linn. Gen. n. 118 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 56. 

A large genus of the warmer regions of the globe. The three Socotran 
species are endemic, and present some curious features. One of them is very 
nearly an Oldenlandia, as that genus is distinguished from Hedyotis. 

1. H. pulvinata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Herba pulvinata congesta ; foliis parvis anguste acinaciformibus crassis triquetris imbrieatis ; 
stipulis connatis fimbriatis ; floribus sessilibus axillaribus solitariis ; stylo bifido. 

Herba caespitosa depressa pulvinata dense ramosa ramis congestis internodiis contractis. Folia 
opposita arete imbricata 1 poll, nonnunquam \ poll, longa £ poll, lata erassa anguste acinaci- 
formia a basi sursum gradatim triquetro-dilatata apice acuta v. obtusa supra subcanalicul- 
ata margine obscure papillosa paginis tessalatim subtuberculatis basi abrupte in stipulas 
connatas membranaceas flexuose et multo-fimbriatas contracta. Flores dilute violacei in 
axillis foliorum superiorum sessiles. Calycis tubus membranaceus brevis extus sparse strigul- 
osus, limbus alte 4-fidus tubo dimidio longior, lobis \ poll, longis longe acutis nervo medio 
viridi supra papillulatis margine membranaceo fimbriato. Corollce tubus ^ poll, longus 
infra cylindricus sursum anguste ampliatus fauce villoso dilatato, limbi lobi 4 lanceolati 
i- poll, longi acuti intus villosi. Stamina 4 subsessilia angulis limbi loborum inserta ; 
antberae oblongas ^ poll, longae. Ovarium inferum apice vix bilobatum biloculare, loculis 
multiovulatis ; stylus tubo corollas aequilongus filiformis bifidus segmentis pilosis y 1 ^ poll 
longis. Fructus globosus in carpella 2 septicide fissens. Scmina in quoque loculo 4 glabra 
angulata. 



'a 



Socotra. Very common on the plains about Galonsir. B.C.S. nn. 15, 
719. Schweinf. n. 716. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very distinct species, having no near resemblance with any other species. 
Perhaps its nearest likeness is to be found in the csespitose forms of //. 
pinifolia, Wall. (Cat. 850 ; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. iii. 60), a plant of eastern 
Asia. But from all species its foliage is quite diagnostic as well as its habit. 
A very congested form is the commonest on the island — our n. 15. On it 
the leaves are very small and form sets of rosettes. But we have (n. 719) a more 
laxly branched and spreading form with tufts of much longer leaves. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. P 



114 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

2. H. bicornuta, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Annua minuta plantaginea ; foliis aggregates linearibus basi in stipulas connatas paucifimbriatas 
expansis revolutis minute papillosis ; floribus axillaribus sessilibus solitariis ; stylo bifido ; 
fructu conipresso vertice bifido bicornuto septicide debiscente ; seminibus foveolatis 
angulatis. 

Herba minuta annua caule brevissimo (1-2-pollicari) ssepe fere nullo subquadrangulari erecto basi 
nudo cum iuternodio unico elongato v. rarius duobus ramulis contractis cum foliis csespitem 
terminalem v. lateralem formantibus. Folia sessilia opposita imbricata congesta f— 1£ poll, 
longa v. minora linearia acuta basi in stipulas connatas membranaceas pauciciliatas v. fimb- 
riatas (fimbriis serratis) abrupte expansa crassiuscula plus minusve papillosa margiue 
revoluta subtus nervo medio prominente. Flores solitarii sessiles axillares. Calyx per- 
sistens alte 5-partitus, tubo brevi membranaceo, lobis \ poll, longis subinsequalibus lanceol- 
atis longe acutis nervo medio viridesceute supra tuberculato marginibus membranaceis 
serratis. Corolla; tubus ^ poll, longus filiformis fauce parum ampliato, limbi lobi 4 poll, 
longi lanceolati aouti. Stamina fauci adnata exserta filamentis distinctis ; antberae 
oblongse breves. Ovarium inferum apice bilobatum membranaceum 2-loculare ; stylus 
elongatus bifidus segmeutis ^ poll, longis pilosis. Capsida purpurascentia bilocularia ultra 
calycem persistentem vertice vacuo protruso et bifido subbicornuto compressa glabra 
septicide debiscentia, pericarpio coriaceo intus nitido. Semina plurima oblonga angulata 
foveolata glabra ^ poll, longa. 

Socotra. Near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 178. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another plant I have referred to this genus. It has a very strong plantag- 
ineoid habit. Its inferior ovary relegates it to Rubiaceae, and it appears to fall 
into this genus. The fruit is however very peculiar, being quite flattened and 
with an empty vertex, which is bifid and elongated so as to form a couple of 
short projections beyond the persistent calyx. 

3. H. stellarioides, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 836. 

Annua tenuis caule tetraquetro scabridulo ; foliis remotis subsessilibus elliptico-oblongis v. 
trapeziformibus v. sublanceolatis acutis revolutis subciliatis ; stipulis 2-3-dentatis ; cyruis 
terminalibus spurie abortu dicbotornis; pedicellis filiformibus rigidis longis ; floribus parvis 
albis ; stylo integro apice capitato ; fructu non-exserto capsulari pyriformi septicide ad 
basin bivalvim fissente, carpellis ventraliter dehiscentibus. 

Herba vix pedalis tenuis annua erecta a basi bipartim ramosa. Rami tetraquetri scabriduli 
internodiis elongatis. Folia sessilia v. subsessilia remota j^-f poll, longa \~. \ poll, lata 
oblongo-elliptica v. subtrapeziformia v. lanceolata acuta basi contracta revoluta integra 
v. vix undulata breviter ciliata ssepe fere glabra interdum plus minus scabridula sa?pe sub- 
coriacea nervulis paucis delicatulis subtus pallidiora. Stipidm minutse 2-3-dentatse. 
Flores parvi albi v. albo-purpurei in cymas terminales spurie dichotomas abortu unilateralcs 
dispositi; pedicelli erecti rigidi filiformes |-1 poll, longi. Calyx ad medium 4-fidus, lobis 
sequalibus lanceolato-acutis carinatis extus scabridis intus sparsim strigosis. Corollcc 
tubus £ poll, longus apice subampliatus extus minute furfuraceus, limbi lobi tubo sub- 
sequilongi lanceolato-acuti v. obtusi. Stamina 4. Stylus corollas tubo vix sequilongus 
pilosus apice capitatus. Fructus -J poll, longus pyriformis glabrescens v. strigosus in 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 115 

valvos duos septicide fissens, carpello quoque verticaliter dehiscentc, apice carpellorum 
ultra calyceni non protruso. Semina oo nigra puncbulata. 

Soeotra. Common on the hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 313. Schweinf. n. 
633. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A pretty little herb and quite distinct as a species. Its nearest ally is H. 
Wallichii, Kurz. (in Journ. Asiat. Soc. xlv. (1876), ii. 136; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. 
Ind. iii. 53), a plant of Tenasserim and the Nicobar islands, extending to 
Borneo. But ours is a more delicate plant, with different flowers and fruit. 
Hooker (loc. cit.) remarks of the Indian plant : — " possibly an Oldenlandia, but 
the capsules dehisce septicidally to the base." Our plant farther differs from 
Oldenlandia in the apex of the style, which is simple and capitate, not bifid. 

Schweinfurth's specimens, collected near Kischen, generally differ from ours 
in being more scabrous and with the calyx lobes rounded and more strigose. 

4. OLDENLANDIA. 

Oldenlandia, Linn. Gen. n. 154 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 58. 

A large genus of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Of the 
three Socotran species one is cosmopolitan in the tropics, one is a common 
Asiatic species, and the third belongs to the regions of north-east Africa and 
south-west Europe. 

1. O. Schimperi, T. Anders in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 21 ; 
Boiss. Flor. Orient, iii. 11 ; Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 55. Hiern gives 
the extensive synonymy of the species. 

Soeotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 59. Schweinf. n. 548. 

Distrib. Nile Land and Egypt, Arabia and Scinclh. 

The Socotran plant varies much. Many specimens are quite typical in their 
dull scabrid character, but many are quite glabrous and shining, and this 
especially in the case of old plants. In no instance do we find our plants 
showing the narrowly elliptic subobtuse form of corolla-lobe described in the 
type ; the form is usually narrow linear-acute, and the lobes are relatively longer 
than is typical. 

2. O. COrymbosa, Linn. Sp. 174 ; DC. Prod. iv. 426 ; Hiern in Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. iii. 62 ; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. iii. 64. An extensive synonymy is 
given by authors quoted. 

Soeotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 582. Schweinf. nn. 323, 683, 702. 
Distrib. Common tropical weed. 

3. O. Heynei, Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. (1875), 84 ; Hiern in Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 59 ; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. iii. 65. 



116 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Socotra. Not uncommon on the hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 381. Schweinf. 
nn. 469, 625. 

Distrib. East Indies, India, and tropical Africa ; also Madagascar and 
South Africa. 

The fruits in the Socotran plants are usually strigulose-scabrid, which is not 
usually their character in the type, though I find it in some Abyssinian 
specimens. 

5. MUSS^ENDA. 
Musscendcc, Linn. Gen. n. 241 ; Benth; efc Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 64. 

A considerable genus, inhabiting the warmer regions of Asia, Africa, and 
the islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

Under the generic character, Bentham and Hooker remark : — " M. luteola, 
Delile (perperam ad Neurocarpceam, R. Br. relata ab Endl. Gen. PI. 563) a con- 
generibus differt fructu vere capsulari, ad basin loculicide ? dehiscente, qua 
re ad tribum Condaminearum tendit." The Socotran plant confirms the 
occurrence of loculicidally dehiscing fruits in species of the genus, and in its 
characters tends rather in the direction of the Hedyotidea, and with the genus 
Pentas of that tribe it educes the very near affinity of Musscenda. 

M. capsulifera, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 836. 
Tab. XXIX. 

Arborea ramis juvenilibus tetragonis pubescentibus ; foliis oblongo-ellipticis v. obovatis acutis 
v. obtusis basi contractis subsessilibus coriaceis fere glabris ; stipulis dentatis ; floribus in 
rigidas erectas terminates cymas dispositis ; calycis lobis sequalibus foliaceis linearibus ; 
corolla elongata, limbis obcuneatis ; fructu sicco loculicide dehiscente. 

Arbor parva ramis vix tetragonis juvenilibus pubescentibus. Folia subsessilia v. brevissime 
petiolata If— 2£ poll. Tonga £-1 poll, lata oblongo-elliptica v. obovata rarissime ovata v. 
sublanceolata acuta v. obtusa basi contracta integra coriacea obscure pellucido-punctulata, 
subtus glanduloso-papillulata nervis paucio pilis adpressis instructis supra nitida. 
Stipulcc dentatse. Flores If poll, longi breviter pedicellati in corymbas terminales parvas 
rigidas erectas dispositi ; pedicelli vix ^ poll, longi ; bracteolae subflorales acuminata? 
minutse. Calycis tubus fere nullus, lobi 5 lineares acuti aequales persistentes £ poll, 
longi proventu elongati strigulosi. Corolla flava, tubo 1-1 £ poll, longo angusto cylindraceo 
supra vix ampliato extus dense striguloso-puberulo fauce villoso-hirsuto, limbi ^ poll, 
diam. lobis obcuneatis truncatis emarginatis mucronatis. Stylus bifidus lobis crassis. 
Fructus ellipsoideus \ poll, longus breviter strigulosus loculicide dehiscens. Scmina striata 
foveolata angulata. 

Nom Vern. Od-el-kseh (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. On the hills. B.C.S. n. 550. Schweinf. nn. 455, 571. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Like M. luteola, Del. (Cent. PL Afr. Cailliaud 65, t. 1, f. 1 excl. syn., 
non Hochst ; Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 71), from Nile Land, our plant 
is peculiar in its capsular dehiscing fruit. From the Nile Land species our plant 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 117 

is readily distinguished by, amongst other characters, the absence of the 
enlarged calyx lobe. 

6. GAILLONIA. 

Gaillonia, Ach. Eich. in Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Par. v. 153, t. 15, f. 3 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. 
ii. 144. 

A small genus of northern Africa and western Asia, represented in Socotra 
by three endemic species. 

1. G. (Microstephus) tinctoria, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 
836. 

Herba a collo radicis tortuose ramosa, ramis nigris, internodiis brevibus puberulis ; foliis 
crassiusculis auguste spathulatis, sparse et brevissime puberulis ; stipulis polymorpbis ; 
floribus solitariis axillaribus breviter pedicellatis ; calyce 5-lobato, lobis 2 magnis, 2 
minoribus, 1 mimino ; corolla extus scabridula ; stylo longe exserto. 

Herba basi lignosa pedalis v. sesquipedalis ramosissima radioe corticaliter rubro-tinctorio. Rami 
tortuosi internodiis brevibus ; ramuli subtetragoni scabriusculo-puberuli. Folia J— § poll, 
longa gV poll, lata basi ramulorum lateralium ssepe congesta crassiuscula omnia anguste 
spatbulata basi multo-attenuata scabriuscula siccitate nigricantia. Stipulce vagina brevi 
minute dentata. Floras fere f% poll, longi solitarii axillares ; pedicelli vix ^ P°H- longi 
puberuli. Calyx persistens non-accrescens 5-lobatus puberulus, lobis 2 magnis subulatis, 
2 minoribus, 1 minimis. Corolla £ poll, longa calycem longe excedens tubulosa extus 
scabridula, limbo r *g poll, longo. Stamina corollae asquilonga. Stylus bifidus longe 
exsertus. Fructus ignotus. 

Socotra. In tufts on rocks near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 321. 

Quite a distinct species of the section including those without accrescent 
calyces. It has no very marked allies in the genus. The outer portion of the 
root is reddish in colour, and when fresh dyes the fingers. It is made use of 
by the inhabitants of Socotra as a dye. 

2. G. (Microstephus) puberula, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. 
(1882), 836. 

Suffruticosa rigida dicbotome ramosa puberulo-tomentosa internodiis elongatis ; foliis inferi- 
oribus lanceolatis v. oblanceolatis v. obovatis acutis v. obtusis revolutis sparse puberulis, 
superioribus linearibus ; stipulis polymorpbis; floribus axillaribus v. terminalibus solitariis 
v. in cymas trifloras dispositis; calycis dentibus sub?equalibus non-accrescentibus ; corolla 
extus pubescente ; staminibus s^epius inrequalibus ; stylo incluso ; fructu dentibus calycis 
coronato dense hirsuto. 

Suffrutex rigidus virgatim bipartim pauciramosus basi lignosus 2-3-pedalis. Rami tenues 
elongati recti tetragoni internodiis longis sursum dilatatis deorsum versus nodos attenuatis, 
juveniles puberuli, seniores epidermide albido-tomentoso. Folia remota siccitate nigra, 
basalia ^ poll, longa £ poll, lata lanceolata v. oblanceolata v. ovata acuta v. obtusa basi 
attenuata margine revoluta sparsim puberula, superiora angusta linearia. Stipulce vagina 
brevi setis duobus brevissimis v. obsoletis. Floras non-involucellati solitarii v. in cymas 



118 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

trifloras axillares v. terminales subsessiles £ poll, longas dispositi. Calycis dentes 4 
minutissimi subrequales. Corolla hypocrateriformis, tubo extus pubescente calycem longe 
excedente fauce subampliato, limbi lobis 5 angustis acutis tubo subsequilongis. Stamina 
5, duorum filamentis longis corolla vix brevioribus, triam filamentis brevibus. Stylus 
staminibus brevior breviter bifidus puberulus. Fructus \ poll, longus dense hirsutus 
dentibus ruiautis calycinis apice cinctus in coccos duos oblougos hirsutos secedens. 

Socotra. A not uncommon plant. B.C.S. n. 155. Schweinf. n. 602. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another distinct species, belonging to the same section of the genus as the 
foregoing. Its nearest ally appears to be an undescribed Afghan species 
(Griffith n. 3062), of which a specimen is in Kew Herbarium ; but that has a 
very woolly fruit. 

3. G. (Microstephus) thymoides, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. 

(1882), 837. 

Suffruticosa parva rigida dense dichotome ramosa, ramis strictis divaricatis scabrido-puberulis ; 
foliis petiolatis oblongo-ellipticis v. lanceolatis obtusis v. acutis revolutis scabro-puberulis, 
ssepe ad basin ramorum confertis ; stipulis heteromorphis ; floribus axillaribus solitariis 
brevissime pedicellatis ; calyce 5-lobato, lobis 3 magnis subulatis, 2 parvis hirsutis ; corolla 
extus puberula ; stylo exserto ; fructu hirsute 

Suffrutex rigidus lignosus 2-pedalis spuriosim dichotome ramosissimus. Rami stricti virgati 
divaricati albidi subtetragoni internodiis brevibus deorsum attenuatis, juveniles scabrido- 
puberuli seuiores epidermide albido vestiti. Folia petiolata opposita £-§■ poll, longa saepe 
breviora \ poll, lata ssepe 3-4 basi ramulorum lateralium in axillis conferta oblongo- 
elliptica v. lanceolata obtusa v. acuta margine revoluta scabro-puberula siccitate nigricantia 
subtus pallidiora ; petiolus ^— \ poll, longus. Stipulce vagina minute truncata v. setacea. 
Florcs £ poll, longi brevissime pedicellati axillares solitarii. Calyx persistens non-accresceus 
5-lobatus, lobis 3 magnis y^ poll, longis subulatis, 2 parvis, hirsutis. Covolloz tubus 
\ poll, longus angustus supra subampliatus extus puberulus, limbi lobi 5 acuti inflexi. 
Stamina 5 corollae subaequilonga, 2 saepe breviora. Stylus bilobatus supra puberulus 
exsertus. Fructus dense hirsutus. 

Socotra. Very common. B.C.S. n. 187. Schweinf. n. 254. 

A third species of the same section as the other Socotran ones. As a 
distinct species the most marked features of this plant are its freely branching 
habit, the leaf forms, and the hirsute fruit. These separate it from its allies, 
the nearest of which is the Persian G. eriantha, Jaub. et Spach. (111. PL Or. i. 
145, t. 78), but the affinity is not close. 

The plant forms small tufty bushes, and grows everywhere on the island. 

7. SPERMACOCE. 

Spermacoce, Linn. Gen. n. 119 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 145. 

A large genus of tropical and sparingly of subtropical regions ; mostly 
American. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 119 

S. hispida, Linn. Sp. 148 ; DC. Prod. iv. 555 ; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. 
iii. 200. 

Socotra. At Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 455. Schweinf. n. 299. 

Distrib. Throughout India and the Eastern Archipelago. A variable 
plant on Socotra. 

8. VAILLANTIA. 

Vaillantia, DC. Flor. Franc, iv. 266, and Prod. iv. 613 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 148. 
A small genus of the Mediterranean region and western Asia. 

V. hispida, Linn. Sp. 1490; DC. Prod. iv. 614; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iii. 
82 ; Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 246 ; Sibth. Flor. Grsec. t. 138. 

Socotra. On the hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 452. 

Distrib. A plant of the Mediterranean region, and reaching from the 
Canary Islands to south Persia. 

9. GALIUM. 

Galium, Linn. Gen. n. 125 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 149. 

A very large genus, chiefly of temperate climates, but spread all over the 
globe. 

G. Aparine, Linn. Sp. 157 ; DC. Prod. iv. 608 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iii. 
68 ; Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 245; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. iii. 205. 

Socotra. On the higher parts of Haghier. B.C.S. n. 480. Schweinf. n. 
641. 

Distrib. A widely spread old world species. 

The form of this species with small hispid fruit is that which occurs on 
Socotra. 

Order XXXV. VALERIANE.E. 

A large order, chiefly distributed in the temperate regions of the northern 
hemisphere of both old and new worlds, very few occurring in the tropics. 

VALERIANELLA. 

Valerianella, Monch. Meth. Bot. 493 pro parte : Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 156. 

A genus of about twenty species of herbs, several of them social weeds, 
distributed through Europe, northern Africa, western Asia, and north 
America. 

V. afflnis, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 837. 
Pusilla sparsim bipartim ramosa ; foliis inferioribus oblongo-ellipticis v. oblanceolatis obtusis 
obscure dentatis, superioribus ssepe linearibus remote acutecpue dentatis v. interdum 
trifidis ; cymis paucifloris, bracteis scarioso-margiuatis ; calyce rotato-campanulato herbaceo 



120 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

utrinque glabro reticulato-venuloso 6-ficlo, lobis uncinulatis inaequalibus ; capsulis calyci 
sequilongis puberulis antice obcuneatim sulcatis, loculis sterilibus subteretibus. 
Herba pusilla tenuis 3-5-pollicaris. Caulis sulcatus subpaleaceo-puberulus divaricatim sparsim 
bipartim ramosus. Folia inferiora angusle oblongo-elliptica v. oblanceolata obtusa basi 
attenuata in pctiolum brevem alatum amplexicaule 1 poll, longa £-£ poll, lata obscure 
dentata, superiora oblanceolata v. linearia remote acute dentata v. interdum trilobata lobis 
lateralibus minimis angustatis, omnia revoluta membranacea glabra v. inconspicue puberula. 
Cymce parvre 3-4-flor3e subcapital, bracteis auguste-lanceolatis acutis scarioso-marginatis 
glabris. Calyx rotato-companulatus utrinque glaber berbaceus perspicue reticulato-venul- 
osus capsulo fere sequilongus apice latior ultra medium imequaliter sinuato-quinquifidus, 
lobis subtriangularibus in cuspides uncinulatas productis, postico maximo. Capsula ovoidea 
subtetragona vix ^ poll, longa adpresse-puberula postice subplana antice sulco profundo 
obcuneato v. obovato fructu angustiore et paullo breviore notata, loculis sterilibus introrsum 
contiguis subteretibus fertili triangulari transverse elongato subminoribus. 

Socotra. A not uncommon annual on dry hill slopes near Galonsir, along 
with Campanula dichotoma, Erythrcea Centaurium, and others. B.C.S. n. 551. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Apparently a quite distinct species of the section Platycoelw. Its nearest 
allies are found in the Spanish V. divaricaia, Lange (Krok Monog. in k. Svensk. 
Vetensk. Akad. Handl. v. (1864), n. 1. 77, t. iii, f. 31), the widely spread 
V. coronata, Willd. (Krok loc. cit. 78, t. iii, f. 32), a plant of Europe and the 
Mediterranean region, and V. Kotsckyi, Boiss. (Krok loc. cit. 80, t. iii, f. 33), a 
Syrian species. From all of them it differs in its delicate habit and very small- 
headed cymes with few flowers, whilst the characters of the fruit and calyx are 
diagnostic in each instance. The Spanish plant is the most nearly allied, but has 
more widely grooved fruits and a smaller calyx with equal lobes. Amongst the 
species of the section which have the calyx -limb internally hirsute, V. chlorodonta, 
Coss. and Dur. (Krok loc. cit. 81, t. iii, f. 35), has the greatest resemblance to it. 

Order XXXVI. COMPOSITE. 

A very vast order, the third largest in the flora, comprising twenty-four 
genera. Of these, eleven are genera containing weeds widely spread in both 
hemispheres, often of cultivation ; four have a pretty wide old-world distribution, 
one of them having its headquarters at the Cape of Good Hope, another in the 
Mediterranean region; three, — Ileterachama, Volutarella, and Reichardia, — have 
a more limited old-world distribution, being characteristic of northern Africa and 
south-western and western Asia, the last two reaching into south Europe ; three, 
— Tripteris, Dicoma, and Euryops, — are essentially south African genera, but by 
isolated species are represented in north Africa, Euryops spreading to Arabia, 
and Dicoma to the Indian peninsula ; one, Psiadia, is a tropical African and 
Indian Ocean island genus, with a species in Arabia ; Prenanthes is an Asiatic, 
European, and American genus, absent from Africa, and Achyrocline is an 
American genus, with a representative in tropical Africa and Madagascar. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 121 

1. VEKNONIA. 

Vemonia, Sclireb. Gen. PI. ii. 541 ; Beuth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 227. 

A vast genus of shrubby and herbaceous plants of very variable characters, 
occurring in the tropics and warmer regions of both hemispheres. Most 
abundant in Brazil. Three species are found in Socotra, of which one is 
endemic, one is an east African and south-west Asian species, and the third 
is a common African and Asian form, which reaches Australia. 

1. V. (Lepidella) Cockburniana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. 
(1882), 837. Tab. XXX. 

Fruticosa plus minus ve cauescens ramis soepe virgatis sed plurimis lateralibus abbreviates ; 
foliis obovatis obtusis v. emarginatis integris remotis v. ad apices ramorum contractorum 
fasciculatis ; capitulis majusculis 10-13-floris solitariis v. 2-3 in cymas ad apices ramorum 
lateralium dispositis ; phyllariis multiseriatis obtusis ciliatis extus pubescentibus, interiori- 
bu3 persistentibus ; acheniis 6-9-costatis intervallis sessili-glandulosis pilisque suffultis ; 
pappo exteriore squamiformi brevi. 

Frutex in locis gratis 15-pedalis arete ramosus cum ramulis elongatis virgatis angulatis striatis 
incauo-tomentosis subfulvis perplurimisque lateralibus abbreviatis rugosis, in locis aridis 
nanus tortuoso-lignosus ramulisque omnibus deformibus approximatis. Folia in ramis 
elongatis remota ad apices ramulorum contractorum fasciculata §— 1 poll, longa \— \ poll, 
lata obovata obtusa ssepe emargiuata in petiolum brevem attenuata integra supra canesc- 
entia subtus pallidiora sericeo-canescentia, petiolo £ poll, longo baseo incrassato 
persistente ; iu forma e locis siccis folia sparsa multo minora. Alabastri fulvo pubesc- 
entes. Capitula subcampanulata £— J poll. diam. 10-13-flora (pedicellis validis incanis 
\-\ poll, longis), ad extremitates ramorum abbreviatorum solitaria v. in cymas parvas 
2-3-capitatas disposita. Phyllaria multiseriata imbricato-appressa capitulis breviora 
obtusa extus pubescentia margiuibus submembranaceis superne ciliatis, interiora persis- 
tentia, intima lineari-oblonga \ poll, longa, exteriora gradatim miuora, extima minutissima 
squamiformia. Beceptacula nuda. Corolla extus sessili-glandulosa. Antlierarum caudae 
obtusoe. Achenia £ poll, longa angulata (6-9), prominenter 6-9-costata jugis glabris, 
intervallis albido-glandulosis pilisque paucis tenuibus adscendentibus instructis. Pappus 
duplex fulvus, exterior persistens brevis ^g poll, longus squamiformis, interior setiformis 
barbatus persistens. 

Socotra. Not uncommon, both on the limestone and the granitic regions, 
ascending to about 2000 feet. B.C.S. nn. 226, 266. Schweinf. nn. 513, 647, 
770. 

Distrtb. Endemic. 

A very distinct species of the section Lepidella. Like so many other plants, 

its aspect on the granitic soil is very different from its appearance on the lime- 

1 stone; on the former, a handsome shrub or small tree, copiously leaved, and 

' with often long hanging branches ; on the latter, a scrubby dwarf not a foot 

Jliigh, with hard-wooded twisted stems, and branches bearing few and small 

eaves. One finds intermediate states. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDJN. VOL. XXXI. Q 



122 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Schweinfurth's specimen, 647, is with doubt regarded as a form of tins 
species, the leaves being so large, almost an inch long. 

The more luxuriant growths of the plant are liable to the attacks of a gall- 
forming insect. It affects the receptacle, forming therein a two-celled gall with 
a hard bony wall. The effect of this upon the surrounding parts is, that whilst 
the flowers abort, the inner three or four series of phyllaries increase to about 
twice their ordinary size, and form leaf-like more or less hoary structures, con- 
taining chlorophyll, and approaching somewhat the form of the foliage leaves. 
On some of our specimens nearly every flower head is thus altered, and as 
the shape of the head and the form of the outer phyllaries are not affected, 
one would at first take this phyllody of the inner phyllaries to be the result of 
some general cause, and not due to a specific injury in each instance. In a few 
cases the stems are also injured by a gall. 

2. V. (Tephrodes) spathulata, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, (ed. 
Hohenack.) n. 2133. 

V. cinerascens, Sell. Bip. in Schweinf. Flor. yEthiop. 162 ; Oliv. and Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
Afr. iii. 275. 

Soeotra. Common on the plains about Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 716. 

Distrib. Abyssinia, Arabia, Beloochistan, and north-west India. 

A species having a near alliance, as Ascherson points out (in Schweinf. 
Flor. yEthiop. 162), with V. atriplicifolia, Jaub. et Spach (111. PI. Or. iv. 94, 
t. 359), but quite distinct from it, and easily recognised by its more shrubby 
habit, quite different foliage, and its setaceous outer pappus. 

Some confusion in the nomenclature of the species has occurred. The plant 
named above by Jaubert and Spach having been identified as Chrysocoma 
spathulata, Forsk. (Flor. ^Egypt. Arab. 147), Schultz has (loc. cit.) taken 
Forskal's specific name for it, and this is adopted by Vatke (in (Ester. Bot, 
Zeitschr. xxv. (1875), 323) in his determination of Hildebrandt's Aden and 
Somali Land plants. But the name V. spathulata applied by Hochstetter to 
our plant must take precedence of Schultz's name, and for Forskal's plant 
Jaubert and Spach's name should be adopted. Oliver and Hiern (loc. cit.) 
appear to have been misled by this nomenclature, as in a note to V. cinerascens 
they say, remarking on its resemblance with V. atriplicifolia, " Vatke unites 
the species." This, however, is not the case. Vatke says " 768 V. spathulata 
(Forsk.) C. H. Schultz Bip. in Schweinf. Beit. 162 (V. atriplicifolia, Jaub. et 
Spach), Aden ad montes, &c." I have seen Hildebrandt's n. 768, and it is 
genuine V. atriplicifolia, Jaub. et Spach. 

3. V. (Tephrodes) cinerea, Less, in Linmea, iv. (1829), 291, and vi. 
(1831), 673; DC. Prod. v. 24, and vii. 263; Oliv. and Hiern in Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. iii. 275 ; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. iii. 233. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 123 

For extensive synonymy see authors quoted. 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. nn. 393, 460. Schweinf. n. 284. 

Distrib. Common in tropical Asia, Africa, and Australia. 

2. AGERATUM. 

Ageratum, Linn. Gen. n. 936 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 241. 

A genus of about sixteen species. They are American herbs or shrubs, but 
one is widely spread throughout the tropics. 

A. conyzoides, Linn. Sp. 1175 ; DC. Prod. v. 108 ; Oliv. and Hiern in 
Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 300 ; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. iii. 243. 

Socotra. About Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 614. Schweinf. n. 285. 
Distrib. Cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

3. DICHROCEPHALA. 

Dichrocephala, DC. in Guill. Arclnv. Bot. ii. 517, and Prod. v. 371 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. 
PI. ii. 260. 

A genus of herbs, referable to five species confined to the tropics of the old 
world. 

D. chrysanthemifolia, DC. Prod. v. 372 ; Oliv. and Hiern in Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. iii. 303 ; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. iii. 245 ; Wight Ic. t. 1095. 

Nom. Vern. Tobinhay (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the top of Haghier above Adona. Altitude over 4000 feet. 
B.C.S. n. 241. 

Distrib. Tropical Africa and Madagascar, India and the east. 

Our Socotran plant, referred to this species, differs from the type in some 
points. It is a much more hairy plant, and the achenes are not quite glabrous, 
but are slightly glandulose towards the apex, and the leaves have much less 
acutely cut segments. 

4. CONYZA. 

Conyza, Less. Syn. Comp. 203 ; Linn. Gen. n. 950, pro parte ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 283. 
A genus containing about fifty species of herbs, rarely shrubs, widely dis- 
persed in the warmer regions of both hemispheres. 

C. Hochstetteri, Schultz Bip. in herb. Schimp. Arab. nn. 162, 1366 ; 
Oliv. and Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 312. 

Socotra. Not common. B.C.S. n. 598. Schweinf. n. 617. 
Distrib. Abyssinia. 

5. PSIADIA 

Psiadia, Jacq. Hort. Schoenbr. ii. 13, t. 152 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 284. 

A small genus of about twenty species of shrubby plants, restricted to the 



124 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, to Madagascar, and the Mascarene 
Islands ; but one African species extends to Arabia. 

P. Schweinfurthii, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 838. 

Tab. XXXI. 

Suffruticosa glaucescens non glutinosa ; foliis lanceolatis petiolatis acutis integris v. supra 
obscure dentato-serratis glanduloso-puberulis crassiusculis ; capitulis parvis copiose panic- 
ulato-corymbosis ; pbyllariis 5-seriatis exterioribus glanduloso-puberulis, interuis glabris ; 
stylis exsertis ; acheniis pilis adscendentibus vestitis ; pappi setis basi connatis. 

Suffrutex 5-pedalis glaucescens ramulis validis stria tis glanduloso-puberulis. Folia lanceolata 
petiolata 2|— 8£ poll, longa §-f poll, lata acuta ssepe obliqua basi inrequalia integra v. supra 
obscure dentato-crenata anguste revoluta crassa copiose glanduloso-puberula glaucescentia 
pellucido-venulosa nervis prirnariis subprominulis, petiolo \ poll, longo subamplexicauli. 
Capitula multiflora parva Lemisphserica \ poll. diam. in copiosos paniculatos corymbos 
terminales disposita ; pedunculi glanduloso-puberuli striati srepeque complanati, ultimi \ 
poll, longi. Phyllaria 5-seriata, intima lineari-oblonga obtusa glabra margine scariosa, 
exteriora gradatim minora dorsaliter glanduloso-puberula, extiraa pauca squamifonnia. 
Flores flavi. $ corollse ligula integra, $ corolla? tubus sursum ampliatus 5-dentatus. 
Antherce subacutse exsertse. Styli exserti lobis lanceolatis intus planis glabris extus 
convexis hirtellis. Receptaculum fimbrilliferum. Achenia costata pilis adscendentibus 
instructa. Pappus setiformis setis basi connatis barbellatis. 

Nom. Vern. Kchass (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Kischen, at an altitude of about 1800 feet. Schweinf. n. 606. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A non-glutinous species sent by Schweinfurth. "We did not obtain it. It 
has close affinity with P. dodonwcefolia, Steetz (in Peters' Mossamb. Bot. 385), a 
plant of Zanzibar and Madagascar, considered by Oliver and Hiern (in Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 319) as possibly a form of P. arabica, Jaub. et Spach (111. 
PI. Or. iv. 85. tt. 352, 353), the only species of the genus found in Asia. But 
the glaucescent non-glutinous character, the larger inflorescences, and the 
flowers of our plant are sufficiently diagnostic. 

6. PLUCHEA. 

Pluchea, Cass, in Bull. Philom. 1817, and in Diet. xlii. (1826), 1 ; Beiitb. et Hook. Gen. PI. 
ii. 290. 

A genus of some thirty-five species of shrubby and half-shrubby plants, dis- 
tributed throughout the warmer regions of America, a few in Africa and Asia, 
and some in Australia. The three Socotran representatives are endemic. 

1. P. glutinosa, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 838. 

Suffruticosa glutinosa glabra ; foliis oblanceolatis v. lanceolatis breviter petiolatis integris v. in 
parte superiore dentatis glanduloso-punctatis ; capitulis multifioris parvis 3-4 ad apices 
ramorura corymbi multo- v. pauciramosi terrainalisv. pseudo-terminalis paniculati sessilibus 
v. subsessilibus; pbyllariis extimis squamiformibus apiculatis, intimis linearibus subscariosis; 
antherisobtusis; stylo indiviso; acheniis pilis adscendentibus vestitis; pappo squamifonni. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 125 

Suffrutex parvus glaber ramulis nigris striatis glutinosis. Folia lanceolata v. oblanceolata acuta 
2-2£ poll, longa |-£ poll, lata interdum 4£ poll, longa 3£ poll, lata ssepe obliqua infra 
gradatim in petiolum brevem attenuata integra v. supra medium remote dentata coriacea 
v. tenuiter coriacea glabra glandulis pellucidis punctata et plus minusve glutinoso-nitida v. 
opaca, juniora nigro-nitida agglutinata. Capitula multiflora parva \ poll. diam. 3-4 ad 
apices pedunculorum corymbi paniculati pseudoterminalis multo v. pauciramosi 1 v. inter- 
dum 4 poll. diam. sessiles v. subsessiles, corymbi rami ultimi glutinosi validi striati stepe 
complanati bracteolis squamiformis paucis suffulti. Mores <$ pauciores. Phyllaria multi- 
seriata adpressa concava, extima brevissima squamiformia apiculata extusque glanduloso- 
puberula, interiora gradatim majora angustiora minusque glandulosa, omnia acuta carinata 
margiuibusque nudis fimbriato-ciliatis, intima straminea linearia versus apicem angustata. 
Eeceptaculum angustum depressum vix foveolatum. F lores lilacini. Corolla} tubus infra 
medium incrassatus sursum parum ampliatus breviterque 5-deutatis. Antherce ad medium 
exsertoe apicibus obtusis brevibus, caudis antberis triplobrevioribus. Stylus indivisus 
exsertus. Achenia angusta 4-5-costata, costis pallidioribus pilisque adscendentibus 
vestitis. Pappus uniseriatus squamiformis, squamis apice dilatatis barbellatis. 

Socotra. On the Haghier range above Tamarida and Kischen. B.C.S. 
nn. 223, 616. Schweinf. n. 646. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A small under-shrub, growing over all the hill regions of the island. The 
adult form of our species has a shortly branched habit with smallish leaves and 
small corymbs of heads. But we have from near Galonsir stout and rigid twigs 
with large leaves (n. 223), and Sch weinfurth sends from Kischen like shoots with 
large corymbs. These are probably young twigs or adventitious ones. 

The plant has quite the general appearance of a Psiadia, but its anthers 
keep it out of the genus. Amongst the species of Pluchea, its nearest alliance 
is probably with P. Dioscoridis, DC. (Prod. v. 450), a plant of tropical Africa 
and Arabia, which is usually puberulous but sometimes glabrous. The 
glutinous habit and small few-headed panicles of our plant separate it. 

2. P. aromatica, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 838. Tab. 
XXXII. 

Fruticosa aromatica ; foliis lanceolatis v. elliptico-oblongis acutis petiolatis integris v. in parte 
superiore obscure dentato-serratis ciliatis glanduloso-scabridis ; capitulis longe peduncul- 
atis multifloris terminalibus v. axillaribus solitariis rarius in cymam dispositis ; phyllariis 
extimis brevissimis glandulosis apice reflexis, intimis angustissimis glabris ; antheris 
acuminatis ; stylo bifido lobis complanatis ; acheniis glabris ; pappo squamiformi. 

Frutex parvus aromaticus ramis inferne denudatis cicatricosis, superne foliosis fulvis denseque 
glandulis capitatis firmis vestitis. Folia lanceolata v. elliptico-oblonga acuta 2-3 poll, 
longa ^-1 poll, lata stepe subobliqua basi in petiolum stepe £ poll, longum canaliculatum 
subamplexicauliter dilatatum angustata integra v. in parte superiore obscure deutato-serr 
ata breviter ciliata glanduloso-scabrida coriacea glaucescentia nervis 3-5 primariis plus 
minusve conspicuis. Capitida multiflora ^ poll. diam. terminalia solitaria ad apic s 
ramorum axillarium rarius pedunculo communi bifido ; pedunculi longi(l£-lf- poll.) validi 
plerumque paucis bracteolis foliaceis obsiti glanduloso-scabriduli striati sa?pe angulati et 
sub capitulis dilatati. Phyllaria multoseiiata appressa concava, extima breviora lineari- 



126 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

oblonga obtusa v. subacuta carinata extus glauduloso-puberula apice reflexa intusque 
glandulosa, interiora gradatim longiora, intermedia vix glandulosa lineari-acuminata marg- 
inibusque liberis fimbriatis, intima angastissima linearia capilliformia straminea glabra. 
Rcccptaculum planum foveolatum. Corolla; tubus infra medium incrassatus supra subam- 
pliatus 5-dentatus, dentibus acutis marginibusque incrassatis. Antherce apice acuminata? 
breviter exserta?, caudis antberis triplobrevioribus. Stylus bifidus exsertus, lobis complanatis 
subtus convexis glabris. A chenia 4-5 -angulata glabra costisque iutermediis 4-5. Pappus 
uniseriatus squamiformis, squamis apice dilatatis abruptis. 

Nom. Vern. Keideh (B.C.S.). Kadi (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. On the Haghier range south of Tamarida and above Kischen. 
B.C.S. n. 465. Schweinf. n. 631. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very beautiful, small, and strongly aromatic shrub of the higher parts of 
the Haghier hills. 

It is quite a distinct form, with some affinity to the foregoing species, but 
easily distinguished by many characters. Its styles and achenes are those of 
Blumea, but its shrubby habit excludes it from that genus. 

3. P. obovata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 838. Tab. 
XXXIII. 

Fruticosa aromatica sa?pe procumbens; foliis obovatis v. obcuueatis v. oblanceolatis 9essilibus 
integris v. in parte supeiiore dentatis glabris glanduloso-punctatis ; capitulis breviter 
pedunculitis multifloris terminalibus v. axillaribus solitariis v. in 2-3-capitatas cymas 
dispositis; phyllariis exterioribus brevioribus glanduloso-lanato-puberulis erectis, interi- 
oribus angustissimis glabris ; antheris obtusis ; stylo bifido, lobis teretibus papillosis ; 
aclieniis costis pilis adscendentibus vestitis ; pappo setiformi. 

Frutex parvus aromaticus scopulorum multiramosus ramis ssepe procumbeutibus lateque 
patentibus glandulosu-punctatis, juvenilibus brunneis. Folia sessilia obovata v. obcun- 
eata interdum oblanceolata §-l£ poll, longa \-\ poll.!. lata nunc minora nuuc majora 
obtusa sa'pe mucronulata integra v. in parte superiore leviter dentata crasse-coriacea 
venulis promiuulisgbmduloso-punctatis supra striata. Capitula campanulata \ poll. diam. 
multiflora terminalia v. ad apices ramorum axillarium solitaria v. in 2-3-capitatas cymas 
disposita; pedunculi breves striati validi glanduloso-tomentelli paucis bracteolis parvis 
instructi sub capitulis alte 3-5-sulcati et multo dilatati. Phyllaria multiseriata, exteri- 
orum duarum v. trium squamae breviores lineari-oblongas acuta3 erectse berbaceas extus lanato- 
puberuke glandulosa^, interiorum angustiores acuminata? straminese glabra? sed ad margines 
liberos versus apicem sparse puberula?. . Flores lilaciui, ? pauciores. Corolla; tubus sur- 
sum subampliatus breviter 5-deutatus, dentibus obtusis subtus puberulis. Anthcra; apice 
subtruncata? obtusa? ad medium v. longius exsertae, caudis brevibus antheris ^ brevioribus. 
Stylus bifidus, lobis teretibus papillosis longe exsertis. Achenia 4-5-angulata cum costis 
paucis intermediis angulis non pallidioribus pilis adscendentibus instructis. Pappus 
setiformis uniseriatus barbellatus. 

Socotra. Only on the cliffs on the higher parts of Haghier. Especially 
about Kischen and Adona. B.C.S. n. 497. Schweinf. n. 764. 
JJistiuij. Endemic. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 127 

Another very beautiful and strongly aromatic shrub. On the cliffs in the 
higher parts of the island its long spreading branches run along the crevices, 
sending up here and there from the glistening foliage short twigs with a few 
heads of lilac flowers. It is one of the prettiest plants we have from the island. 

From the other Socotran species, as well as from all species of the genus, its 
habit, inflorescence, and flowers widely separate it. Its bifid style is somewhat 
exceptional in the genus. 

7. ACHYROCLINE. 

Achyrocline, Less. Syn. Comp. 332 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 305. 

A small genus of mostly woolly half shrubby plants, included in about 
twenty species. Mostly tropical American, but a few occur in tropical Africa 
and Madagascar. Both Socotran species are spread in tropical Africa. 

1. A. luzuloides, Vatke in (Ester. Bot. Zeitschr. xxv. (1875), 326, and in 
Linnsea xxxix. (1875), 489 (excl. appar. syn. A. sclerochlcena, Vatke) ; Oliv. 
and Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Aft*, iii. 340. 

A. fflumacca, Oliv. and Hiern, loc. tit. 

Gnaphalium luzuloides, Schultz Bip. in herb. Schweinf. ' Nub. n. 397, and iu Schweinf. Flo.r. 

^Ethiop. 149. 
Helichrymm glumaccum, DC. Prod. vi. 197 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, i. 427. 

Socotra. Very common. B.C.S. n. 227. Schweinf. n. 492. Nimmo. 

Distrib. Nile Land, Upper Guinea, Somali Land. 

This plant occurs abundantly on the plains, and is a species showing con- 
siderable variation. I accept the species as constituted by Vatke {loc. cit.), upon 
Schweinfurth's specimens and Schimper's Abyssinian plants (sect. ii. n. 762); 
but I include the Senegambian plant of Perottet, described by De Candolle, 
which Vatke excludes, on what grounds I cannot determine. A misleading 
misprint in Vatke's paper in Linn pea, makes A. sclerochlcena, a very different, 
plant, appear as a synonym of this species. 

Oliver and Hiern {loc. cit.) regard Schimper's Abyssinian plants as 
specifically distinct from Schweinfurth's Nubian ones, and under the name 
A. ylumaceus, keep up the species described by Ach. Richard, and with it 
doubtfully associate De Candolle's plant. I cannot confirm the diagnosis. 
Though the plants have a somewhat different aspect of foliage, the glabrous 
achenes of the Abyssinian plant — the chief character for diagnosis — are not 
constant, and I have therefore reduced all the forms to one species. 

The receptacle, described as naked in A. luzuloides, is not always so. Fre- 
quently it is conspicuously fimbrilliferous, and there are intermediate forms. 

This is one of the plants sent home from Socotra by Nimmo. 



128 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

2. A. Schimperi, Schultz Bip. in Herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. i. n. 393 ; 
Oliv. and Hiern in Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 340. 

Nom. Vern. Ndschas (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. On the hills. B.C.S. n. 622. Schweinf. n. 542. 
Distkib. Tropical Africa (Nile Land and Mozambique). 
Oar Socotran plants have leaves rather more obtuse than in the typical 
African forms. . 

8. HELICHRYSUM. 

Helichrysum, Gartn. Fruct. ii. 404; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii, 309. 

A very large genus of old world herbaceous or small shrubby plants occur- 
ring most abundantly in south Africa, the Mascarene Islands, and Australasia. 
It has a remarkable development in Socotra, no less than seven species being 
found, all of which are endemic, and one exhibits several varietal states. 

1. H. rosulatum, Oliv. and Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 347. Tab. 
XXXIV., A. 

Suffruticosum cpespitosuni ramulis paucis brevibus adscendentibus ; foliis 3-5-nerviis oblanceol- 
atis v. spathulato-oblongis sessilibus ; capitulis anguste cauipanulatis plurimis in capitula 
terminalia subglobosa aggregatis ; phyllariis pauciseriatis ; receptaculo> nudo ; acheniis 
glabris. 

Herba perennis coespitosa suffruticosa valida caulibus albis tomentosis terminalibus l|-3 poll, 
altis adscendentibus teretibus. Folia sessilia basi ramorum aggregata ^-4, poll, longa 
|-j\ poll, lata suprema minora oblanceolata v. spathulato-oblonga obtnsa subapiculata v. 
einarginata basi angustata coriacea glabra supra cum 3-5-venis depressis subtus adpresse 
velutina alba margine integra revoluta. Capitula anguste campanulata 6-7-flora | poll, 
longa sessilia plurima in capitulum subglobulare |-| poll. diam. basi foliatum aggregata. 
Involucri pauciseriati phyllariis apice purpurascentibus scariosis nervo medio subtus con- 
spicuo viridi, interioribus linearibus paulum superne dilatatis obtusis glabris, exterioribus 
similibus minoribus extus sublanuginosis. Florcs omnes $. Reccptaculum nudum. 
Achenia fere glabra. 

Nom. Vern. Nschass (B.C.S.). Nuchas (Schweinf.), 

Socotra. On the highest points of the Haghier range at an altitude over 
4000 feet. B.C.S. n. 396. Schweinf. n. 705. Nimmo. 

Dlstrib. Endemic. 

This beautiful tufted and strongly aromatic plant I gathered on the Haghier 
range, nearly at the summit of one of the highest peaks on the island, just above 
Adona. Schweinfurth's specimens were from a very high point farther west. 
The plant is probably spread over the peaks. It is a striking form, with the 
leaves densely whitely velvety below, and with small globular heads on short 
stalks. The root-stock is long, tapered, and little branched. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 129 

This is another of the unique specimens in Kew Herbarium, labelled "shores 
of the Red Sea, D. Nimmo," — and the specimens are the types upon which 
Oliver and Hiern (loc. cit.) founded the species. I have already (p. 26) given 
reasons for asserting that Nimmo's plants are Socotran, and this plant is then 
endemic on the island. 

The very complete specimens we have brought home show that the leaves 
are not always " spathulate oblong obtuse emarginate " as described, but are 
usually oblanceolate and subapiculate, and the stems often attain a height of 
about three inches. 

2. H. sphaerocephalum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 
839. 

Lignosum lanatum parvum a basi ramosum ramis diffusis corapressis ; foliis 5-nerviis obovatis, 
basalibus breviter petiolatis, superioribus subsessilibus ; capitulis campanulatis 30-40-floris 
brevissime pedicellatis 20-25 in cymas globosas terminales solitarias glomeratis ; pbyllariis 
multiseriatis, interioribus in parte superiore niveo-petaloideis patentibus floribus longiori- 
bus glabris ; receptaculo nudo ; acheniis scabridulis. 

Herba lignosa pedalis radice simplici caule a basi diffuse ramoso, ramis adscendentibus inferne 
glabrescentibus superne complanatis lateribus sulcatis lanatisque pilis facile deterso vestitis. 
Folia 5-nervia, basalia obovata in petiolum brevem attenuata 1-1^ poll, longa \ poll, lata 
acuta et subcuspidata margine obsolete crenata supra obscure subscabrida et aracbnoidea 
infra albida et dense lanata, superiora obovata v. subelliptica subsessilia dense omnino lanata. 
Capikda late campanulata \ poll, longa 30-40-flora in cymas solitarias capitatas densas 
globosas terminales § poll. diam. glomerata (in quaque ad 25) brevissime pedicellata> 
pedicellis dense lanatis. Involucri multiseriati, phyllariis interioribus 3-4-seriatis \ poll, 
longis floribus longioribus ad apicem expansis obtusis saepe subcrenulatis in parte triente 
superiore niveo-petaloideis in feme stramineis marginibusque scariosis glabris, exterioribus 
minoribus omnino scariosis late ovatis concavis plerumque obtusis lanatis. Ileceptaculum 
nudum. Achenia oblonga subteretia scabridula. Pappi setae ad apices barbellatae. 

Soeotra. On the higher parts of the Haghier hills. On Sicante peak 
especially abundant, at an altitude over 2500 feet. B.C.S. n. 79. Schweinf. n. 
629. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another species of the hills, belonging to a section of the genus conspicu- 
ously developed at the Cape of Good Hope, but identical with no described form. 

In favourable situations it forms a small, compact, branching, half herbaceous 
plant, with ascending branches ending in globular clusters of heads. 

We have from dry unfavourable localities another series of specimens, which 
I take to be a starved form of this plant, the chief feature of difference from 
the foregoing type being its quasi-stoloniferous axes. The branches from the 
main stem at first have elongated internodes and are decumbent, but they do 
not root at the point where they touch the ground, but growth is there arrested, 
and the succeeding internodes are contracted at the same time that the branch 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. R 



130 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

corves abruptly upwards, without, however, elongating to any extent. The lateral 
branches thus end, as it were, in rosulate tufts of leaves. In the axils of some 
of the leaves of these rosettes long leafy ascending virgate shoots develop, 
each of which has at its extremity a cluster of capitula. Sometimes they, in 
turn, become decumbent and produce rosulate leaf- tufts. The elongated portions 
of the twigs are brown-black in this form under the indumentum, the leaves are 
longer and narrower than in the type, and the globose clusters of capitula are 
larger with smaller individual heads. Whilst the characters are hardly specific, 
I think it is well to constitute this form a distinct variety. The following is a 
diagnosis : — 

var. sarmentosum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 839. 

Quasi-stoloniferuru raruis lateralibus teretibus glabrescentibus fusco-nigris decumbentibus, parte 
terram tangente internodiis contractus abrupteque adscendente ramosque gerente in virgas 
elongatas ultime floriferas productos ; foliis caulinis et basalibus ramorum adscendentium 
approximatis, caeteris remotis, oblanceolatis v. longe obovato-spathulatis 1^-2 poll, longis 
longe petiolatis basi subamplexicaulibus ; capitulis 50-60 in cymis f poll. diam. aggregatis 
15-20-floris I poll, longis ; phyllariis 2-3-seriatis, interioribus \ poll, longis floribus 
brevioribus, in parte quarta superiore niveo-petaloideis, exterioribus late ovato-acutis. 

Socotra. In dry localities. B.C.S. n. 691. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

3. H. arachnoides, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 839. 

Annuum parvulum ramosurn pins minusve aracbnoideo-lanatum ; foliis remotis ellipticis, interi- 
oribus petiolatis, superioribus subsessilibus ; capitulis parvis 8-12-floris campanulatis 
brevissime pedicellatis 7-8 in cymas terminales (rarius axillares) congestas glomeratis ; 
phyllariis biseriatis, interioribus ad apicem niveis post anthesin patentibus ; receptaculo 
nudo ; acheniis scabriusculis. 

Annuum 6-7-pedale lanatum radice exili simplici caulibusque e collo plurimis diffusis pauci- 
ramosis basi glabrescentibus apice arachnoideo-lanatis. Folia remota elliptica obtusa 
saepe mucronulata margine leviter crenato-sinuata membranacea plus minusve arachn- 
oidea subtus pallidiora, inferiora f— 1 poll, longa ^ poll, lata basi gradatim in petiolum 
longum sa3pe laminae eequilongum attenuata, superiora breviora subsessilia basi contracta. 
Capitula homogama parva 1£ lin. longa campanulata 8-12-tlora 7-8 in cymam parvam 
congestam \ poll. diam. terminalem (nonnunquam 2-3 in axillarem) glomerata brevissime 
pedicellata, pedicellis ^ poll, longis dense lanatis quoque folium singulum sessile sub 
capitulo gerente. Involucrum, obligophyllum floribus loogior phyllariis 2-seriatis, exteri- 
oribus brevioribus late ovatis acutis scariosis, interioribus linearibus v. apice expausis et per 
partem trientem petaloideis niveis post anthesin patentibus, parte inferna straminea margini- 
busque scariosis, omnibus plus minusve lanatis. Beceptaadum nudum. Achenia ellip- 
tica v. oblonga teretia scabriuscula. Pappi setae apicaliter dilatatae barbellatae. 

Socotra. On the hills south-west from Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 197. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A small herb, not uncommon in tufts along with II. gracilipes, O. and H., 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 131 

on the dry hill slopes. A distinct enough species, it belongs to the section 
Leptorhiza of the subgenus Euhelichrysum. This section is otherwise entirely 
confined to south Africa, and with several of the south African species our 
plant has close affinity. Possibly H. micropoides, DC. (Prod. vi. 170), a Cape 
Colony plant, is its nearest ally, but is distinguished by the sessile heads and 
the form of bracts. With H. capillaceum, Less. (Syn. Comp. 275), there is con- 
siderable resemblance. 

4. H. aciculare, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 839. 
Tab. XXXIV, B. 

Suffruticosum ericaephylloideum procumbens v. ceespitosum glabreseens ; capitulis obconoideis 
40-50-floris breviter pedicellatis 3-5 ad apices pedunculorum solitariorum axillarium 
longorum breviter lanatorum dispositis ; pbyllariis glabris omnibus fulvo-stramineis ; 
receptaculo nudo ; acbeniis puberulis. 

Suffruticosa parva cum axe subterraneo lignoso longo ramisque procumbentibus v. csespitosis 
foliis marcidis persistentibus dense vestitis. Folia anguste-linearia ericoidea v. revoluta 
aciculariaque § poll, longa baseis dilatatis imbricatis marginibusque membranaceis ad 
apices ramorum stellatim patentia safcurate-viridia, inferiora marcida reflexa rigida nitida 
leviter punctulata, superiora pilis paucis lanatis floceosis basi vestita. Capitula 
obconoidea 40-50-flora \ poll, longa subsessilia v. brevissime pedicellata in 3-5-capitatas 
axillares solitarias longe pedunculatas cymas disposita, cymis plerumque 1-2 ad ramulum 
quemque ; pedunculi 2-3 poll, longi erecti compressi sparsim floceoso-lanati pbyllis paucis 
remotis parvis basi gibbosis v. subamplexicaulibus gradatim in phyllaria transeuntibus 
suffulti. Involucrum polyphyllum, phyllariis multi-(10)-seriatis glabris nitidis fulvo- 
stramineis marginibus scariosis, intimis linearibus v. apice subexpansis acutis, proximis 
subaequilongis, cseteris gradatim deorsum minoribus, extimis minutis ovato-acuminatis. 
Receptaculum nudum. Flores omnes $ regulares. Achenia minuta subteretia sparse 
puberula. Pappus basi scabridus apice subplumoso-barbellatus. 

Socotra. On the tops of the Haghier hills, at an elevation over 2500 
feet. B.C.S. n. 397. Schweinf. n. 561. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another very distinct species. It differs by its ericoid foliage from all 
tropical African species, and it has no very near affinity in similarly clad south 
African forms. Like the foregoing, it is only found on the highest parts of 
the island. 

5. H. Nimmoanum, Oliv. and Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop, Afr. iii. 347. 
Tab. XXXV. 

Suffruticosum plus minus albido-tomentellum ; foliis breviter petiolatis anguste ellipticis v. 
ovatis ; capitulis parvis oblongis 8-10-floris pedicellatis in corymbas terminales dispositis ; 
phyllariis glabris stramineis ; receptaculo nudo ; acbeniis minute glandulosis. 

Suffrutex parvus ramosus ramis teretibus supra albido-tomentellis glabrescentibus 8 poll, longis 
v. longioribus. Folia breviter petiolata ^— 1£ poll, longa £— \ poll, lata anguste elliptica v. 
ovata subacuta v. subobtusa apiculata basi subangustata integra inconspicue pinnato-venia 
albido-tomentella prresertim in pagina inferiore. Capitula oblonga 8-10-flora \ poll, longa 
breviter pedicellata in corymbos termiuales l-2£ poll. diam. subdense ramosos disposita. 



132 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Involucri multiseriati (4-6), phyllariis imbricatis inrequalibus glabris stramineis, interi- 
oribus lineari-oblongis obtusis margine scariosis, exterioribus gradatim brevioribus ellipt- 
icis. Flores omues $. Eeccptaculuvi nudum. Achenia oblonga minute glandulosa. 

Nom. Vekn. Chfah. (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. On the higher slopes of Haghier. B.C.S. n. 432. Schweinf. n. 
767. Nimino. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another species hitherto only known from Dr Nimmo's fragmentary speci- 
mens, and described by Oliver and Hiern (loc. cit.). Like H. rosulatum, 0. and 
H., it is found at high altitudes growing in sheltered spots, and it appears to be 
endemic in Socotra, and is very distinct from any known form. Our specimens 
show leaves generally more obtuse than those on Nimmo's plant. 

6. H. suffruticosum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 840. 
Tab. XXXVI. 

Suffruticosum plus minus glanduloso-pubescens ; foliis sessilibus, inferioribus cochleariformibus, 
superioribus panduriformibus ; capitulis parvis campanulatis 20-floris pedicellatis in 
corymbos terminales dispositis ; phyllariis glabris concoloribus f ulvo-stramineis ; recep- 
taculo nudo ; acheniis puberulis. 

Suffrutex ramosus parvus ramulis juvenilibus compressis canaliculatisque fusco-pubescentibus. 
Folia inferiora ad basin ramulorum subapproximata cochleariformia v. subspathulata supra 
medium abrupte contracta v. deorsum gradatim attenuata basique paulum dilatata 1|— 2-\ 
poll, longa, extremitate expanso elliptico v. ovato obtuso margine crenato |— 1 poll, lato 
supra laete viridi sparse pubescente rugoso subtus venoso albido-lanuginoso, superiora 
amplexicaulia panduriforima ^-f poll, longa subtus pallidiora glanduloso-pubescentia, 
Capitula parva anguste campanulata 20-flora \ poll, longa in corymbos compositos 
terminales £ poll. diam. pedunculis glanduloso-pubesceutibus disposita, pedicellis £ poll, 
longis. Involucrum oligophyllum, phyllariis multi-(5)-seriatis nitidis fulvo-stramineis 
marginibus scariosis glabris, intimis linearibus acutis, exterioribus gradatim minoribus, 
extimis lanceolatis brevibus. Reccptaculum nudum. Flores omnes ^ regulares albi. 
Achenia angusta sparse glanduloso-puberula. Pappus albus barbatus. 

Nom. Vern. Sebenham (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the higher parts of Haghier. B.C.S. n. 406. Schweinf. n. 
628. 

A very beautiful aromatic species. It is quite distinct from any known 
form. H. Nimmoanum, 0. and H., which grows with it, is perhaps as near an 
ally as any other species. 

7. H. gracilipes, Oliv. and Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 348. 
Tab. XXXVII. 

Frocumbens filiformiter stoloniferum plus minus albido-tomftntellus ; foliis caulinis elliptici3 
v. anguste obovatis subacutis v. subobtusis subsessilibus, radicalibus subspathulatis; 
capitulis campanulatis 10-40-floris pedunculatis in paniculos dispositis; phyllariis multi- 
seriatis stramineis ; receptaculo nudo ; acheniis puberulis v. glabris. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 133 

Herba procumbens stolonifera basi rosulata ramis filiforiuibus teretibus cito glabrescentibus £-1- 
pedalibus. Folia albidotomentella sublus densius, mucronulata, caulinia remota elliptica v. 
lanceolafca v. oblanceolata v. obovata subacuta v. subobtusa subsessilia v. in petiolum 
brevem attenuata ^— ^ poll, longa \-\ poll, lata radicalia -approximata subspatbulata v. 
rotundata v. subcordata trinervia saepe f poll, lata in petiolnm saepe 1 poll, longuni snb- 
alatum basique dilatatum gradatim v. abrupte attenuata. Capitula anguste v. late 
campanulata 10-40-flora ^-^ poll, longa pauca ad pedicellos breves v. longos (£-3 poll.) 
glabratos saepe capillares erectos v. arcuatos solitarios et terminales sessa, vel nuraerosa in 
paniculos laxos ramosissimos subtiles disposita. Phyllaria multiseriata straminea v. fusca, 
glabra v. albido-tomentella acuta, kitima linearia v. subspatbulata concoloria v. inferne 
incrassata nervoque medio viridi, exteriora gradatim minora sublinearia v. elliptica. 
Receptamhim nudum. Flores omnes $ exteriores ssepe irregulares. Achenia sparse 
puberula v. glabra. Pappus albus barbatus setis patentibus. 

Socotra. Common on the hill slopes and also on the sea-shore. B.C.S. 
nn. 83, 238. Schweinf. nn. 307, 470, 762. Nimmo. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A third species, known hitherto only by Dr Nimmo's specimens, and 
described by Oliver and Hiern (loc. cit.). As it occurs on Socotra, and it is 
abundant, it is very variable in habit, clothing, and size of parts. We have the 
following forms : — 

a. genuinum. B.C.S. n. 83. Schweinf. n. 762. 

The specimens most typical are those gathered by Schweinfurth at Wadi 
Kischen, altitude 1900-3000 feet. But his plants are more robust than those 
of Nimmo. We obtained plants on the Haghier range, above Tamarida, 
resembling closely the type, being less stout than Schweinfurth's, but the 
achenes are quite glabrous, not puberulous as described. 

b. lanatum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 
Dense lanatum, pedunculis brevibus, acbeniis glabris. 

Socotra. Shore near Tamarida. Schweinf. n. 327. 

Schweinfurth's specimens, from the sea-shore near Tamarida, show a more 
woolly plant, and one with thicker leaves than usual. The woolliness is especially 
evident upon the involucre. The peduncles of the capitula are very short in this 
form, and the achenes are glabrous. 

c. profusum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soe. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Foliis submembranaceis, capitulis parvis paucifloris in paniculos ramosos dispositis, pedicellis 
erectis. 

Socotra. Near Keregnigiti. Schweinf, n. 470. 

A single specimen, sent by Schweinfurth, differs from the forms already 
mentioned in its erect, patent, and more slender character. The leaves are 
large and thin, almost membranaceous, and the capitula are arranged in much 
branched panicles, the ultimate peduncles being erect and very fine. The 



134 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

flower heads are small, I inch long, and contain very few — rarely 10 — flowers, 
which Schweinfurth says are white. 

d. stoloniferum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 
Stolonifera, capitulis majoribus multifloris solitariis, phyllariis exterioribus brevibus ovatis, 
interioribus longis spathulatis acutis. 

Soeotra. Hills south-west from Galonsir. B.C.S. 238. Nimmo. 

This is the form we found most common on the hills south-west of Galonsir. 
It consists of a number of small rosulate herbs united by long delicate stolons, 
and sending up a few arcuate branches, each of which ends in a long (often 
2-3 inches) thin peduncle supporting a solitary capitulum. The capitula are large, 
over £ inch long, 30-40-flowered, and with a many -leaved, many-rowed involucre, 
the outer phyllaries of which are short and ovate, the inner long spathulate and 
acute, with the narrowed lower part thickened and green-ribbed. They are 
only slightly woolly. This is the most divergent from the type, but though the 
involucre and the size of the heads, with the long peduncles, are very marked 
characters, they are hardly specific. 

9. PULICARIA. 

Pulicaria, Gartn. Fruct. ii. 461, t. 173, f. 7 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 335. 

An old world genus of twenty-five to thirty herbaceous or shrubby species, 
occurring in Europe, Africa, and the eastern parts of Asia. One species occurs 
at the Cape of Good Hope, but the Mediterranean region is their centre. The 
three Socotran species are endemic. 

1. P. diversifolia, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 840. 

Herba scabrido-hirsuta ramis in capitula solitaria abeuntibus ; foliis basalibus plerumque ab 
formis obcuneatis ad oblanceolatas basique gradatim attenuates interdum ellipticis v. 
oblongo-ellipticis basique abrupte contractis infra integris supra grosse dentato-serratis v. 
crenatis acutis v. obtusis, petiolo longo anguste alato subamplexicauli, caulinibus 
angustioribus ; capitulis hemispluericis multifloris radiatis ; phyllariis subaequalibus 
lineari-acuminatis glanduloso-hirsutis ; acbeniis 7-8-costatis birsutis ; pappo exteriore 
coroniformi, setis interioribus 10. 

Herba pedalis scabrido-hirsuta a basi ramosa, ramis striatis adscendeutibus bipartim ramosis, 
quoque in capitulum solitarium abeunte. Folia glauco-canescentia subcrassa, basalia circa 
2^-3 poll, longa v. ^-1 poll, sed nunc multo majora nunc minora plerumque obcuneata v. 
subobovata elliptico-oblonga basique integra late cuneata v. abrupte in petiolum alatum 
longum frequenter lamina longiorem supra paulum convexum subamplexicaulem axillaque 
villosa attenuata in parte apicali grosse dentato-serrata v. obscure crenato-dentata acuta 
v. obtusa nerviis primariis 2-4 plerumque versus apicem laminae marginibus parallelibus 
currentibus, caulinia angustiora oblanceolata v. lineari-lanceolata, suprema saape linearis 
sessilia. Capitvla multirlora hemisphairica radiata fy poll. diam. ad extremitates 
peduuculorum longorum (srepa £-ped.) scabrido-puberulorum solitaria. Phyllaria pauci- 






PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 135 

(3-5)-seriata imbricata lineari-acuminata carinata fere subtequalia paulum hirsuta et 
glaudulis capitatis extus instructa, interiora marginibus soariosis, exteriora pauca paulum 
breviora subherbacea ssepe oblongo-acuminata apiceque reflexa. Beccptaculum foveol- 
atum 24—-^ P°U- diam. convexum. Radii flores eos disci triente excedentes, ligula 
tubo longiore 3-4-denfcata. Antherce obtuste, caudis filiformibus conuatis. Styli lobi 
subspatbulati obtusi extus papillosi. Achenia 7-8-costata pilis adsceudentibus instructa 
subteretia. Pappus exterior coroniforrnis acuminato-fimbriatus, iuterioris setse 10 parum 
sursum expansse scabridulo-serrulatse v. barbellatae. 

Socotra. Very common on the plains. B.C.S. nn. 119, 600. Schweinf. 
n. 453. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

One of the commonest weeds on the island, and at the same time an 
extremely variable plant, as its description makes evident. As in the case of so 
many other plants, there is a form from dry stony localities, and one from 
sheltered favourable localities, and between them we get gradations. The 
plant in the former situations has a small compact habit, with lateral branches 
often contracted, and leaves altogether smaller, thicker, deeply cut, and hirsute, 
and with dense villous tufts around the buds in their axils. The stalks of the 
capitula, too, are very short. Plants from suitable spots are more luxuriant, the 
branches are longer and tend to trail, the leaves are thinner, more developed at 
the margins, and less hairy, whilst the flower peduncles extend to a great length. 

The nearest ally of our plant is perhaps P. petiolaris, Jaub. et Spach (111. 
PL Or. iv. 69, t. 344), a plant of Abyssinia and Nubia, and perhaps of Somali 
Land. But the scabrid hairy clothing, the larger head, and the flowers of our 
plant distinguish it. 

In Kew Herbarium are two specimens, one collected by Hildebrandt in 
Somali Land (n. 1435), the other plant from the vicinity of Aden, sent by Hunter 
(n. 122), which are probably one and the same species, and with which our plant 
has much resemblance, — not quite amounting to identity, for the achenes in these 
specimens are longer, narrower, and fewer ribbed, and the outer pappus forms 
a shortly dentate cup, — but the habit and foliage are much alike. The Somali 
Land and Arabian specimens are small and insufficient for complete com- 
parison, but it is interesting to note the likeness. For whether our plant be 
identical with these or not, there can be little doubt that a species so abun- 
dant and widely scattered over the island as this is, will turn up on the 
adjacent mainland when that is explored. 

2. P. stephanocarpa, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 840. 
Tab. XXXVIII. 
Fructicosa tortuose ramosissima glaucescens ; foliis crassis velutinis spathulatis v. cochleari- 

formibus plus minusve 3-5-rotundato-lobatis persistentibus ; capitulis homogamis 

solitariis axillaribus breviter pedunculatis ; pbyllariis exterioribus gradatim minoribus ; 

antherarum caudis elongatis connatis simplicibus; acbeniis angulatis 10-costatis corona 



136 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

apicali setarum sub pappo suffultis ; pappo exteriore cupuliformi segmentis pnleaceis 
iuterioribus setis complanatis. 
Suffrutex erectus glaucescens tortuose et intricato-ramosissimus 1-2-pedalis ramis juvenilibus 
pubescentibus glandulisque copiose sub pilis suffultis proventu cinereis glabratis. Folia 
spathulata v. cocbleariformia ^— f poll, lcmga |-£ poll, lata subtruncata plus minusve 
alte palmatim 3-5-lobata lobis rotundatis integris saepe solum emarginata parte angusta 
inferiore canaliculata subamplexicauli et subdecurreute partem expansam superiorem 
exedente versus basin abrupte v cuneato-attenuata margine revoluta crassa persistentia 
velutina axillis villosis. Capitula multiflora bomogama solitaria axillaria £ poll. diam. vix 
campanulata, pedicellis ^-|' poll, longis. Phyllaria 4-5-seriata parum carinata extus pilis 
adpressis canescentia subciliata, interiora lineari-subulata marginibus parum scariosis, 
exteriora gradatim minora subberbacea saepe rubro-punctata. Mcceptaculum, nonalveolatum 
areolatum papillosum convexum. Corolla flava, tubo 5-deiitato sursum ampliato. 
Antherarum apices acuminatae, caudis elongatis simplicibus connatis. Styli lobi elougato- 
lineares leviter papillosi apice rotuudati. Achenia angulosa 10-costata ad apicem corona 
setarum brevium albarum pappo simili instructa caeteroquin glabra. Pappus exterior 
brevior cupulaeformis alte multifidus paleaceo-fimbriatus, interioris setae subcomplanatae 
barbellatae. 

Nom. Vern. Dhael (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. The commonest plant of the plains at Galonsir and Nogad. 
B.C.S. n. 14. Schweinf. n. 252. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Amongst the true Inulece, to which tribe our Socotran plant undoubtedly 
belongs, I have had some difficulty in finding a genus to which it might be 
referred. For whilst with none of them do its characters entirely agree, yet it 
possesses some of the features of several closely-allied genera. At one time I 
considered that it might form the type of a new genus, for the achenes are 
very different from those in any in this tribe, but for the present I am content 
to place it in Pulicaria. 

From the technical characters of the genus it diverges in some particulars. 
The heads are homogamous, which is not a character of Pulicaria, although 
sometimes they are disciform; the anther-tails are connate in pairs, a feature 
unknown, so far as I am aware, in Pulicaria, except in the Socotran species just 
described, — P. diversifolia, — and the achenes are very strongly angulate, with 
prominent ribs, not terete as in typical species. In its pappus, too, it differs, for 
the inner setoe are somewhat flattened. In this latter character, as well as in 
that of the shrubby habit, connecting links with typical Pulicarice are supplied 
by those half shrubby forms from the desert plains of the east, originally 
described by Boissier (Diagn. i. vi. 76) under Pterochwta [subsequently changed 
to Platyckceta (Diagn. i. xi. 5, and Flor. Orient, iii. 207)], on account of the 
flattening of the pappus, but now referred by Bentham and Hooker to Pulicaria. 
T. Anderson's Aden plant, Vartheimia arabica (T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. 
v. (1866), Suppl. 23), is one of this group. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 137 

Pegolettia differs technically from Pulicaria in its homogamous heads, 
anther-tails setaceously branched, and in the free palese of the outer pappus. 
In the first of these points our plant agrees with Pegolettia, but not in the 
others. It further differs from Pegolettia in its achenes in the same degree as 
it does from Pulicaria ; also, Pegolettia wants the flattening of the setae of the 
inner pappus. In general facies, too, species of Pegolettia are very different. 

In Grantia are included some south Persian species which our plant 
resembles a good deal in general characters. But the absence of the foliaceous 
outer involucral bracts, so striking a feature in this genus, along with the connate 
palese of the outer pappus, and the achenes separate it readily. 

Another allied genus of this region, Iphiona, might lay some claim to the 
plant, but it has setaceous outer pappus. 

In selecting Pulicaria as the genus for this plant, I have been influenced 
by its possessing a preponderance of conformable characters, but the species is 
decidedly an aberrant one. 

We know this plant now only as endemic in Socotra, but its distribution 
and profusion there are such as to forbid one regarding it as a plant that is 
peculiar to the island. When the adjacent shores of the mainland are carefully 
examined, I have little doubt this plant will be found, and further exploration 
of these regions will also certainly bring to our knowledge many forms which 
will throw light upon the limits of these nearly allied Inuleaean genera. With 
such knowledge it will then be possible to determine more precisely the true 
position of this very interesting plant. Should it be the type of a new genus, 
or of a section of another genus, its chief claim for recognition will rest on the 
form and pattern of its achenes. 

3. P. vierseoides, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 840. Tab. 
XXXIX. 

Fruticosa cinerea habitu Vieraeas ; foliis obovatis crasse coriaceis glandulis instructis et arachn- 
oideis ; capitulis radiatis solitariis pseudo-terminalibus longe pedunculatis ; phyllariis 
pauciseriatis glanduloso-puberulis exterioribus gradatim minoribus extimisque saepe 
foliaceis magnis ; antherarum caudis elongatis simplicibus connatis ; acheniis subteretibus 
10-costatis apice hirsutis ; pappo exteriore cupuliformi paleaceo-lacero, interioribus setis 
complanatis. 

Frutex ramosus habitu Vieraeas v. Psiadiae ramulis cicatricosis terminalibus glanduloso-puber- 
ulis brunneis interduni arachnoideis. Folia obovata v. oblanceolata l|-2-|- poll, longa 
l|-f poll, lata v. minora acuta v. obtusa basi gradatim in petiolum anguste alatum 
amplexicaulem axilloque villoso attenuata margine obscure dentato-serrata parum 
revoluta crasse coriacea nervis prominulis plus minusve arachnoidea saepius juvenilia 
compacte albido-lanata sub pilis copiose glandulosa. Capitula magna multiflora § poll, 
diam. radiata solitaria pseudoterminalia versus extremitatem ramorum inter folia expansa, 
pedunculis 2 poll, longis ultra folia projectis striatis glanduloso-puberulis saepe 1- v. pluri- 
bracteatis. Phyllaria 3-4-seriata extus glandulis stipitatis instructa pilisque longis paucis 
arachnoideis vestita, interiora linearia acuminata marginibus scariosis, exteriora herbacea 
TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. S 



138 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

gradatim minora linearia obtusa v. cuspidata sed exthna scepe subspathnlata foliacea 
intimisque jpquilonga v. longiora. Beceptaculum convexiusculum subalveolatum £ poll, 
diam. Corolla flava ligula tridentata. Antherancm apices anguste acuta, caudis elongatis 
simplicibus binis connatis. Styli lobi longi lineares obtusi papillosi. Achcnia subteretia 
10-costata versus apicem pilis brevibus adpressis vestita. Pappi exterioris paleas in 
cupulam parvam laceram connatoe, interioris setae 12-18 complanatae serrnlatse. 

Socotra. On the Haghier range south of Tamarida, at an elevation 
over 2000 feet. B.C.S. nn. 402, 481. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another very remarkable Inuloid species. It is by no means common on 
Socotra. We have it only from the Sicante range of peaks. 

The plant has all the appearance of a Psiadia, from which genus, however, 
its anthers thoroughly exclude it. It also resembles the monotypic Canary 
Island Viercea. But its incorporation in that genus is forbidden by the 
achenes, and especially by its pappus. Technically there is no character 
separating it from Pulicaria, but the habit is quite foreign to that genus, and it 
is a very abnormal species. 

10. SIEGESBECKIA. 

Siegesbeckia, Linn. Gen. n. 973 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 359. 

A small genus of three species of herbs, one being peculiar to Nile Land, the 
others are cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical regions. 

S. orientalis, Linn. Sp. 1269 ; DC. Prod. v. 495 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iii. 
250 ; Oliv. and Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 372 ; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. 
Ind. iii. 304 ; Wight Ic. t. 1103. 

Socotra. On the hills near Ray village and elsewhere. B.C.S. n. 623. 
Schweinf. n. 597. 

Distrib. Common in the tropics. 

11. ECLIPTA. 

Eclipta, Linn. Mant. 157 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 361. 

A small genus of herbs, embracing an Australian, a South American, and a 
cosmopolitan tropical weed. 

E. alba, Hassk. PL Jav. Ear. 528; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iii. 249; Oliv. and 
Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 373; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. iii. 304. 
E. ereda, Lamk. Illnstr. iii. 265, t. 687. 

Socotra. Near Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 224. Schweinf. n. 355. 

Distrib. Cosmopolitan in warm regions. 

The Socotran plant is the prostrate form of this widely-spread weed. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 139 

12. BLAINVILLEA. 

Blainvillea, Cass, in Diet. Sc. Nat. xxix. (1823), 493 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 369. 

A small genus of about six species of erect herbs widely spread in the 
tropics of both hemispheres. 

B. rhomboidea, Cass, in Diet. Sc. Nat. xxix. (1823), 494 ; DC. Prod. v. 
492; Oliv. and Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 375. 

B. Gayana, Cass, in Diet. Sc. Nat. xlvii. (1827), 90 ; Oliv. and Hiern loc. cit. 

B. latifolia, DC. in Wight Contrib. (1834), 17 ; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Iud. iii. 305. 

Soeotra. Not uncommon. B.C.S. n. 596. Schweinf. n. 763. 

Distrib. Round the world in the tropics. 

Cassini's two species, it would appear, are, as Bentham and Hooker {loc. cit.) 
point out, forms of one widely-spread species, to which also De Candolle's plant 
is justly referred by Hooker. The size and margination of the leaves, length 
of peduncle, size and feature of the capitula, relied upon by Cassini and De 
Candolle, are very variable, and not of specific value. Oliver and Hiern (loc. 
cit.) remark that tropical African specimens referred by them to B. rhomboidea, 
Cass., " differ from a type specimen that we have seen and from Brazilian ones 
in the tubercles of the achenes ; the Zanzibar specimen is sparingly tubercled ; 
an Arabian one is also tubercled." In this character there is great variation. 
From Soeotra alone we have specimens showing extremely smooth or only 
slightly foveolate achenes, whilst in others the surface is glossy and strongly 
tuberculate and strigose, and there are many intermediate forms. 

13. BIDENS. 

Bidens, Linn. Gen. n. 932 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 387. 

A large genus of chiefly American herbs. Some are cosmopolitan. 

B. pilosa, Linn. Sp. 1166; DC. Prod. v. 597; Oliv. and Hiern in Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 392 ; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. iii. 309. 

Nom. Vern. Mdanhi or Heddanin (Schweinf.). 

Soeotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 715. Schweinf. nn. 296, 575. 

Distrib. A common weed in warm countries. Schweinfurth sends a 
form of this, with deeply trifid leaves and incised segments, from Tamarida 
(n. 296), for which he gives as the vernacular name "Heddanin." 

14. SENECIO. 

Scnecio, Linn. Gen. n. 953 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 446. 

A very vast cosmopolitan genus. The section Kleinia, to which our 
Socotran species belongs, embracing some twenty species, with few exceptions 



140 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

south African, is distinguished from the chief type of the genus by the fleshy 
glabrous habit, the homogamous flower heads, and the style branches usually 
conical, often penicellate. 

S. (Kleinia) Scotti, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 841. 
Tab. XL. 

Perennis erectus glaber succulentus multo-rarnosus, caulibus subteretibus ; foliis remotis parvis 
linearibus ; capitulis subcylindricis homogamis 6-8-floris ad extremitates ramorum 
solitariis v. 2-3 in cymas breviter pedunculatas aggregatis ; phyllariis 5-6 liuearibus 
cuspidatis floribus dimidio brevioribus ; receptaculo nudo ; acbeuiis subteretibus 10- 
costatis brevibus rigidis setulis intercostalibus ; pappo corollse vix sequilongo. 

Perennis erectus rigidus glaber succulentus 1-2-pedalis multiramosus, caulibus ramisque subter- 
etibus. Folia sessilia remota linearia obtusa v. acuta |— | poll, longa succulenta basi 
incrassata et sublignosa supra basin leviter constricta mox decidua. Capitula pauca 
bomogama 6-8-flora subcylindrica angusta £ poll, longa ad extremitates ramorum solitaria 
v. in 2-3-capitatas cymas disposita, pedunculis validis ^ poll, longis ssepe 1-v. oo -bracteatis. 
Involucri squamae extimse pauca? 1-2 subulatae v. omnes obsoletse ; pbyllaria 5-6 linearia 
\- \ poll, longa cuspidata rigida costata marginata glabra sed cuspide ssepe brevissime 
puberulo-ciliata floribus dimidio breviora. Reccptaculurn alveolatum nudum. Corolla 
\ poll, longa, fauce ampliato, limbi lobis extus leviter puberulis. Styli lobi apiculati. 
Achenia subteretia angusta 10-costata, costis subpunctulatis, intervallis breviter rigide 
setulosis. Pappus corollse vix sequilongus. 

Socotra. On the Haghier range above Tamarida, at an elevation over 
2500 feet. B.C.S. n. 446. Schweinf. (?) 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This is, I expect, a rare plant on the island. It was found by Scott only 
in one locality on the granite peaks. 

It is quite a distinct species, and of considerable interest, belonging as it 
does to a section of the genus almost exclusively south African. Its nearest 
ally is S. (Kleinia) longijiorus, Oliv. and Hiern (in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 
421), a south African plant, found also in Abyssinia and some parts of tropical 
Africa. Whilst resembling it closely, our plant is easily distinguished by the 
subterete stems and the smaller and fewer flower heads. 

Schweinfurth sends specimens, without flower, of a plant he has cultivated 
at Cairo from Socotran stock, which he supposes to be a Notonia. It may 
be our Senecio Scotti, but the leaves are more obtuse and broader. 

15. EURYOPS. 

Euryops, Cass, in Bull. Philom. 1818, and in Diet. Sc. Nat. xvi. (1820), 49 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. 
PL ii. 452. 

A genus of shrubs or half-shrubby plants, included in about thirty 
species, mainly located at the Cape of Good Hope. One has a limited Arabian 
distribution and another is found in Nile Land, but these are doubtfully distinct. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 141 

E. SOCOtranus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 841. Tab. XL1. 

Suffrutex 3-pedalis glaber bipartim ramosus ramis cicatricosis ; foliis sessilibus arete trifidis 
segmentis linearibus obtusis ; pedunculis foliis vix sequilongis ; phyllariis 8 connatis ; 
acbeniis bispidis. 

Suffrutex 3-pedalis glaber bipartim ramosus ramis brevibus foliorum baseis persistentibus tessal- 
ato-cicatricosis. Folia sessilia ad apices ramorum confertissima elongata 1^-2 poll, 
longa per partem trientem trifida segmentis linearibus obtusis infra versus basim attenuata 
Pedunculi teretes tenues in axillis superioribus solitarii monocepbali foliis vix longiores in 
corymbum terminalem foliosum approximati straminei. Capitula bemispbaerica \ poll.diam. 
Phyllaria 8 lata acuta ad medium connata. Receptaculum foveolatum dentatum. Flores 
radii ligula 2\ poll, longa elliptica truncata disci involucro subaequilonga. Achenia bispida. 

Socotra. On the higher regions of Haghier. B.C.S. n. 401. Schweinf. 
n. 673. Hunter n. 11. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

An interesting indigenous species, distinguished by its trifid leaves, few- 
leaved involucre, and hispid achenes, from E. arabicus, Steud. (in herb. Schimp. 
Arab. n. 852 ; Jaub. et Spach 111. PI. Or. iv. 88, tt. 355, 356), and from E. 
pinifolius, Ach. Rich. (Tent. Flor. Abyss, i. 445, t. 60), the only two species,— 
and they are doubtfully distinct, — which are found beyond the Cape of Good 
Hope. Possibly its nearest ally is E. trifurcatus, Cass. (Harv. and Sond. Flor. 
Cap. hi. 411), in which, however, the flower heads are larger, the phyllaries more 
numerous, and the achenes are villous. 

16. TRIPTERIS. 

Tripteris, Less, in Linnsea vi. (1831), 95 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 455. 

Essentially a Cape of Good Hope genus of about thirty herbaceous species. 

One is, however, found in south tropical Africa, and two occur in north tropical 

Africa, one of which extends to Socotra. 

T. Lordii, Oliv. and Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 424, 
var. racemosa, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

A basi rnultirainosa ; foliis plerumque oblanceolatis angustis ; capitulis minoribus £ poll, 
longis ; involucri bracteis oblongo-ellipticis acutis ^ poll, longis ; floribus flavis radii ligula 



poll, longa ; acbeniis £ poll, longis. 



Socotra. Common near Galonsir and Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 74. 
Schweinf. n. 443. 

Distrib. Of the species — Upper Nubia. Of the variety — endemic. 

The type of this species is represented in Kew Herbarium by a few 
specimens collected by Lord at Hor Tamanib. Our plant differs in being a 
more freely branched form, with much smaller flowers and fruit, and I have 
made it a distinct variety. On Lord's ticket is the remark — " blue flowers, very 
showy." The appearance of the dried flowers belies this, and I am pretty 
certain they must be yellow, as are those of our Socotran plant. 



142 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

17. VOLUTARELLA. 

Vohctarella, Cass, in Bull. Pkilom. 1816, and in Diet. Sc. Nat. lviii. (1829), 451 ; Benth. et 
Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 476. 

A genus of a few herbaceous species distributed in northern Africa, south 
Europe, and western Asia. One species extends to India. 

V. Lippii, Cass, in Diet. Sc. Nat. xliv. (1826), 39 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. 
PI. ii. 476. 

Ambcrboa Lippii, DC. Prod. vi. 559 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iii. 606. 
Centaurea Lippii, Linn. Sp. 1286 ; Schkuhr Handb. t. 261. 

Soeotra. Near Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 303. 

Distrib. From the Canary Islands and south Spain, through north Africa 
to Arabia. 

I have hesitated to make a new species of the Socotran plant, although it 
differs in some characters from the typical V. Lippii, as our material from Soeotra 
consists of only one specimen, gathered on the plains near Tamarida. This has 
very woolly cobwebbed stems, and altogether a softer habit than the African 
and Arabian plants. The heads, too, are narrower with less scarious cusps to 
the phyllaries, and the corolla tube is not nearly so villous. It may be noted 
that the type is a somewhat variable plant. 

18. DICOMA. 

Dicoma, Cass, in Bull. Pkilom. 1817, and in Diet. Sc. Nat xiii. (1819) ; 194 ; Beutk. et Hook. 

Gen. PI. ii. 492. 

A genus of about eighteen species of small rigid woody plants, having their 
headquarters in south Africa ; some four species are spread through tropical 
Africa, and one of them is also distributed in the Indian peninsula. One 
Socotran species is endemic, the other is an African and western Asiatic form. 

1. D. tomentosa, Cass, in Bull. Philom. 1818, and in Diet. Sc. Nat. 
xiii. (1819), 195 ; DC. Prod. vii. 36 ; Oliv. and Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. 
iii. 443 ; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. iii. 387. 

J), lanuginosa, DC. Prod. vii. 36 ; Wigkt Ic. t. 1140. 

Soeotra. On Haghier near Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 228. Schweinf. n. 438. 

Distrib. Tropical Africa, Indian peninsula, and south-west Asia. Widely 
spread. 

A not common plant on Soeotra. 

2. D. cana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 841. Tab. XLIL 

Prostrata cano-tomentosa lignosa ; foliis linearibus obtusis sessilibus crassis persistentibus ; 
capitulis solitariis pseudo-terminalibus subsessilibus paucifloris komogamis discoideis; 
pbyllariis pallidis glabris, intimis membranaceis, exterioribus gradatim minoribus rigidis 
subulato-punctatis ; receptaculo alveolato ; ackeuiis dense setosis ; pappi setis con- 
formibus serrulato-barbellatis. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALEOUR. 143 

Prostrata nana subcaespitosa lignosa cano-tomentosa, ramulis angulis proventu glabratis. Folia 
sessilia linearia obtusa £ poll, longa ^ poll, lata integra supra canaliculata crassa persis- 
tentia. Capitula plerumque 7-flora homogama discoidea subsessilia solitaria pseudo- 
terminalia. Phyllaria imbricata 4-5-seriata pallida glabra, intima membranacea oblongo- 
linearia subacuminata albida basique intus brunnea £ poll, longa patentia, exteriora 
gradatim minora rigida anguste marginata late ovata leviter concava apice subulato-pung- 
entia acuminata straminea. Rcceptaculum concavum alveolatum nudum. Corolla |- poll, 
longa, lobis lineari-acutis reflexis extus pilis adpressis paucis vestitis. Antherarum 
apices acuminati, caudis setiformibus copiose pilosis loculis aequilongis. Achenia dense 
setosa T ^ poll, longa. Pappus multiseriatus setis conformibus complanatis basi latioribus 
serrulato-barbellatis acbeniis multo-longioribus sed corollae aequilongis. 

Socotra. On the cliffs overhanging the shore on the south-west of 
Galonsir, at an elevation over 1500 feet. B.C.S. n. 157. Hunter. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A striking new species, easily diagnosed by its habit and facies from all 
hitherto described. Its position in the genus is in the vicinity of the Cape 
of Good Hope species D. diacanthoides, Less, (in Linnsea v. (1830), 279). It 
is a plant of the limestone regions in Socotra. We only found it in one 
locality, but there in profusion. 

19. LACTUCA. 

Lactuca, Linn. Gen. n. 909 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 524. 

A large genus of herbs widely spread in the old world, and also found in 
North America. Both the Socotran species are endemic. 

1. L. rhynchocarpa, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 841. 

Herba tenuis glabra depressa v. a basi ramosa caulibusquesuberectis ; foliis glaucis lyrato-pinn- 
atipartitis, segmento terminali oblongo-acuto v. rotundato v. panduriformi subaculeato- 
dentato, segmentis inferioribus gradatim minoribus runcinatis, radicalibus breviter petiolatis 
subamplexicaulibus, caulinibus sessilibus; capitulis parvis 10-12-floris § poll, longis oppositi- 
foliis in laxos pseudo-racemos dispositis ; phyllariis intimis ensiformibus obtusis post 
antbesin vix basi incrassatis, extimis parvis ovato-acutis ; acbeniis vix compressis 4-gonis 
costis 1-2 in quoque facie conspicuis, infra angustatis, apice in rostrum longum abrupte 
productis ; pappi setis serrulatis. 

Herba perennis depressa v. suberecta glabra a basi multiramosa, radice tenui, caulibus sub- 
adscendentibus v. decumbentibus tenuibus striatis. Folia lyrato-pinnatipartita, lobo 
terminali oblongo-acuto v. rotundato v. panduriformi setoso-dentato, lobis inferioribus 
gradatim minoribus runcinatis acutis v. obtusis dentatis saepe setulosis, radicalia l|-2 poll, 
longa |-J poll, lata breviter petiolata petiolo subamplexicauli, caulinia sessilia sub- 
auriculata, suprema saepe lineari-acuta v. cuspidata integra, glauca crassiuscula. 
Capitula parva 10-12-flora § poll, longa. oppositifolia solitaria ad pedunculos f-l£ poll, 
longos tenues bracteolis integris subulatis minutis instructos. Phyllaria intima 6-7 
ensiformia obtusa post antbesin parum acuta et basi incrassata ; calyculi squamae paucae 
parvae herbaceae angustae ovatae acutae. Beceptaculum nudum ^ poll. diam. Corollas 
ligula 5-dentata. Anthera basi obtuse productae. Styli lobi apice conici. Achenia 



144 BOTANY OF SOCOTEA. 

leviter compressa 4-gona costis 1-2 in quoque facie intermedio infra angustata angulis 
costisque rugosis et subtiliter strigosis superne in rostrum longum disco apicali pappifero 
abrupte producta, rostro £ poll, longo achenii corpore ^ poll, longo longiore. Pappi setae 
serrulatai basi connatae albae. 

Soeotra. On the plains. B.C.S. nn. 217, 594. Schweinf. n. 398. 

Disthib. Endemic. 

The achenes in this species are so very slightly compressed, that I formerly 
referred it to the Barkhausia section of Crepis, wherein it finds an ally in 
C. bursifolia, Linn. (Sp. 1131), a south European plant. But it probably 
belongs more naturally to Lactuca. I have not succeeded in identifying our 
plant with any described species, but in Kew Herbarium are a number of 
unnamed eastern specimens, with several of which it claims near relationship. 

2. L. crassifolia, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi (1882), 842. 

Herba perennis glabra glauca valida divaricatim breviter ramosa ; foliis crassiusculis lyrato- 
pinnatifidis, segmento terminali oblongo-acuto v. obtuso calloso-dentato et saepe inae- 
qualiter lobato, lobis inferioribus irregulariter ad basin minoribus, radicalibus vix petiolatis 
aniplexicaulibus, caulinibus sessilibus auriculatis ; capitulis 20-floris \—^ poll, lougis 
oppositifoliis in pseudo-racemos breves dispositis ; phyllariis iutimis aequalibus linearibus 
marginatis, extimis paucis late ovatis minoribus ; acheniis basi truncatis in rostrum breve 
pallidum productis ; setis pappi scabridulis acheniis aequilongis. 

Herba perennis glabra glauca 3-4 poll, alta, radice longo recto lignoso valido, a collo ramosa 
caulibus validis erectis, ramis brevibus divaricatis striatis. Folia crassiuscula lyrato-pinnati- 
fida, lobo terminali oblongo-acuto v. obtuso rotundatoque haud raro lateraliter lobato 
inaequaliter calloso-serrato-dentato, lobis inferioribus irregulariter deorsum minoribus 
acutis v. obtusis calloso-dentatis borizontaliter v. suberecto-expansis, radicalia 1£ poll, 
longa | poll, lata vix petiolata amplexicaulia, caulinia minora late auriculata, suprema 
subcordata integra. Capitula circa 20-flora \-\ poll, longa oppositifolia in breves pseudo- 
racemos oligocephalos disposita, pedunculis purpureo-striatis \-}^ poll.longis 1-2-bracteolatis 
bracteolis ovatis aniplexicaulibus. Phyllaria intima linearia acuta v. obtusa scarioso- 
marginata, extima 3-4 late ovata acuta subherbaeea multo-minora. Antherce basi breviter 
sagittatim productse. Styli lobi dense papillosi. Achenia multicostata compressa basi 
noncontracta apice in rostrum breve pallidum gradatim producta, costis acheniorum 
interiorum rugosis, acheniis exterioribus saepe imperfectis costisque levibus. Pappus 
multiseriatus, setis scabridulis albis £ poll, lougis acheniis aequilongis. 

Soeotra. On the plains.. B.C.S. n. 595. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another species of Lactuca not uncommon on the island. Apparently a 
new one, but like the foregoing allied to several undescribed eastern species, of 
which specimens are in Kew Herbarium. 

20. HETERACHiENA. 

Jfeterachcena, Fresen. in Mus. Senkenb. iii. 74 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 526. 
A monotypic genus of Abyssinia, Arabia, and Beloochistan. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 145 

H. massaviensis, Fresen. in Mus. Senkenb. iii. 74 ; Oliv. and Hiern in 
Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 455. 

Lactuca massaviensis, Sch. Bip. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. iii. n. 1462 ; Franch. Sert. Somal. 

in Miss. Revoil 39. 
Brachyramphus lachtcoides, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 23. 
Zollikoferia massaviensis, Boiss. Flor. Orient, iii. 825. 

Soeotra. Common. B.C.S. nn. 159, 215, 349. Schweinf. n. 446. 
Distrib. Of the genus. 

An interesting plant, varying considerably in stoutness and size of parts, as 
it occurs on the island. 

21. PRENANTHES. 

Prenanthes, Linn. Gen. n. 911, pro parte; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 527. 

A genus of herbaceous plants of the temperate and subtemperate regions of 
the northern hemisphere, chiefly of North America, but a few reach the Canary 
Islands, Europe, and the hills of northern India. No species are yet recorded 
from Africa. 

P. amabilis, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 842. Tab. 
XLIII. 

Herba perennis cano-lanuginosa caule erecto in inflorescentiam abeunte; foliis lyrato-runcinatis, 
lobo terminali rotundato v. acutim lobato parte inferiore stepe angustissima, amplexicaulibus 
axillariter lanato-villosis membranaceis glabris ; capitulis longe pedunculatis 5-6-floris in 
laxe ramosas paniculas dispositis ; phyllariis intimis 5-6 linearibus aoutis, exterioribus 
brevibus ; acheniis tetragonis truncatis basi angustatis pappo sordido setoso serrulato 
brevioribus. 

Herba perennis 8-pollicaris collo lanuginoso, caule erecto lierbaceo striato glanduloso-puberulo 
in inflorescentiam abeunte. Folia lyrato-runcinata, lobo terminali rotundato saepius 
palmatim acute 3-5-lobato et dentato basique cuneato v. hastato-reniformi paite inferiore 
lobis obtusis parum dentatis ssepe angustissima, basi amplexicaulia et in axillis lanato- 
villosa membranacea glabra, radicalia ssepe 3£ poll, louga loboque terminali 2 poll, diam., 
caulinia minora interdum auriculata. Capihda parva £ poll, longa 5-6-flora in peduuculis 
purpureis ultimis \-% poll, longis ssepe nutantibus gland ulis stipitatis puberulis bract- 
eolisque squamiformibus apiculatis suffultis sessa et oinniuo infloresceutiam laxe ramosam 
paniculatam formantia. Phyllaria intima 5-6 linearia acuta subtiliter puberula ssepe 
purpurea \ poll, longa calyculi squamis 4-5 dimidio breviora. Corolla purpurea 5- 
dentata. Antherce basi obtuse products. Styli lobi longi tenues papillosi. Achenia 4- 
gona truncata basi angustata noncompressa 4-costata, costis inconspicuis, obscure 
puberula ^ poll, longa. Pappus sparsus sordidus setosus serrulatus | poll, longus. 

Soeotra. On the rocks south-west of Galonsir, at an elevation over 1500 
feet. B.C.S. n. 311. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A lovely little species of the sheltered crannies on the rocks. Quite 
distinct from any known form and well worthy of cultivation. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. T 



146 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

22. REICHARDIA. 

Reichardia, Roth Bot. Abhandl. (1787), 35. 

Picridium, Desf. Flor. Atl. ii. 220; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 527. 

A small genus of herbs widely spread through south Europe, northern 
Africa, and eastern Asia. 

R. tingitana, Roth Bot. Abhandl. (1787), 35 ; Oliv. and Hiern in Oliv. 
Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 455. 

Picridium tingitanum, Desf. Flor. Atl. ii. 220 ; DC. Prod. vii. 182 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iii. 877 ; 
Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. iii. 413. 

Socotra. About Galonsir. B.C.S. nn. 188, 244. Schweinf. n. 551. 
Distrib. Abundant in the Mediterranean region, and from the Canary 
Islands, through tropical Africa, to Arabia, Persia, and north-west India. 

23. SONCHUS. 

Sonclws, Linn. Geo. n. 908 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 528. 

A small genus of herbs, natives of the old world, several being now 
cosmopolitan. 

S. oleraceus, Linn. Sp. 1116; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iii. 795; Oliv. and 
Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 457 ; Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Ind. iii. 414 ; Reichb. 
Ic. Flor. Germ. t. 1410, f. i. 

Socotra. Common near habitations. B.C.S. n. 599. 
Distrib. A cosmopolitan weed. 

24. LATJN^A. 

Launcea, Cass, in Diet. Sc. Nat. xxv. (1822), 321. 

Microrhynclms, Less. Syn. Comp. 139 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 528. 

A small genus of about twenty herbaceous species of the circum-Medi- 
terranean region, Canary Islands, south Africa, and the Indian peninsula. 

L. crepoides, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 842. 

He.rba rosulata glabra perennis ; foliis spathulatis v. oblanceolatis basi longe attenuatis obtusis 
integris ; capitulis solituriis in apices scaporum longorum bracteolatorum v. in laxas 2-3- 
ramosas cymas dispositis ; phyllariis intimis 8 linearibus ; calyculi squamis paucis ovatis 
herbaceis; styli lobis setulis nigris suffultis ; acheniis linearibus subfusiformibus multo- 
costatis rugosis ; pappo exteriore lanoso-intricato, intimo setoso. 

Herba pusilla rosulata glabra perennis vix rainosa nonliagellifera. Folia spatbulata v. oblanceol- 
ata longe basi attenuata vix petiolata, radicalia 3-3^ poll, longa sajpe multo minora \ 
poll, lata obtusa integra subcrassa. Capitula oblonga cylindrica \ poll, longa 12-20-flora 
solitaria ad apices scaporum longorum bracteolatorum axillarium v. ad extremitates ramul- 
oruin longorum eymse laxe 2-3-ramosse scaposse ultra folia longe exserta. Phyllaria intima 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 147 

herbacpa 8 linearia obtusa rarius erosa, calyculi squamis brevibus paucis ovatis herbaceis 
in bracteolas transeuntibus. Corollce ligula 4-dentata. Antherce basi breviter sagittatae. 
Styli lobi elongati setulis nigris suffulti. Aclienia linearia subfusiformia non rostrata 4- 
angulata facie quoque plerumque bicostato, costis angulisque rugosis. Pap-pus multiseri- 
atus, exterior lanato-intricatus basi in atmulum deciduum cum setis intimis paucioribus 
serrulatis cohserentibus. 

Socotra. Not uncommon on the hills. B.C.S. n. 307. Schweinf. n. 570. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

It is notably extremely difficult to define the limits of genera amongst 
ligulifloral composites, and it is not without some suspicion that we refer our 
plant to this genus. In this determination I have been influenced mainly by 
the character of the pappus. Its dimorphism is very distinctive of the genus. 
But in the achenes our plant does not quite agree with the generic character. 
The many ribs and the somewhat spindle form brings it much nearer the 
species included in Crepis, under the section Youngia, from which section, 
indeed, its pappus is the only point excluding it. Where the relations of genera, 
as we accept them defined by Hooker and Bentham, are so intimate, and one 
species possesses, as in this instance, to some extent the characters of two 
genera, it practically comes to be merely a matter of convenience which genus 
receives preference. 

In Launcea the Socotran plant has its affinity with L. bellidifolia, Cass, (in 
Diet. Sc. Nat. xxv. (1822), 321 ; Oliv. and Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 
460), a flagelliform species of considerable distribution in Africa, Mascarene 
Islands, and India. Its habit with many other characters readily distinguishes it. 



Order XXXVII. CAMPANULACE^E. 

A large family, spread over the whole globe. Two genera are Socotran, one 
of which is essentially a northern hemisphere genus, and the other has its 
headquarters in the southern hemisphere. 

1. WAHLENBEKGIA. 

Wahlenbergia, Schrad. Cat. Hort. Got. 1814, ex A. DC. Monog. Campan. 129 ; Bentb. et Hook. 
Gen. PI. ii. 555. 

A large genus, chiefly of the southern hemisphere, the majority of species 
occurring in south Africa ; a few are general old world plants and denizens of 
the Mediterranean region, and one is widely dispersed in western Europe. 

W. riparia, Alph. DC. Monog. Campan. 146, and Prod. vii. 435 ; Hemsl. 
in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 480. 

Socotra. On the hills about Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 189. 



148 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Distrib. Tropical Africa (Upper Guinea). 

Our plant has leaves rather larger than in the type. 

2. CAMPANULA. 

Campanula, Linn. Gen. n. 218 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 561. 

A very large genus of herbs, distributed in the northern hemisphere, 
especially abundant in the eastern portion of the Mediterranean region. 

C. dichotoma, Linn. Amoen. iv. 306 ; DC. Prod. vii. 462 ; Boiss. Flor. 
Orient, iii. 929. 

Socotra. Common on dry hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 288. 

Distrib. Canary Islands, Mediterranean region, and Syria. 

Our Socotran plant appears very different from the type of this species, 
having much smaller flowers and the calyx lobes less longly appendaged, 
besides being altogether a more delicate plant. In these characters it 
resembles the Algerian form described by Boissier and Reuter (Pug. Plant. 
Nov. Afr. Bor. (1852), 75), as C. Kremeri, which is really a variety of C. 
dichotoma. Our plant, is, however, a smaller form of the species than that is. 
C. rigidiplia, Hochst. et Steud. (in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. i. n. 167; Hemsley 
in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 482), an Abyssinian plant, is an allied species, 
especially through the form referred to it by Hemsley, C. sarmentosa, Hochst. 
{Joe. cit., sect. ii. n. 1380), but it is a perennial, equally variable, however, both 
in size of flower and general robustness with our plant. 

Order XXXVIII. PLUMBAGINE^]. 

A small family of herbaceous, sometimes shrubby or half-shrubby, plants, 
widely spread over the globe. Of the two Socotran genera, one has nearly the 
distribution of the order, the other is restricted to a few districts on the shores 
of the Indian Ocean. 

1. STATICE. 

Stalice, Linn. Gen. n. 388, pro parte; Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 335 ; Benth. et Hook, Gen. PI. 
ii. 625. 

A large cosmopolitan genus of sea-shore and desert plants, but most abund- 
ant in the northern hemisphere of the old world. 

1. S. axillaris, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 58; Boiss. in DC. Prod. xii. 
663 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 29 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. 
All-, iii. 486; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 868. 

S. Bovei, Jaub. et Spach HI. PI. Or. i. 157, t. 86. 

*S. arabica, Jaub. et Spach he. cit., 156, t. 85 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 868. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 149 

S. Stocksii, Boiss. in DC. Prod. xii. 664, and Flor. Orient, iv. 868 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. 

Ind. iii. 480 ; Wight Tllustr. ii. 225, t. 178 ; Hook. Tc. PI. t. 837. 
S. lanceolata, EJgew. in Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. xvi. (1847), 1218. 

Soeotra. Not uncommon. B.C.S. n. 102. Nimmo. 

Distrib. Arabia, Somali Land, Egypt. 

A widely-spread plant of the region of the Red Sea, varying somewhat in 
the relative length and breadth of leaf, in the elongation or contraction of the 
inflorescence, and in the clothing of the calyx-tube. I do not find any 
sufficient characters justifying the maintenance of either the Arabian or 
Scindian form as distinct species. 

One of Nimmo's Socotran collection. 

2. S. cylindrifolia, Forsk. Fl. .Egypt. Arab. 59; Vahl Symb. i. 26, t. 10; 
Boiss. in DC. Prod. xii. 664. 

Soeotra. On the clay margins of Khor Gharriah and on Nogad Plain. 
B.C.S. n. 528. 

Distrib. South Arabia, Mokha. 

This species, first described by Forskal and figured by Vahl, appears to have 
escaped the notice of collectors in recent times. In Kew Herbarium I find, 
under the name Statice axillaris, a coloured sketch by Col. Playfair of an Aden 
plant which has much resemblance with this species. But there are no 
specimens of such a plant from Aden, nor do I find any other record of its 
occurrence there. T. Anderson does not notice it. Graham in the addenda 
to his Catalogue of Bombay plants describes Eurychiton adensis as an Aden 
plant. This is referred by Bentham and Hooker (Gen. PI. ii. 626) to Statice, 
and they remark " si corolla recte gamopetala descripta ad sectionem Siphou- 
antham pertinet. Collectores recentiores in vicinibus Aden S. axillarem, Forsk., 
solam invenerunt quae ad Limonii species suffruticosas habitu Armeriastro 
accedentes pertinet." Graham's description of the flower of his plant suits 
S. cylindrifolia, that of the foliage suits S. axillaris. Whether or no the plant 
occurs at Aden, its existence in south Arabia has been demonstrated recently 
by Schweinfurth, who sends excellent specimens from near Bolhaf, where the 
Arabic name for it is " Tissumm." Boissier (loc. cit.) suggests its occurrence in 
Upper Egypt. 

2. VOGELIA. 
Vogdia, Lamk. Illustr. ii. 147, t. 149 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 628. 

A small genus, including three species of shrubby plants, one of which is 
peculiar to south Africa, another is endemic in Soeotra, and the third, which is 
found in north-west India and Arabia, extends also to Soeotra. 

1. V. indica, Gibs., ex Wight in Calc. Journ. Nat. Hist. vii. 17, and Ic. 



150 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

t. 1075 ; Boiss. in DC. Prod. xii. 696, and Flor. Orient, iv. 876 ; Clarke in Hook. 
Flor. Brit. Ind. iii. 481. 

V. arabica, Boiss. in DC. Prod. loc. cit., 

var. socotrana,Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Omnino tenuior ; foliis minoribus ssepe vix perfoliatis et retusis ; innorescentia multo pseudo- 
furcatim ramosissima, racemis ultiruis 1-2 poll, longis ; bracteolis lanceolatis ; sepalis 
anguste lanceolatis margine membranaceis superne obscure transverse bullato-undulatis 
inferne truncatis ; corollas limbo sinu apicali vix mucronulato. 

Nom. Vern. Salepho (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the slopes of Haghier. B.C.S. n. 416. Schweinf. nn. 406 
in lit., 523. 

Distrib. Arabia and north-west India. 

I have had some hesitation in referring the Socotran plant to this species, 
but have concluded, after examination of specimens in Kew Herbarium, that it 
should be considered as conspecific, though there are several points of diver- 
gence. 

Firstly, as regards habit,— the Indian and Arabian plant is altogether stouter 
than the Socotran usually is, but at times the latter assumes a tolerably robust 
habit. In foliage, — I have never seen leaves in the Socotran plant so large as 
those figured by Wight, but these appear to have been exceptionally large, and 
in Kew Herbarium I only find one specimen showing leaves at all approaching 
them in size. Then in inflorescence, — this, in our Socotran plant, is a sympodi- 
ally branched, lax, spreading panicle, the terminal racemes of which are rarely 
over an inch and a half or two inches in length. In the type form the inflores- 
cence is not so freely branched, and the ultimates are often six inches or more 
long. The bracts in our specimens are hardly so cuspidate as in the type, and 
the sepals are not so broad, their membranous margin is narrower, with its trans- 
verse bullate undulation very slightly marked, indeed conspicuous only towards 
the apex of the sepal, and at the base it is not so rounded but more abruptly trun- 
cate. There are thus a considerable number of points in which our plant differs 
from the type, though, as regards the calycine characters, the Arabian speci- 
mens supply an intermediate condition between the Indian and the Socotran 
forms; but it is, I believe, deserving of a varietal designation as an insular form. 

2. V. pendula, Baif. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 76. 
Tab. XL1V. 

Fruticosa ramis pendulis ; inflorescentia diffusa paniculata ; sepalorum marginibus membranac- 
eis vix bullatis intus glandulis instructis ; corolbje lobis sinu non mucronulato. 

Frutex elatus 10-pedalis tenuis ramis elongatis virgatis pendulis striatis glaucis in infloresc- 
entiam gradatim excurreutibus. Folia late cuneato v. trapeziformi-spathulata §-1 poll, 
longa -f^-f poll, lata apice mucronatav. subretusa basi in petiolum angustumattenuatasub- 
crassiuscula subtus lepidota. Flares brevissime pcdicellata in racemos breves a nfractuosos 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAY LEY BALFOUR. 151 

dispositi raruulos ultimos laxae multiramosee patentis paniculatse inflorescentire formantes; 
bracteolae ovato-acutae late amplexicaules pedicellis longiores. Sepala linearia acuto- 
punctata \ poll, longa costa media proniinula utrinque margine anguste raembranacea 
vix superne bullata inferne supra basin costae abrupte truncata intun glandulis promin- 
ulis suffulta. Corolla sepalis duplolongior, limbo obcuneato-bilobo sinu 11011 niucronulato. 
Staminum filamenta basi abrupte dilatata ; antherae basi furcatae. Styli lobi crassi intus 
grosse papillosi. Fructus calyci aaquilongus. 

Socotra. On the slopes of Hagbier south from Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 411. 
Schweinf. n. 586. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very distinct species of this genus. In foliage it resembles the south 
African V. africaria, Lamk. (Illustr. ii. 148, t. 149 ; Boiss. in DC. Prod. xii. 
696). But its inflorescence and flowers and general habit separate it. It is a 
lovely shrub, with long hanging branches. 

Order XXXIX. PRIMULACE^]. 

A considerable order of herbs, chiefly dispersed in the temperate regions of 
the northern hemisphere, more rare in the southern hemisphere. 

ANAGALLIS. 

Anagallis, Linn. Gen. n. 206 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 637. 

A small genus, containing some widely-spread and commonly cultivated 
plants, of which one, occurring in Socotra, is spread over the whole world. 

A. arvensis, Linn. Sp. 211; Duby in DC. Prod. viii. 69; Ach. Rich. Tent. 
Flor. Abyss, ii. 16 ; Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 490 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 6 ; 
Hook. fil. Flor. Brit. Inch iii. 506. 

Anagallis phmnicea, Lamk. in berb. Schimp. Arab. n. 891. 

Socotra. Abundant. B.C.S. n. 199. 

Distkib. In common cultivation, and spread over the world. 

It is the blue variety (A. ccerulea, Lamk.), which occurs in Socotra. 



Order XL. MYRSINEJE. 

A considerable order of trees or shrubs of the warmer regions of both 
worlds. Most sparingly represented in tropical Africa. 

MYRSINE. 

Myrsine, Linn. Gen. n. 269 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 642. 

A genus found all round the world, chiefly in tropical regions. 



152 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

M. africana, Linn. Sp. 285; Alpli. DC. Prod. viii. 93; Baker in Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. iii. 493 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 31 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. 
iii. 511 ; Lamk. Illustr. ii. 49, t. 122. 

Socotra. A shrub of the Haghier hills. B.C.S. n. 589. 

Distkib. Himalayan region and Afghanistan, and in tropical Africa, at 
the Cape of Good Hope, and in the Azores. 

Our Socotran specimens of this species are from much larger leaved plants 
than any of the African specimens in Kew Herbarium. Some Cape forms ap- 
proach them in size. They are of the broad type found in the African plants, 
differing from the narroAv-leaved condition characteristic of Indian specimens. 

Order XLI. SAPOTACE^]. 

A considerable order of trees or shrubs, occurring in the tropics of both hemi- 
spheres. 

SIDEROXYLON. 

Sideroxylon, Linn. Gen. n. 264 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 655. 

A considerable tropical genus, but reaching in extratropical regions to 
Madeira, the Cape, and New Zealand. 

S. fimbriatum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 76. 

Arboreurn glabrescens ramis rugosis ; foliis petiolatis exstipulatis ellipticis v. oblongo-ellipticis 
v. obovatis obtusis basi subcuneatis subtus pallidis ; fasciculis sessilibus ; pedicellis 
brevibus validis ; calycis lobis suborbioularibus ; corolla calyce lougiore ; staminum filain- 
entis glabris ; staminodeis petaloideis obovatis fimbriatis ; fructu rostrato. 

Arbor glabrescens ramis validis rugosis lenticellis verrucosis, juvenilibus fusco-tomentosis 
Folia petiolata exstipulata elliptica v. oblongo-elliptica v. a medio versus basim angustata et 
subobovata apice obtusa v. late rotundata uonnunquam emarginata rarius late acuta basi 
plus minusve cuneata plerumque imequilateralia 2£-3 poll, longa 1-1£ poll, lata coriacea 
integra margine subuudulata revoluta, juvenilia fusco-pubescentia, altiora omuino glabra 
pennivenia venis immersis supra nigro-viridia subtus pallidiora. Fasciculi sessiles 6-10- 
flori ; pedicelli validi \ poll, longi fusco-puberuli, fructiferi corrugati glabri. Flores parvi. 
Calycis lobi -fa poll, longi suborbiculares late inserti, 3 exteriores irnbricati subcarinati 
extus puberuli, 2 interiores valvati tenuiores oppositi. Corolla alte 5-iida, segmentis latis 
subrotundatis tubo multo majoribus £ poll, longis extus glabris. Stamina corollae aequi- 
longa, filamentis subulatis glabris; antherse ovato-acutai basi sagittate extrorsse dorso-affixse. 
Staminodia corollas aequilonga petaloidea obovata v. subobcuneata venulo medio iucrassato 
parte superiore subtrapeziformi eroso-limbriata. Ovarium adpresse pilosum ; stylus corolla; 
vix a^quilongus validus. Fructus ovoideus * poll, longus nitidus glaber fulvus stylo 
persistente rostratus. 

Socotra. In the valley opening upon Kadhab plain. Not abundant. 
B.C.S. n. 339. 

Distrib. Endemic. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 153 

A quite distinct species. Its nearest ally is S. diospyroides, Baker (in 
Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 502), a Zanzibar form. But the floral characters, 
especially of the corolla and the staminodes, sufficiently separate them. 



Order XLII. EBENACE.E.* 

An order of tropical and subtropical trees or shrubs, having their head- 
quarters in the East Indies. 

EUCLEA. 

Euclea, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. Murray ii. 747; Benbh. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 664. 

A small genus, restricted to south and tropical Africa. In Socotra we have 
three species, two of them endemic ; the third is doubtfully an Abyssinian one. 
There may be five species on the island, as fragmentary specimens of two other 
plants appear to belong to this genus. 

1. E. laurina, Hiern in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Fruticosa ; foliis ellipticis v. obovatis suboppositis v. oppositis apice plus minusve rotundatis 
basi cuneatis breviter petiolatis supra intense viridibus ; racemis axillaribus ; floribus 4- 
rarissime 3-meris ; corolla anguste cylindrata breviter lobata. 

Frutex ramosus glaber, ramis alternis suboppositis v. oppositis cinereis, ramulis gracilibus lsevibus 
apice squamulis glandulosis parvis rubellis inductis. Folia opposita v. subopposita ellipt- 
ica v. obovata apice plus minusve rotundata basi cuneata attenuata integerrima coriacea v. 
pergamena plus minusve uudulata supra intense viridia infra pallidiora 14—3 poll, longa 
£-l| poll, lata margine anguste incrassato-revoluta, venis lateralibus inconspicuis ; 
petiolus yV~5 P ^* l on g us basi articulatus. Racemi ($ ?) axillares £-£ poll, (floribus exclusis) 
lougi ut videtur 3-7-flori, squamulis glandulosis parvis rubellis conspersis ; pedicelli alterni 
v. oppositi -1*2-6 P°ll' l° n gi- Flores graciles semipollicares v. paulum breviores tetrameri, 
rarissime trimeri. Calyx poculiformis ^ P°H- l ori g us v - paulum brevior glaber saepissime 
4-fidus sub fructu non vel vix accrescens, lobis deltoideis appressis. Corolla anguste cylindr- 
ata glabra apice breviter lobata, lobis obtusis in sestivatione sinistrorsum (ab axe deorsum 
spectanti) convolutis, cylindro gracili firmiter carnoso maximam partem consolidato. 
Stamina nulla. Ovarium parvum minute pilosum. Fructus solitarius ovoideo-globosus 
\-\ poll, longus \-\ poll. diam. pilis brevibus appressis conspersus v. glabratus, stylo 
brevi erecto basi piloso apice saepius 4-fido (vel stylis 2 contiguis apice bifidis) desinens. 
Semen unicum subglobosum. 

Socotra. On Haghier and near Galonsir. B.C.S. nn. 166 %, 383. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This species differs from all previously known species of Euclea by the long 
narrow shape of its corolla, n. 166, perhaps, belongs to this species. It has 
leaves sometimes alternate, and with a greater range of size. 

* I am indebted to Mr. W. P. Hiern for the identification and description of the Ebenaceee, and for 
the subjoined notes. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. U 



154 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

2. E. Balfourii, Hiem in Proe. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Fruticosa ; foliis ovalibus v. obovatis oppositis v. suboppositis apice rotundatis basi plus 
minusve angustatis denmin pleriscpue obtusis undulatis supra viridibus infra rubentibus 
resinoso-lepidotis; racemis masculis axillaribus; floribus 4-meris; corolla late campanulata. 

Fratex dioicus ramosissimus, ramis alternis vel oppositis Line inde approximatis 3-5-nis cinereis 
glabratis, ramulis lepidoto-resiuosis. Folia opposita v. subopposita ovalia v. obovata 
apice rotundata basi plus minusve angustata demum plerumque obtusa firmiter coriacea in 
sicco late undulata supra viridia glabra infra rubentia resinoso-lepidota §— 1§ poll, longa 
\-l poll, lata margine integraangusteincrassato-revoluta, venis lateralibus baud conspicuis; 
petiolus lepidoto-resinosus -^%-\ poll, longus basi articulatus. Raccmi riorum masculorum 
axillares rufi lepidoto-resinosi \-\ poll, (floribus exclusis) lougi plerique 5-7-flori ; pedicelli 
patentes ^f-i poll, longi. Floras late campanulati 4-meri ^ poll. diam. Calyx hemi- 
spbaericus rubro-lepidotus 4-fidus, lobis late ovatis obtusis apiculatis. Corolla calyce bis 
longior dorso adpresse pilosa, lobis tubo bis longioribus obtusis sub alabastro sinistrorsum 
(ab axe deorsum spectanti) convolutis. Stamina 16 biserialia basi corollas inserta, fila- 
mentis exterioribus longioribus ; autheree oblongse connectivo dorso piloso. Ovarium 
rudimentarium pilosum. 

Socotra. On the Haghier hills. B.C.S. n. 167. Schweinf. n. 644. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

The female plant is unknown. This new plant is to be placed between 
E. ovata, Thunb., and E. divinorum, Hiem (Monog. Eben. 99, and in Oliv. Flor. 
Trop. Afr. iii. 513), both of which are south African species, the former extra- 
tropical and the latter tropical as well as extratropical. It is also nearly 
related to some forms of E. lanceolata, E. Mey. (Cat. PI. Exsiccat. Afr. 
Austr. Dreg. 7 ; Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 512), a species of wide 
distribution over Africa, south of the equator. It is best distinguished from 
its allies by the shape, colour, and waviness of its leaves. 

3. ? E. Kellau, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. ii. n. 1078 ; Alph. 
DC. Prod. viii. 219, 289, 672 ; Hiern in Oliv. Flor. Trop. Afr. iii. 514. 

Socotra. Abundant. B.C.S. n. 611. 

Distrib. Abyssinia. 

This differs from the E. Kellau, Hochst., of Abyssinia, by its more coriaceous 
leaves, rather more patent branches, rather shorter racemes of the female 
flowers, and by its hairy ovary or young fruit. In the present state of our 
knowledge of the plant, the male plant and the flowers of each sex being 
unknown, it may be temporarily regarded as a variety of E. Kellau, and it will, 
perhaps, prove to be identical with the Arabian Nakus of Forskal (Fl. ./Egypt. 
Arab. 197). 

4. Euclea sp. ? 

A specimen, without flowers and fruit ; may be of this genus. One of the 
leaves is bifid. 

Socotra. On Haghier. B.C.S. n. 164. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 155 

5. Euclea sp.? 

A fragmentary specimen, with no flowers and fruit, and only the remains of 
one flower seen ; is too imperfect for identification, 

Soeotra. On Haghier. B.C.S. n. 201. 



Order XLIIL OLEACE^E. 

A small order of temperate and warmer regions of both old and new worlds. 

JASMINUM. 

Jasminum, Linn. Gen. n. 17 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 674. 

A genus of some size, including odoriferous and beautiful flowering shrubs, 
often twining, dispersed over the warmer regions of the old world, with a few 
South American species. 

J. rotundifolium, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 77. 
Tab. XLV. 

Fruticosum scandens velutino-puberulum ; foliis trifoliolafcis, foliolis petiolulatis subaequalibus 
v. terminal! majore rotundatis v. ellipticis obtusis; cymis pauiculatis terminalibus ; 
floribus majoribus pedicellatis ; calyce truncato; corollse tubo elongato, lobis 5-6 oblongis ; 
baccis spepe 2 globosis. 

Frutex alte scandens caulibus subtetragonis puberulo-velutinis. Folia opposita trifoliolata 
petiolata 2^-3^ poll, longa, petiolo §— \ poll, longo puberulo ; foliola subaequalia sed 
terminale frequentius rnajus rotundata v. elliptica v. suborbicularia obtusa srepe emarginata 
basi nonnunquam inaequilateralia late cuneata l£-2 poll, longa f— 2 poll, lata omnia 
petiolulata (petiolulo folioli terminalis -f-1 poll, longo, lateralium \ poll, longo) glabra 
nitida sed subtus axillis nervorum 2-3 primarium basalium villosis. Cymce terminales 
multiflorse paniculate©; pedicelli \ poll, longi sursum dilatati puberuli ; bracteolte minutae 
ovatse amplexicaules. Flores majusculi. Calyx truncatus margine suberosus ^ poll, 
longus. Corollai albse suaveolentas tubus f poll, longus, limbi lobi 5-6 oblongo-obtusi \ 
poll, longi. Stamina supra medium tubi inserta ; antberse lanceolatse obtusa? filamentis 
duplolongiores. Stylus exsertus supra corn planatus apice breviter bilobatus. Fructus ssepe 
didymus, bacea quaque globosa \ poll. diam. nigra nitida. 

Soeotra. On the hills in several places, often at a high altitude. B.C.S. 
n. 173. Schweinf. n. 649. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very sweet-scented species. We found it very abundant on the eastern 
plateau of the island, but it occurs also on Haghier. 

It is closely allied to J. mauritianum, Bojer (Hort. Maur. 204; DC. Prod, 
viii. 310), a plant of Mauritius and Seychelles, erroneously referred by Baker 
(Flor. Maur. and Seych. 220) to J. auriculalum, Vahl (Symb. hi. 1; DC. Prod. viii. 



156 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

309), which is a very different plant, with smaller flowers, fruits, and leaves. 
So close is the resemblance between our species and the Mascarene and 
Seychelles one, that, at first, one might almost regard them as conspecific ; but they 
may be diagnosed by the following features : — The leaves in our plant are never 
narrowed to the apex as in the Mauritian one, they never have a cordate base 
(it is always more or less wedge-shaped), the flowers are on longer pedicels 
and the whole cyme is more substantial, the calyx is thoroughly and always 
truncate, and the fruit is much larger. From J. auriculatum the separation is 
still wider, and the difference in size of the flowers and leaves is readily 
recognisable. 

Order XLIV. SALVADORACE^E. 

A small family of three genera of trees or shrubs of tropical and subtropical 
regions, inhabiting western Asia, Africa, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. 

SALVADOEA. 

Salvadora, Linn. Gen. n. 163 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 681. 

A genus of three species with the distribution of the order. 

S. persica, Linn. Sp. 178 ; Lamk. Illustr. i. 323, t. 81 ; Alph. DC. Prod, 
xvii. 28 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 43 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iii. 619 ; 
Roxb. Corom. PI. i. 26, t. 26. 

Socotra. Near Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 334. 
Distrib. From Syria and tropical Africa to India. 

Abundant on the island. The inhabitants use the twigs as tooth-sticks. 
Camels feed largely on this plant, hence the specimens are usually dwarfed. 



Order XLV. APOCYNACE.E. 

A large tropical and subtropical order of both hemispheres. Its Socotran 
development is interesting. Three genera are represented, each by one species. 
One of these is endemic, with quite an exceptional habit in the order, one is a 
tropical and south African and Arabian genus, and the third has a wider range 
in Africa, tropical Asia, and Australia. 

1. CARISSA. 
Cwrism, Linn. Mant. n. 1251 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 695. 

A small genus of shrubby, usually spiny plants, inhabiting Africa, tropical 
Asia, and tropical Australia. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 157 

C. Schimperi, Alph. DC. Prod. viii. 675 ; Ach. Eich. Tent Flor. Abyss, ii. 
31, t. 68. 

Socotra. Not uncommon. B.C.S. n. 593. Schweinf. n. 668. 

Distrib. Abyssinia. 

There may be some doubt as to this identification. I have seen no 
specimens of the Abyssinian plant, but with the description and the figure our 
plant accords very well. Especially does it conform in the features which are 
mentioned as strongly characteristic of the species, viz : — the glabrousness, the 
green branchlets, and its generally non-spiny habit. In this last character, 
however, it varies, for I find on some of our specimens minute and sometimes 
prominent spines. The chief points of difference are found in its shorter and 
fewer flowered inflorescences, narrower corolla lobes, and smaller fruit. 

2. SOCOTORA. 

Socotora, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 77. 

Calyx brevis 5-partitus basi intus glandulosus segmentis acutis. Corolla late campanulata, 
tubo brevissimo, fauce squamis 2-seriatis connatis instructo, exterioribus 5 flagelliformibus 
sinubus oppositis, interioribus 10 rotunda tis obliquis per pares lobis oppositis ; lobi 5, 
oblongo-ovati, obtusi, eniarginati, ecaudati, antice rubro glandulo paunosi, contorti, 
dextrorsum obtegentes. Stamina 5 tubo affixa, filamentis validis, decurrentibus, basi 
dilatatis et inter se squamis connatis ; antberae exsertae, subovatae, acuta;, circum stigma 
conniventes non adbserentes, connectivo lato dorso villoso, loculis basi cassis in appeudiculas 
breves rotundatas productis. Pollen granulosum in quoque loculo in massas 2 cobserens. 
Discus 0. Ovarii carpella 2 conjuncta ; stylus validiis brevis ; stigma dilatatum vertice 
depresso-conicum, lateraliter 5-gonum, galeis 5 cinctum et appendicula stigmatica ab 
quoque angulo pendula instructum ; ovula in quoque loculo numerosa. Folliculi lineares 
divaricatim adscendentes et basi connati. Semina lanceolata trigono-compressa apice 
comosa ; albumen copiosum firmum ; cotyledones lineari-oblongae, rectae, planae, crassius- 
culae, radicula supera longiores. — Frutex scandens, glaber, crassiusculus, aphyllus. Folia 
cataphyllaria opposita. Flores solitarii axillares. 

A monotypic genus, with the habit and general appearance of Periplocece, 
especially of Periploca itself; but it is excluded from Asclepiadacese by the 
absence of the corpuscles bearing the pollen, the only character by which 
Apocynads are distinguishable from Asclepiads. 

In the Apocynacese it belongs to the tribe of the EcMtidece with appendaged 
anthers. But in this tribe it is somewhat exceptional, and indeed in the whole 
family it is remarkable on account of the complexity of its floral structure. 
This is worthy of special mention. In the first place each corolla lobe has on 
its face a large red glandular patch, secreting a very tenacious substance. On 
the throat of the corolla are two sets of scales, an outer of five and an inner of 
ten pieces, or perhaps one may say one set of five scales, each of which is divided 
into three pieces, the central one being external, the other two internal. The 
central ones are long, filiform structures, opposite the sinuses of the corolla 



158 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

expanding at the base, and joining on to the lateral short rounded lobes, 
each of which is set on the corolla at an obtuse angle to the radius of the 
flower, and forms with the base of the filiform lobe a small cup on the surface of 
the corolla. The lateral lobes of each scale nearly coalesce across each corolla 
lobe. The stamens, which have short filaments, stand embraced between the 
lateral lobes of the scales and opposite the central lobe, and are attached below 
this last to the corolla tube by an insertion extending to the bottom of the 
tube. At the base of the tube the filaments expand laterally, become connate, 
and thus form a ring around the pistil, and the interstaminal portions of this 
ring are produced into fimbriated scales, which, bending inwards, conceal the 
ovary. But the stigmatic structure is more remarkable. The stigma is 
expanded into a large more or less peltate disc, with a low conical vertex, but it 
is 5-angled at the side, and each surface of this small pyramid is clothed with 
a membranous inverted hood, from the inferior extremity of which there 
depends by an elastic membranous articulation a somewhat brick-shaped body, 
hollowed on one side and closely appressed at first to the style. It is not 
difficult to disengage these appendages from the style, and then they spring up 
by means of their articulation and project from the stigma at a greater or less 
angle. The stigma is altogether more Asclepiadaceous than Apocynaceous. 
But as I have already mentioned, the stamens are quite free from it, and there 
are no pollen corpuscles. What is the nature of these bodies pendant from the 
stigma, remains doubtful. They can hardly be corpuscles, as the stamens are 
always quite free and separate from the stigma, and the bodies do not approach 
the anther sacs. They may be the stigmatic surfaces. Each has a viscid 
concavity, and we find in some genera of Apocynads lateral portions of the 
style sometimes stigmatiferous. Or they may be merely secreting glandular 
appendages. Unfortunately we have but a few flowers for examination, and 
are therefore unable to determine this point. 

Amongst Echitidece the genus is aberrant. The aphyllous habit is very 
exceptional, not only in the tribe but in the order. Most genera in this tribe have 
the carpels distinct from one another below the style, but there are a few genera, 
— Vallaris, Lyonsia, Parsonsia, and others, — in which the carpels are connate, 
and this is their character in our Socotran genus. The three I have mentioned 
fall into the section of the Parsonsiece, characterised by the connivent anthers 
forming an exserted cone ; and our genus conforming with that character must 
be referred to the same tribe, and its position is in the vicinity of the above 
genera. 

Its individuality is so strong that it is hardly necessary to refer in detail to 
the characters by which it is diagnosed from the neighbouring genera. The 
seed comose at the apex, and the straight cotyledons, and its distribution, exclude 
it from all except some five old world genera, Pottsia and Isonema being the 
two m addition to the three above mentioned. From them the stamens not 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 159 

adhering to the stigma, with anther cells at the base rounded and empty but not 
produced into a long rigid appendage, with the many characters of the scales 
and stigma, completely separate it. 

Etym. Socotora, an older name for the island of Socotra. 
S. aphylla, Balf. fil. he. cit. Tab. XLVI. 

Frutex glaucus late scandens multo pseudo-dicbotome ramosus, ramulis teretibus crassis, inter- 
nodiis 1^-2 poll, longis, nodis constrictis. Folia catapbyllaria minute late ovata ciliata. 
Flores pauci, pedicellis £ poll, longis. Calyx -fe poll, longus, segmentis ovatis glabris. 
Corolla § poll, longa, squamis exterioribus longissimis lobis corollas sequilongis v. longior- 
ibus. Antherce loculi in parte triente inferna cassi. Sqicamce basales interstamiuales 
inflexae fimbriatae. Stigmatis appendiculae oblong ss muriformes concavse articulo mem- 
branaceo galeis ad angulas affixae. Folliculi 4 poll, longi glabri. Semina ad extremitates 
ambos attenuata £ poll, longa. 

Soeotra. On the hill slopes, south-west of Galonsir. Rare. B.C.S. 
n. 327. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A plant we only found in one locality, spreading over the boulders on the hill 
slopes. 

3. ADENIUM. 

Adenium, Roem. et Schult. Syst. iv. xxxv, and 411 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 722. 

An interesting genus, including six or seven species, natives of Africa and 
Arabia. 

A. multiflorum, Klotzsch in Peters' Mossamb. 279, t. 44. 

Nom. Vern. (Esfed or Isfecl (Schweinf.). Assett (Wellst.). 

Socotra. Abundant on the hills. B.C.S. nn. 139, 174, 695. Schweinf. 
n. 245. 

Distrib. East tropical Africa (Mozambique). 

This species, to which we consider our Socotran plant may be referred, has 
been hitherto recognised as an east tropical African plant only. It is nearly allied 
to a west tropical African form, Ad. Honghel, DC, but has villous lines inside the 
base of the corolla tube. Probably it will be eventually found over a consider- 
able district in east tropical Africa. 

On Socotra the plant varies much in size of leaf and of flower. The African 
plant is small-flowered, resembling those found on the south side of the hills of 
Socotra. Some of our plants have flowers twice as large as those figured by 
Klotzsch. Klotzsch mentions glands on the leaves of his plants, but questions 
their normality. There are no such glands on our specimens. 

This Socotran plant is, I believe, the one referred to by Wellsted (in Journ. 
Eoy. Geogr. Soc. v. (1835), 198), as the Assett tree. (See page 101 of this 
volume. ) It is abundant, and forms in many places most fantastic plants. 
Some of them have a broad basal trunk as much as six or eight feet in diameter, 



160 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

and only about a foot and a half high, and from the top of this rise a few rapidly 
tapering branches, each ending in a small tuft of leaves, or, it may be, in a truss 
of beautiful pink flowers. 

There has been great confusion in the nomenclature of the species of 
Adenium from Arabia and tropical Africa, and I may here attempt to clear up 
the confusion. 

Rcemer and Schultz (Syst. iv. xxxv, and 411) constituted the genus Adenium 
for a plant collected by Forskal in the vicinity of Melhan in Arabia, north-west 
of Mokha, which he shortly described — (Fl. yEgypt. Arab. 205) — under the 
name Nerium obesum, thus: — " foliis sparsis oblongis ; ramis loriformibus- 
Caudex mollis, bulbum referens supra terram, volumine capitis humani." 

It is to be observed that he does not say anything as to the texture or the 
indumentum of the leaves. Vahl (Symb. ii. 45.) gives, under the same name, 
a fuller description of Forskal's plant, and there is no reason to doubt that his 
description was founded on Forskal's specimens. His description of the leaves 
is as follows : — " folia oblonga ad apices ramorum, approximata, subpetiolata, 
saepe tripollicaria, basi angustiora mucronata, avenia: subtus villoso-tomentosa : 
juniora utrinque mollia." 

G. Don (Gen. Syst. iv. 80) takes up this same plant under Rcemer and 
Schultz's name Adenium obesum (Adenum he writes). But Sprengel (Syst. 
Veg. i. 641) refers to it as Cameraria obesum. Alphonse De Candolle (Prod, 
viii. 412) rightly reverts to the generic name Adenium, and in addition to Ad. 
obesum, Rcem. and Schult., he describes a second species, Ad. Honghel, a west 
tropical African form, which is quite a distinct one, having glabrous leaves and 
the corolla tube internally glabrous. 

Now in the Botanical Register, xxxii. t. 54, we find a figure and a descrip- 
tion purporting to be of Ad. Honghel, DC. The description is quoted from De 
Candolle's Prodromus, and is that of Ad. Honghel, but it does not apply to the 
figure, which is that of a species found at Aden, and not the west tropical African 
plant. This Aden plant is the one which has always been best known, and was 
introduced into cultivation and flowered in Britain prior to 1841. But, strange 
to say, it has never been correctly named. T. Anderson (in Journ. Linn. Soc. 
v. (1860), Suppl. 23) describes the Aden plant as Ad. obesum, Rcem. and Schult., 
and under this name it has become generally known, — and he supposed it to be 
Forskal's plant, and the one referred to by Don and Sprengel, and also the 
species Ad. Honghel of the Botanical Register, though not of De Candolle. 

He refers to the leaves as " ellipticis ovatis v. spathulatis glabris." 

This is a correct description of the Aden plant, but it evidently refers to one 
very different from Forskal's plant, — the one described by Roemer and Schultz ; 
and whilst it suits the figure under Ad. Honghel, in the Botanical Register, to 
which he refers, yet the description there given is, as I have said above, of a 
different species, viz., of the true Ad. Honghel, DC. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 161 

Thus the Aden plant has been confounded with the Ad. obesum, Roam, and 
Schult., and with Ad. Honghel, DC, from both of which it is different, and 
these latter species have also been confounded together. The Aden plant has 
been more recently figured in the Botanical Magazine, t. 5418, as Forskal's plant, 
under the name Ad. obesum. Here, again, there is confusion ; the figure is 
rightly enough the Aden plant, but the description is inapplicable, and is that 
of the true Ad. obesum, Roem. and Schult. 

The fact is, there are two Arabian species, the old Ad. obesum, Roem. and 
Schult., not known from Aden, and the Aden plant, to which we must now give 
a name, and I propose Ad. arabicum. They are both quite distinct from Ad. 
Honghel, DC 

Fenzl (Diagn. iEthiop. in Kais. Akad. "Wiss. Wien, li. (1865), 140) diagnoses a 
form from ./Ethiopia, as Ad. speciosum, distinguishing it from Ad. Honghel, DC, 
by its general pubescent character, and the subracemose flowers. From the 
glabrous Ad. Honghel, DC, the form is quite distinct, but I cannot separate it 
from Ad. obesum, Roem. and Schult., which is quite as tomentose, and the sub- 
racemose floral arrangement is worth little, for one finds there is a tendency in 
all species to elongation of the rhachis ; indeed Roemer and Schultz's original 
description speaks of the inflorescence as a corymb. Fenzl's plant, then, I take 
to be merely Ad. obesum, which is thus not an endemic Arabian form. 

The east tropical African plant, Ad. multiflorum, Klotzsch, is a form quite 
distinct from the above three species, and readily distinguishable by its glabrous 
leaves with veins conspicuous below, and the corolla tube internally lined with 
hairs. With it our Socotran plant appears conspecific. 

In Kew Herbarium some specimens from Somali Land belong to a very 
distinct form, which may be described as new under the name Ad. somalense. 
It is readily distinguished by its almost linear glaucous leaves. There is but 
one flower on the plant, and I have hesitated to dissect it ; but it apparently 
wants the hairy lines at the base of the corolla tube inside. 

Resides these I have mentioned, the genus is represented in south Africa by 
some forms distinct specifically, but of which material is not yet forthcoming 
for complete diagnosis. 

It may be well if I now give concisely the synonymy of the several species 
I have mentioned above, with a short diagnosis of each. 

A. obesum, Roem. et Schult. Syst. iv. xxxv, and 411 ; G. Don'" Syst. iv. 
80 ; Alph. DC Prod. viii. 412 ; Hook. Bot. Mag. descr. sub tab. 5418, non. ic. 

A. speciosum, Fenzl Diagn. iEtluop. in Kais. Akad. Wiss. Wien, li. (1865), 140. 
Nerium obesum, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 205 ; Vakl Symb. ii. 45. 

* Alph. De Candolle quotes Don, and in tins lie is followed by T. Anderson, and in the Botanical 
Magazine, as referring this plant to the genus Pachypodium. But I cannot discover this. Don rightly 
enough writes of Adenium (or Adenum) obesum, but in a note he says, " See Pachypodium, p. 78, 
for culture and propagation," and this may have originated the mistaken quotation, 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXL X 



162 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Cameraria obesum, Spreng. Syst. Veg. i. 641. 

Foliis oblongis scepe obovatis eveniis subtus villoso-tornentosis, junioribus utrinque mollibus ; 
corollas tubo in feme intus lineato-villoso. 

Distrib. Arabia, Nile Land, Nubia, and east tropical Africa. 

A. Honghel, Alph. DC. Prod. viii. 412; Bot. Reg. xxxii. (1846), descr. 
sub tab. 54, non. ic. 

Foliis obovato-oblongis basi attenuates subsessilibus glabris ; corollas tubo inferne intus glabro. 

Distrib. Senegambia and west tropical Africa. 

A. arabicum, Balf. fil.. 

A. Honghel, Bot. Beg. xxxii. t. 54, ic. sol. non. descr. 

A. obesum, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 23, syn. partim excl. (non. Eoem. 

et Schult.). 
A. obesum, Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 5418, ic. sol. non descr. 
Foliis ellipticis v. ovatis subtus eveniis glabris ; corollse tubo inferne intus glabro. 

Distrib. Aden. Abundant on the hill crags, but now difficult to obtain. 
This is the form most often seen in cultivation. 

A. multiflorum, Klotzsch in Peters' Mossamb. 279, t. 44. 

Foliis oblongis obovatis subpetiolatis penniveniis venulis subtus conspicui3 glabris ; corolla; 
tubo inferne intus lineato-villoso. 

Distrib. East tropical Africa (Mozambique) and Socotra. 
A. somalense, Balf. fil. 

Foliis sublinearibus glaucis lepidotis. 

Distrib. Somali coast (1862). Playfair 3. 

Order XLVI. ASCLEPIADE.E. 

A very large order of the warm regions of the world, some genera reaching 
temperate zones. In Socotra there are twelve genera, only two of which have 
a general distribution in both the old and new worlds ; all the rest are old world 
species. Four of these range through Africa and tropical Africa, two of them 
reaching Australia ; one, Ectadiopsis, is restricted to tropical and south Africa, 
and one, Glossonema, has this African distribution with an extension into Arabia ; 
one, Boucerosia, is characteristic of the dry plains in the northern hemisphere 
from Spain to India, one, Echidnopsis, is an Abyssinian genus, and two are 
endemic. 

1. ECTADIOPSIS. 
Ectadiopsis, Bentb. in Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 741. 

A small genus of some five or six species, inhabiting east tropical and south 
Africa. Three of the species are Socotran, two being endemic, and probably 
the third also. 



PHANEROGAMS — PRFOESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 163 

1. E. volubilis, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 78. Tab. 
XL VII. 

Fruticosa volubilis; foliis diversis ab forma lineari ad obovatam variantibus subsessilibus 
saepe fasciculatis; cymis pedunculatis ; floribus breviter pedicellatis. 

Frutex volubilis ramis elongatis verrucosis glabris nodis tumidis internodiis elongatis, later- 
alibus ssepe coutractis cicatricosis. Folia opposita sessilia v. subsessilia ad ramos con- 
tractos rosulato-fasciculata magnitudine formaque variantia, nunc linearia 4 poll, longa 
\ poll, lata, nunc oblanceolata v. anguste obovata 1 poll, longa ^ poll, lata formasque 
intermedias exhibentia, apice in foliis angustis apiculata v. cuspidata, in latioribus 
plerumque obtusa emarginata et niucronata, margine integra subrevoluta supra nitida 
subtus opaca subglauca venulosa. Cymce pedunculatse axillares pauciflorse rbachi \ poll, 
longa valida breviter puberula ; bracteolae ovatse margine niembranaceo-ciliatse ; pedicelli 
^2 poll, longi. Calyx -^ poll, longus basi intus 5-glandulosus, segmentis ovatis acutis 
subcarinatis. Corolla flavescente-alba \ poll, longa, tubo brevi, lobis angustis obtusis. 
Corona; squamae ad orem corollini tubi attingentes clavatae medio tubi affixae. Anthera 
glabrae acutae, corpusculorum appendicibus oblanceolatis tenuissimis. Stigma pileiforme 
umbonatum obscure 2-lobatum. Folliculi divaricati 1£ poll, longi crassiusculi acuti 
striati. Semina comosa £ poll, longa. 

Nom. Vern. Ekkehin (Schweinf). 

Soeotra. Common. B.C.S. nn. 259, 696. Schweinf. nn. 472, 667. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This and the following species are interesting Asclepiads, taking their 
position in this genus more naturally than in any other amongst the Peri- 
plocew. From the type, however, they differ in having longer corona scales, and 
the dilated extremity of the scale tapers upwards to a point, reaching quite to 
the mouth of the corolla tube. With the south African Curroria they have a 
near affinity, but the form of the corpuscular appendages exclude them from it. 

This species is unique in the genus, on account of its twining habit. All 
the others are erect shrubs. 

It is very common on both limestone and granitoid regions of the island, 
and exhibits a strongly marked heterophylly, the leaves passing from very 
narrow long and linear forms, as in most of n. 259, through narrowly lanceo- 
late or oblanceolate shapes, as in many of Schweinfurth's specimens, until we 
find, as in our n. 696, leaves short and distinctly obovate, three or four times as 
broad as the linear ones. 

2. E. brevifolia, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 78. 

Fruticosa rigida erecta foliis sparsis brevibus sessilibus ssepe fasciculatis oblongis v. obovatis 
obtusis emarginatis mucronatis v. apiculatis ; cymis sessilibus ; floribus brevissime pedic- 
ellatis. 

Frutex lignosus ramis rigidis verrucosis glabris ssepe ad apicem marcidis et subspinosis laterales 
ramulos contractos gerentibus. Folia sessilia v. subsessilia sparsa ad ramulos contractos 
fasciculata oblonga v. oblongo-elliptica v. obovata v. oblanceolata basi angustata ^-§ poll. 



164 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

longa J-J- poll, lata coriacea supra viridia saepe medio panno rubro notata subtus glauca 
pulverulenta. Flares in cymas sessiles 2-3-floras ad apices ramulorum contractoruni 
dispositi ; pedicellis brevissimis pubescentibus ; bracteis rninutis ovatis. Calyx ^ P°H. 
longus extus pubescens, segmentis late ovatis. Corolla £ poll, longa campanulata, lobis 
lineari-lanceolatis obtusis. Coronce squamae clavatae parvae incurvae inclusae medio tubo 
corollae affixae. Antherce glabrae. Pollen granulosum appendicibus corpusculorum 
oblanceolatis tenuissimis. Stigma pileiforme umbonatum. Folliculi 1^-lf poll, longi. 
Semina elliptica £ poll, longa. 

Nom. Vern. Gisso (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the limestone plateau south-west from Galonsir, at an 
elevation of over 1500 feet. Also in a few other like situations. B.C.S. nn 
583, 615. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another species with a corona aberrant from the generic type in the same 
direction as the foregoing, though in habit it conforms with the type. This with 
its small coriaceous leaves readily distinguishes it. 

We have another set of specimens, n. 99, collected near Galonsir, of a hard- 
wooded shrub, which is probably this species. But the lateral shortened 
branches project farther from the stems, and show very clearly the cicatrices 
of the fallen leaves ; the leaves are shorter, more persistently oval, and almost 
invariably have the lamina on the upper face coloured dark red in the centre, 
there being only a small marginal circlet left green. The calyx on the single 
flower present on the specimens is rather smaller than those in the plant de- 
scribed last, and the corona scales are slightly longer ; the flower being 
altogether not unlike that to which I next refer under n. 634. 

3. Ectadiopsis sp.? 

Socotra. Near Kadhab. B.C.S. n. 634. 

We have another set of specimens of a plant, the exact position of which I 
am unable to determine, although I am inclined to consider it a form of 
Ectadiopsis. The characters are briefly these : — A small shrubby virgate plant, 
with many contracted lateral branches bearing tufts of leaves, and also many 
tawny-barked elongated twigs. Some of the leaves, notably those in the tufts, 
are like those of the Socotran species of Ectadiopsis, the others more nearly 
resemble those of the plant presently to be described, Mitolepis intricata. They 
are, however, never pubescent, but often pulverulent underneath, becoming gla- 
brous. The flowers are peculiar. I have only found a single unbroken one upon 
the specimens, and it shows a calyx and corolla as in the foregoing species, 
stamens also alike only with the anthers somewhat ciliate, but the clavate corona 
scales are considerably longer than in Ectadiopsis, though not nearly so long as 
in Mitolepis. But the most remarkable feature in the specimens is the tendency 
to abnormality and phyllody in the flower. Perfect flowers with the character 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 165 

I have indicated are rare, but there are many differing from that which must 
be the normal type. These are commonly borne at the extremity of an 
elongated twig or, at least, internode, and are readily observed, being twice the 
size of the normal flower. In some of them the calyx may be normal, and the 
corolla has a slightly dilated tube, constricted at the throat, where it is girt by 
a thickened and pubescent ring, and the segments of its limb are long and leaf- 
like ; the corona scales are subulate, slightly inserted into the corolla tube 
above the oral constriction, exserted, and attain a length of a quarter of that of 
the limb of the corolla ; there are no stamens, and in the centre of the flower 
is a pistil slightly compressed, and adherent to the corolla tube, thinning 
upwards into a sort of beak distinctly bilobed at the apex. But there are 
more extreme cases than that. In some flowers there is phyllody of all parts. 
We find a calyx, cup-shaped at base, with more or less green leafy lobes, a 
corolla of five leafy lobes, and rising from inside of it, and alternating with its 
lobes, five similar leaf-like bodies, which I assume represent the corona scales ; 
in the centre is a couple of leaves connate at the base, and enclosing a cavity, 
and these I take to represent the carpels, and between them are visible two 
small processes which may be additional leaves on the axis. It appears, then, 
we have complete phyllody with suppression of the andrcecium. The five 
processes within the corolla lobes I take to be corona scales, for they occupy 
the position of these in the half-phyllodied flower. It is commonly accepted 
that the corona in Asclepiads is an emergence, so that in this instance we have 
emergences becoming themselves foliar. I know of no recorded instance of 
this in any other plant. In the Appendix I again refer to this subject. 

2. MITOLEPIS. 

Mitolepis, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 78. 

Calyx 5-partitus, glandulosus, segmentis oblongis. obtusis. Corolla eampanulata, tubo brevi, 
lobis angustis linearibus obtusis contortis dextrorsum obtegentibus. Coronae squamae 5, 
basi fusifornies, apice fili formes, medio tubo corollae affixae qua paulum breviores. Stamina 
prope basin tubi affixa, filamentis liberis ; antherae erectae, basi stigmati adbaerentes, apice 
couniventes, acutae, liberae, dorso glabrae. Pollen granulosum appendicibus oblongo- 
ellipticis corpusculorum applicitum. Stigma depresso-conicum medio 2-lobum. Eolliculi 
divaricati teretes striati subtiliter puberuli. Semina comosa. — Frutex erectus multi- 
ramosus. Folia opposita fasciculata linearia. Flores solitarii breviter pedicellati. 

A monotypic genus of Periplocece, having the corona scales attached to the 
corolla tube. It is thus a neighbour of such genera of shrubby habit as 
Curroria, JEchmolepis, Ectadiopsis, and Ectadium. But there are characters 
which prevent our plant being included in any one of these genera. Thus 
Curroria, a south African ditypic genus, is distinguished by the connate 
filaments of the stamens and by its orbicular appendages to the corpuscles. 



166 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

JEchmolepis, a monotypic and imperfectly known genus from Angola, has 
sagittate corona scales, but from the description it is very closely allied to our 
plant, From Ectadiopsis the nonclavate exserted corona scales separate it ; 
whilst the monotypic south African Ectadium, which is possibly its nearest 
affinity, has an urceolate or salver-shaped corolla, with subulate corona scales, 
the anthers cohering and villous on the back, and the inflorescence cymose. 
The small Madagascar genus Pentopetia has also many technical resemblances, 
but its habit and appendaged anthers differentiate it. 
Etym. niros, a thread, and Xem?, a scale. 

M. intricata, Balf. fil. he. cit. Tab. XL VIII. 

Frutex 6-pedalis intricato-ramosa, ramis ultimis obscure puberulis glabrescentibus ramulos 
contractos gerentibus. Folia sessilia ad ramulos contractus fasciculata, rnox decidua £-£ 
poll, longa ^ poll, lata linearia v. oblanceolata obtusa ssepe emarginata apiculata v. 
mucronulata revoluta crassa leviter pubescentia subtus subcanescentia. Flores inter folia 
fasciculati solitarii, pedicellis -^ poll, longis pubescentibus. Calyx ^ P°H- longus extus 
pubescens, lobis lateraliter membranaceis apice suberosis. Corolla \ poll, longa extus 
glabra. 

Socotra. On hills near Kadhab and Kischen. B.C.S. n. 508. Schweinf. 
n. 651. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This plant loses its foliage very early. Our specimens were gathered 
from a bush in full flower which was almost destitute of foliage leaves. In 
many features it is not unlike our species of Ectadiopsis, but the technical 
characters of its corona and of the andrcecium are very different. 

3. COCHLANTHUS. 

CochlantMcs, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 78. 

Calyx urceolatus, alte 5-fidus, lobis longe acutis recurvis, intus basi 5-squarnatus, squarnis 
dentatis. Corolla campanulata alte 5-partitus, tubo brevi, segmentis angustis obtusis 
valide sinistrorsum contortis dextrorsum obtegentibus. Corona? squamae 5, tubo corolla? 
affixae, breves, valida?, crassa?, apice 2-loba?, basi leviter latiores, subcomplanata? tubo 
corolla? aequilongae et supra gynostegium conuiventes. Stamina intra coronam aflixa, 
filameutis brevissimis distinctis; antbera? deltoidea?, stigmati adha?rentes, couniventes 
apice in appendices breves subulatos abrupte reflexos producta?, imberbes. Pollen granul- 
osum, corpusculorum appendicibus linearibus paulum concavis. Stigma late conicum 
vertice bilobum ; ovula numerosa. Folliculi crassi breves oblongo-ovoidei leves divaricati. 
Semina comosa. — Frutex alte scandens. Folia opposita glabra. Cyma? in paniculas 
corymbosas pedunculatas terminales dispositi. Flores pedicellati. 

A monotypic genus of Periplocem, having some affinity with Periploca itself. 
From that genus, however, it is readily diagnosed by the corolla, corona-scales, 
and the glabrous anthers. There are two or three other African or Madagascar 
genera closely allied to Periploca, with which our genus has relations, notably 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 167 

with the south African monotypic " Chlorocodon. But that genus has dorsal 
appendages to the corona-scales, and the form of the scales in the other adjacent 
genera, Raphionacme and Tacazza, with other characters separates them. 
Cryptolepis, an African and tropical Asiatic genus, includes forms much like 
our plant in habit, and is closely allied, perhaps as closely as any other genus ; 
but the stamens have long filaments, and the corona scales are inserted in the 
tube of the corolla at a distance from the filaments. 

One of the most marked features in our plant is the contortion of the 
corolla, the edges of the petals forming a series of very prominent threads in a 
spire. Its other noteworthy characters are the stout bilobed corona scales, the 
anthers unbearded, and with reflexed apical appendages to the corpuscles, and 
the wide and short fruit. This in the present state of our knowledge of the 
family is a distinct genus, but it may prove to be a link connecting Cryptolepis 
with some of the other genera I have mentioned. 

Etym. koxKo<5, a spiral shell or screw, and avdos, a flower. 
C. socotranus, Balf. fil. loc. cit. Tab. XLIX. 

Frutex late scan dens, ramis elongatis, ramulis tetragon is leviter puberulo-tomentosis. Folia 
sessilia elliptica v. late oblonga v. subrotundata 1^-2 poll, longa 1-1£ poll, lata apice 
obtusa retusa v. emarginata mucronata basi subcordata margine obscure undulata crassi- 
uscula pennivenia glabra glauca. Paniculas corymbosse 1£ poll, diara. ramulis validis, 
bracteis subulatis minutis, pedicellis validis subtiliter pubescentibus -jV-g poll, longis. 
Calyx £ poll, longus extus subtiliter puberulus segmentis margine membranaceis. Corolla 
£ poll, longa, lobis sursum angustatis £ poll, longis. Folliculi 1£ poll, longi £ poll. diam. 
jSemina lagenseformia scrobiculata £ poll, longa. 

Socotra. On the Haghier hills, at an elevation over 3000 feet. B.C.S. n. 
525. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This is a very handsome shrub. 

4. SECAMONE. 

Secamone, R. Br., in Mem. Wern. Soc. i. 55 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 746. 

A small genus, including mostly twining species, natives of tropical and 
south Africa, the Mascarene Islands and Madagascar, tropical Asia and 
Australia. The Mascarene and Madagascar species form a very distinct 
section in the genus, and to it the Socotran plant belongs. 

S. socotrana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 79. Tab. L. 

Volubilis ramis ferrugineo-tomentosis ; foliis obovatis ; cymis subsessilibus ; corollae tubo intus 
lineari-villoso ; stigmate capitato spongioso ; folliculis breviter pubescentibus. 

Frutex volubilis internodiis multo elongatis ramulis ferrugineo-tomentosis. Folia opposita 
petiolata |— 1^ poll, longa £-£ poll, lata obovata apice emarginata v. rotundata et integra 



168 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

scepe mucronata basi gradatim attenuata margiae integra late revoluta scepe subsinuata 
coriacea opaca supra glabra subtus canescentia pennivenia nervo medio supra impresso 
subtus prominente veuis immersis ; petiolus £-£ poll, longus. Cymce axillares subsessiles 
multiflorre foliis breviores. Florcs brevissime pedicellati v. subsessiles, pedicellis ferrugineo- 
tomentosis. Calyx glandulosus ^ poll, longus, segmentis obovatis margine merubranaceis 
ciliatis dorso ferrugineo-tomentosis. Corolla extus glabra carapanulata ad medium 5-fida, 
tubo intus lineis lunatis villosis limbi lobis alternantibus instructo, lobis limbi longe 
ovatis obtusis sinistrorsum obtegentibus. Coronce squamse staminibus basi adnatae et inter 
se in parte triente inferiore connatae superne liberse lineares obtusse tubo staminum 
sequilongse et adpressae. Antherce cristatae. Ovarii carpella 2 distincta semi-immersa ; 
stylus inferne crassus, stigmate capitato mutico spongioso obscure bilobato ; ovula multi- 
seriata. Folliculi divaricati lineares teretes minute pubescentes 2^—3 poll, lougi. Semina 
linearia v. oblanceolata \ poll, longa. 

Soeotra. On the Haghier range and also near Dimux, at an altitude 
over 1000 feet. B.C.S. n. 179. Schweinf. n. 739. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

In most of the species of this genus the corolla lobes are clextrorsely 
imbricate, but in the Mascarene and Madagascar forms they are sinistrorse, and 
these southern Indian Ocean forms have also an almost sessile inflorescence, 
with the flowers closely aggregated, whilst in other members of the genus this 
is laxly branched. The Socotran plant is of interest in possessing features 
in these respects the same as the Mascarene and Madagascar species. With 
some forms from these islands it is very closely allied. Habit and foliage 
almost unite it with S. obovata, Dene, (in DC. Prod. viii. 503), but that has an 
elongated apiculate style. Amongst forms with muticous styles S. Thouarsii, 
Dene. (loc. cit. 502) apparently comes very near it, but I have not seen this 
species, and the short description given in the Prodromus leaves it difficult to 
identify ; it is said to be glabrous, and to have the corolla tube slightly hairy 
at the base and apex, — characters not visible in our plant. 

On Soeotra our plant is by no means rare. 

5. GLOSSONEMA. 

Glossonema, Dene, in Ann. Sc. Nat. se>. 2, ix. (1838), 335, t. 12, f. D, and in DC. Prod. viii. 
554 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 748. 

A genus of six or seven species, natives of Arabia and tropical Africa, one 
species occurring in extratropical south Africa. 

G. Revoili, Franch. Sert. Somal. in Miss. Revoil 40. t. 3. 

Ad descriptionem Francbet adde — Folliculi 2^-pollicares lati fusiformes appresse spinescentes, 
spinis I poll, longis uncinatis. Semina stipitata superne orbicularia £ poll. diam. margine 
dentata. 
Soeotra. Galonsir and Hadibu plains and elsewhere. Not uncommon. 

B.C.S. 87. Schweinf. nn. 260, 315. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 169 

Distrijb. Somali Land. 

A very distinct species of this genus, as Franchet remarks. It resembles in its 
indumentum the Arabian G. Boveanum, Dene, (in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, ix. (1838), 
335, t. 12), but is easily distinguished by its larger leaves and different flowers. 
The flowers, it is worthy of remark, show corona-scales, linear-subulate through- 
out, not, as is typical of the genus, broad peltate scales with an apical flagellum. 

From the Somali Land plant, as figured by Franchet, which I have seen 
in Paris, our plant varies slightly, having much longer and more incurved 
corona- scales and leaves not so persistently obovate. Our specimens enable us 
to complete the description of the species with fruit and seed characters. 

6. CALOTROPIS. 

Calotropis, R. Br. in Mem. Wern. Soc. i. 39 ; Bentb. efc Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 754. 

A ditypic genus; the species inhabiting the warmer parts of Asia and 
Africa. 

C. procera, R. Br. in Ait. Hort. Kew. ii. 78 ; Dene, in DC. Prod. viii. 
535 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 33 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 57 ; Hook. fil. 
Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 18 ; Wight Ic. t. 1278 ; Bot. Reg. t. 1792. 

Nom. Vern. Oscher (Schweinf.). 

Soeotra. Common near Galonsir and elsewhere. B.C.S. n. 24. 

Distrib. A widespread species from the Canary Islands through tropical 
Africa and south-west Asia to India. Introduced in the west Indies. 

7. VINCETOXICUM. 

Vincetoxum, Monch. Meth. Bot. 717 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen PI. ii. 761. 

A large genus of erect or twining herbs or shrubs, chiefly found in temperate 
and warmer regions of the globe. More rare in the tropics. 

V. linifolium, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 79. Tab. LI. 

V dubile glaucum ramis flagelliformibus; foliis filiformibus ; cymis extra-axillaribus lateralibus 
longe pendunculatis ; corona 5-fida, lobis carnosulis obtusis. 

Frutex volubilis glaucus ramis scopariis striatis glabris spiraliter inter se tortuosis ultimis 
flagelliformibus, internodiis elongatis saepe 3 poll, longis. Folia opposita facile detersa 
filiformia basi attenuata et subpetiolata 2 poll, longa v. minora crassiuscula glabra, 
juvenilia in axillis villosa. Gymce racemosse lateraliter extra-axillares, rhachi \— § poll, 
longa tenui; pedicelli -^-^ poll, longi capillares ; bracteolse minutiae. Mores parvi. 
Calycis segmenta ^ poll, longa acuta subcarinata. Corollas lobi ^ poll, longi late ovati 
obtusi. Corona alte lobata, lobis carnosulis obtusis antice jugo prominulo apice subdelt- 
oideis et inflexis gynostegio brevioribus. Stigma planum vertice obscure umbilicato 
Folliculi lineares acuminati leves 2\ poll, longi. Semina % poll, longa. 
TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. Y 



170 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Socotra. Not uncommon. B.C.S. n. 208. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

An interesting form amongst old world species on account of its habit. 
The narrow thread-like leaves on flagelliform twining and twisting branches, 
from which they are easily and soon displaced, gives the plant a leafless 
appearance, a feature seen in no old world species, though there is an approach 
to it in one Cape of Good Hope form. 

On the other hand, in west Indian species of this habit, described by 
Grisebach (Flor. Brit. W. Ind. 417), under the generic name Amphistelma 
(reduced to Vincetoxicum by Bentham and Hooker), we find, in addition to the 
general likeness, that there is a great correspondence in the technical floral 
details. There is no identity in species from these almost antipodean localities, 
but it is interesting to note the development of the genus along the same 
special and exceptional lines in such widely separate areas. 

8. SARCOSTEMMA. 

Sarcostemma, E. Br. in Mem. Wern. Soc. i. 50 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 763. 

A genus of leafless fleshy plants, inhabitants of tropical and subtropical 
regions in Africa, Asia, and Australia. We have specimens of three species 
from Socotra, only one, however, is in a condition for identication, and is a 
Cape de Verde Island plant. 

1. S. Daltoni, Dene, in Webb Spicil. Gorgon, in Hook. Nig. Flor. 149, t. 
14. 

Socotra. In many places on the plains, especially abundant near Debeni. 
B.C.S. n. 525. 

Distrib. Cape de Verde Islands. 

Our plant so completely agrees in floral characters with this species, I am 
unable to distinguish between them. The follicles, however, are hardly so long 
as in the Cape de Verde Island plant. Species of this genus are awkward to 
preserve as herbarium specimens, and the leafless habit makes it difficult to 
identify fragmentary specimens ; but, possibly it will be found that some forms, 
of which fragments have been brought from tropical Africa, and are now in 
Kew Herbarium, belong to this species, which may therefore range, as so many 
of the Atlantic Islands and Socotran plants do, across the African continent. 

2. Sarcostemma sp. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n 519. 

A peduncle with a few flowers of a Sarcostemma is in our collection, but 
it is too fragmentary for identification. 

3. Sarcostemma sp. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 527. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 171 

The stems of, apparently, another Sarcostemma are in our collection, but I 
have not been able to identify them. 

9. D^EMIA. 

Dccmia, R. Br. in Mem. Wern. Soc. i. 50 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 764. 

A small genus of twining species which have a wide range over Africa and 
tropical and subtropical Asia. 

D. angolensis, Dene, in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, ix. (1838), 337, and in DC. 
Prod. viii. 544. 

D. celhiopica, Dene in DC. Prod. viii. 544. 

? Asclepias scandens, Beauv. Flor. O'Ow. et Ben. i. 93, t. 56. 

Nom. Vern. Irrham (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 64, 515. Schweinf. n. 676. 

Distrib. Tropical Africa. 

This is one of the commonest twiners on the plains, and a favourite food of 
camels. 

The species appears to vary much. The follicles in our Socotran plant are 
sometimes quite smooth and pubescent, or there may be a slight roughness or 
murication of surface towards the base. Decaisne describes fruits of D. 
angolensis as smooth, but Palisot de Beauvois' figure shows a very spiny fruit, 
and I find in Kew Herbarium specimens from west tropical Africa with the 
fruit more or less spiny. As regards the flowers, Hooker (Nig. Flor. 454) notes 
two forms of the species, one, " having the corolla deep purple at the base with 
greenish-white divisions, is the more northern form found in Senegambia and 
Guinea, as far as Accra"; "the other, with larger leaves and a pure white 
corolla, extends from Cape Coast southwards." Our Socotran plant, like the first 
of these, has a purple corolla. Of continental forms our plant resembles most 
^Ethiopian plants, which, however, have persistently scabrid as well as velutino- 
pubescent stems (in west African plants the stems are sometimes scabrid), and 
the fruit is almost invariably spiny, the spines being uncinate, whilst in our 
plants the scabridity is hardly marked on the stems, indeed I only find it on one 
specimen. It may be possible eventually to differentiate more than one species 
amongst these forms, but I have not been able to do so at present. 

10. MARSDENIA. 

Marsdenia, R. Br. in Mem. Wern. Soc. i. 28 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 772. 

A considerable genus of twining or shrubby plants, widely dispersed over 
the warmer regions of the globe. One species appears in the Mediterranean 
region. 

M. robusta, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 79. Tab. LII. 



172 BOTANY OF SOCOTBA. 

Fruticosa robusta erecta ramulis petiolisque pubescenti-tomentosis ; folii3 cordatis v. ovatis 
obtusis ; inflorescentiis petiolis brevioribus ; corollae laciniis oblougis obtusis, tubo intus 
dense villoso ; stigmate rostrato obscure lobato ; folliculis pubescentibus. 

Frutex 6-8-pedalis robustus ramulis cicatricosis validis lenticellis verrucosis fulvo-tomentosis. 
Folia longe petiolata, lamina l£-2£ poll. diam. cordata v. subrotundata v. subreniformia v. 
late ovata obtusa apice basique nonnunquain angustata margine obscure undulata leviter 
pubescentia venis radiatis ; petiolus 1-1 § longus. Flores in racemos axillares petiolo aequi- 
longos v. breviores congesti, superiores solum fertiles ; pedunculi \-\ poll, longi v. breviores 
tomentosi post anthesin aucti ; pedicelli validi sulcati pubescentes £ poll, longi v. 
minores ; bracteoe lineares pubescentes apice angustatae ^ poll, longae. Calyx £ poll, 
longus, segmentis oblongo-lanceolatis obtusis v. acutis extus pubescentibus saepe recurvis. 
Corolla \ poll. loDga intus dense villosa, laciniis patulis elongato-ovatis obtusis. Coronm 
squamae gynostegio adpressae eo breviores apice liberae ovatae. Antherarum mem- 
brana terminalis superne lineari-elongata. Stigma vertice conico rostrato apice obscure 
bilobato. Folliculi 2 poll, longi lignosi pubescences non-alati. Semina elliptica £ poll, 
longa glabra. 

Socotra. Near Galonsir and Kadhab. B.C.S. n. 522. Schweinf. n. 741. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A species not very abundant on the island, marked out from all allied forms 
by its stout erect habit, and the very short inflorescences with crowded flowers 
in the axils of the leaves. The species from the adjacent mainland are mostly 
twiners with flowers arranged in longer peduncled and somewhat lax cymes. 

11. ECHIDNOPSIS. 

Fchidnopsis, Hook. fil. Bot. Mag. t. 5930 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 781. 
A monotypic Abyssinian genus. 

E. cereiformis, Hook. fil. he. cit. 

Apteranthes tessalata, Dene, in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 5, xiii. (1870-1871), 406. 

Socotra. On the limestone hills, north-west from Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 
617. 

Distrib. Of the genus. 

We have specimens, neither with flower nor fruit, which may be referred 
to this remarkable species. Our plants are, however, considerably more 
delicate than the type as dried in Kew Herbarium, and the stems do not reach 
such a height, and it is possible it is not this species ; but if not, it is very closely 
allied to it. This is the only Stapelioid plant that is eaten by the inhabitants. 

12. BOUCEROSIA. 

Boucerosia, Wigbt and Am. Contrib. Bot. Ind. 34 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 782. 

A small genus of fleshy plants inhabiting dry plains of the northern hemi- 
sphere of the old world, extending from southern Spain eastwards to India. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 173 

Three species occur in Socotra, but of only one have we specimens sufficient 
for determination, and these show it to be endemic. 

1. B. SOCOtrana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 79. 

Eamis tetraquetris marginibus angulato-sinuatis, lobis in spinas productis ; corolla atro- 
sanguinea ; corona alte 5-fida ; segmentis apice trifidis, lobo medio minimo incurvo, lobis 
lateralibus erectis subiilatis. 

Erecta multo breviterque ramosa glauco-cinerea superne rubescente-pannosa, ramis tetraquetris 
marginibus angulato-sinuatis, angalis subcompressis lobatis, lobis spinis triangularibus 
brevibus paulum deflexis terminatis. Flores mediocri pauci versus extremitates ramorum 
dispositi pedicellati, pedicellis validis \ poll, longis. Calyx £ poll, longus, segmentis lanc- 
eolatis basi incrassatis margine membranaceis intus 5-squamatis. Corolla expansa |- poll, 
longa atro-sanguinea, lobis acutis -fa poll, longis. Corona gynostegio affixa alte 5-fida, 
segmento singulo trilobato lobo medio minimo antherse incumbenti adpresso lobis 
lateralibus subulatis erectis pilis deflexo-patentibus instructis. Pollinis massae breves late 
ellipticse. Folliculi 4-5 poll, longi \ poll. diam. glabri glauci. Semina \ poll, longa late 
marginata. 

Socotra. Common on the limestone plains, and on hill slopes at low 
altitudes. B.C.S. n. 524. Schweinf. n. 740. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very distinct species, and remarkable in its corona, which is very deeply 
divided into five lobes, each of which has three apical prolongations — the scales 
of the inner and outer series. B. sinaica, Dene, and B. Aucheriana, Dene, (in 
DC. Prod. viii. 649) are near allies, but from the descriptions — I have not 
seen specimens — they appear to be different. 

We brought this plant alive to this country, and it thrives at Kew, Edin- 
burgh, and Glasgow, and I hope it will ere long flower, when it may be figured. 

Boucerosia sp. 

Socotra. Limestone hills west from Tamarida and near Galonsir. 
B.C.S. n. 585. Schweinf. n. 793. 

Another species, possibly endemic. It is a small form with close set 
spines. As we have no flowers or fruit, it is not possible to match it. It is 
not common on Socotra. Schweinfurth sends it from near Tamarida. We 
found it on the hills near Galonsir. 

Unfortunately we have no living specimens of this plant. 

Boucerosia sp.? 

Socotra. On the plains ; occasional. B.C.S. n. 694. 

Another of the Stapeliece, probably a Boucerosia, but we have no flowers or 
fruit. Specimens of this we brought alive to this country are now growing at 
Kew, and its identity may therefore be ultimately determined from them. 



174 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Order XLVII. GENTIANE^. 

A large family of annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubby, dispersed over 
the whole world, but most abundant in mountainous temperate regions. Of 
the two Socotran genera, one is essentially Indian and east Asian, but reaches 
in one species tropical Africa, and the Mascarene Islands ; the other has a 
wide range in the northern hemisphere. 

1. EXACUM. 

Exacum, Linn. Gen. n. 141 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 803. 

A small genus of some twenty-five species of mostly herbaceous plants with 
beautiful flowers. The majority are natives of India, but a few extend to 
China, and the Malay Archipelago. One occurs in tropical Africa and the 
Mascarene Islands. The three Socotran species are endemic. 

1. E. caeruleum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 80. Tab. 
LIU. 

Suffruticosum humile glabrum ; foliis sessilibus v. subsessilibus ovatis trinerviis ; floribus 
pentameris magnis terminalibus solitariis v. in dichasia pauciflora dispositis ; calycis lobis 
alatis ; corolla? segmentis cseruleis ellipticis ; antheris lateraliter ad medium debiscentibus. 

Suffrutex vix pedalis lignosus Immilis glaber subprostratus multiramosus, caule tetragono ramis- 
quebrevibus tortuosis. Folia sessilia v. basalia subsessilia 1-1£ (rarius 2^) poll. longa £-§ 
(rarius 1) poll, lata ovata late acuta subamplexicaulia basi saepe subcordata crasse coriacea 
trinervia nitida margine revoluta. Flores magni pentameri ad extremitates ramulorum 
solitarii v. in dicbasia pauciflora aggregati pedicellati ; pedicelli |— 1 poll, longi erecti. 
Calycis lobi late ovati acuminati £ poll, longi anguste alati, alis sub fructu auctis. 
Corollce segmenta elliptica obtusa caerulea £ poll, longa. Anther w £ poll, longae sursum 
leviter attenuatse et incurvatse lateraliter ad medium debisceutes. Stylus ovario 
duplolongior apice subcircinatus. Capsula globosa £ poll, longa. 

Socotra. On the higher parts of the Haghier hills, at an elevation of 2500 
feet. B.C.S. n. 403. Schweinf. n. 672. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A small woody plant with lovely blue flowers. We only found it on the 
top of the Sicante Peaks, south from Tamarida, but Schweinfurth has it from 
above Kischen, so that it probably occurs over the whole Haghier range. 

It is quite distinct as a species belonging to the pentamerous section of 
the genus. It has resemblance with the Ceylon species E. Walkeri (Arn. in 
Griseb. Gent. 110, and in DC. Prod. ix. 45), but is quite different from it. 
The woody suffruticose habit is somewhat exceptional in the genus. 

2. E. affine, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1882), 80 ; Regel Garten- 
flora xxxii. (1883), 34, t. 1108; Hemsl. in Gard. Chron. xix. (1883), 368. 

Annuum erectum ramosum ; foliis ellipticis v. ovatis acutis longe petiolatis 5-nerviis ; floribus 
pedicellatis cernuis 5-meris ; calycis lobis late alatis ; corollas lobis obovatis violaceis ; 
antberis ad apicem debiscentibus. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 175 

Herba annua erecta copiose ramosa sesquipedalis, caule rubro subtereto, ramis tetragonis. Folia 
petiolata elliptica v. ovata acuta basi plerumque abrupte in petiolum lamina longiorem 
attenuata 2|— 3 poll, longa 1-1^ poll lata subcrassa glabra 5-nervia. Inflorescentia 
dichasialis foliosa erecta. Flores 5-meri mediocri cernui pedicellati ; pedicelli subtiles 1 
poll, longi. Calycis lobi lanceolati acuminati dorsaliter late carinato-alati, carinis v. alis 
rugosis rotundatis. Corollas segmenta obovata margine undulata -^ poll, longa violacea 
Antheras flavse oblongse \ poll, longse sursum vix attenuatse incurvatse maturitate ad 
apices debiscentes. Capsula subglobosa g poll. diam. 

Soeotra. Not at all uncommon beside the streams. B.C.S. n. 82. 
Schweinf. n. 466. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A beautiful species quite distinct from, but closely allied to E. petiolare, 
Griseb. (in DC. Prod. ix. 46), a plant of the Indian Peninsula. In habit and 
foliage the plants are extremely alike, but our plant has pentamerous not 
tetramerous flowers, its petaline lobes do not diminish upwards, and the calyx 
wings in fruit are more rounded. Its flowers, too, are always violet, not white 
as is typical of the Indian species. 

The Socotran plant has been successfully raised, from seed sent by Schwein- 
furth, by Messrs Haage and Schmidt at Erfurt, and a plant which flowered with 
them is figured by Regel in the Gartenjlora. He, however, is mistaken in 
describing the leaves as three-nerved. In our dried specimens and. in Schwein- 
furth's, they are distinctly five-nerved, the outermost veins being close to the 
margin of the leaf. It is a pretty plant for cultivation. 

3. E. gracilipes, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 80. 

Annuum erectum ramosissimum ; foliis lanceolatis acutis petiolatis 3-nerviis ; floribus graciliter 
pedicellatis cernuis 5-meris ; calycis lobis auguste alatis ; corollae lobis obovatis cseruleis ; 
antberis ad medium lateraliter debisceutibus. 

Herba annua erecta fastigiatim a basi ramosissima, caule subtetragono, ramis tetraquetris in 
inflorescentiam copiose dicbasialiter ramosam excurrentibus. Folia lanceolata acuta 1-1£ 
poll, longa ^-^ poll, lata basi in petiolum brevem attenuata margine revoluta crassiuscula 
glabra. Flores 5-meri cernui ad apices pedicellorum gracilium f poll, longorum. Calycis 
lacinise \ poll, longse acuminatas dorsaliter auguste alatse, ala semilunari oblique rugosa 
Corollas lobi obovati obtusi § poll, longi cserulei. Antheras flavse oblongae sursum vix 
attenuatse et incurvatse, loculis lateraliter ad medium dehiscentibus. Capsula globosa £ 
poll diam. 

Soeotra. On dry spots of the hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 84. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Possibly this finds a near ally in E. pedunculatum, Linn. (Griseb. in DC. 
Prod. ix. 46), an Indian plant of considerable distribution, from which, however, 
amongst other characteristics, the pentamerous symmetry, which it possesses 
in common with the other Socotran species, separates it. With the foregoing 
species it has many points of resemblance, but is altogether a smaller and 



176 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

more delicate plant, with a closely fastigiate habit. It is essentially a plant 
of dry spots. 

2. ERYTHEMA. 
Erythrcm. L. C. Rich, in Pers. Synops. i. 283 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 809. 

A small genus of variable herbs, characteristic of north temperate and 
subtropical regions, but some occur within the tropics, and extend even to Chili 
and Australasia. 

E. Centaurium, Pers. Synops. i. 283 ; Griseb. in DC. Prod. ix. 58 ; 
Boiss Flor. Orient, iv. 68 ; Syme Eng. Bot. t. 909. 

Socotra. Abundant on the hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 286. 

Distrib. Europe, north Africa, and south-west Asia. Very widely spread. 

Order XLYIII. BORAGINE^. 

A very large family widely dispersed over the world. The Socotran 
members of the family are referable to five genera, of which one is endemic, 
three are genera inhabiting the warmer regions of both old and new worlds, — 
one of them also reaching into temperate latitudes, — whilst the fifth is African 
and Asiatic, extending in one species to Australia. 

1. COEDIA. 

Gordia, Linn. Gen. n. 256 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 838. 

A large genus of about two hundred species of trees and shrubs spread 
throughout the warmer regions of the globe, but most abundant in America. 
Two of the Socotran species are endemic, and the third is a plant of south-west 
Asia and north-west Africa. 

1. C. obovata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 80. 

Arborea ; foliis petiolatis obovatis v. oblongo-obovatis apice obtusis et dentato-crenatis basi 
cuneatis subtus subscabridulis supra tuberculatis ; cymis paucifloris terminalibus ; 
pedicellis validis brevissimis ; floribus mediocris 4-fidis ; calyce enervio extus dense 
pubescente sub fructu cupukefornii glabro ; corolla omnino glabra ; fructu aurantiaco 
ovoideo 1-3-loculari. 

Arbor parva cortice griseo ramulisque ultimis pubescentibus sed in plantis juvenilibus hispidis 
Folia petiolata obovata v. oblongo-obovata v. subelliptica, juvenilia saepe subrhomboidea, 
obtusa saepe subtruncata v. rarissime subacuta margine in parte superiore dentato-crenata 
v. acute dentata a medio ad basim integra cuneato-attenuata basi iruequilateralia 2-3 
poll, longa 1-1^ poll, lata v. majora glabrescentia supra tuberculis albis vestita subtus 
pallidiora substrigulosa v. hispida v. subscabridula, petiolo concolore £- § poll, longo supra 
canaliculate strigoso glabrescente. Gemmae axillares pubescente-tomentosae. Cymcc 
terminales pauciflorae parvae densae ; pedicelli brevissimi validi. Flores mediocri. Calyx 
enervius nonsulcatus \ poll, longus dentatus intus sericeo-villosus extus dense pubesc- 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 177 

ente-tomenfcosus, sub fructu auctus cupulseformis ^ poll. diam. extusque glaber. Corolla 
infundibularis 4-partita omnino glabra, tubo ^ poll, loogo, limbi lobis oblongis v. obcuneatis 
obtusis reflexis tubo sequalibus. Stamina exserta, filameatis corollse limbo multibreviori- 
bus. Fructus aurantiacus ovoideus glaber f poll, lougus 1-3-locularis putaruine tetragono 
extus rugoso. Testa papyracea. 

Nom Vern. Abeteh. 

Socotra. A common tree. B.C.S. nn. 277, 427. Schweinf. nn. 379,407 
in lit. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A distinct species in the section Mi/xa of this genus, but very closely allied 
to C. crenata, Del. (Fl. iEgypt. 51. t. 20. f. i.), a plant described as 
cultivated near Cairo, and of which the native country is unknown, though 
Boissier (Flor. Orient, iv. 124) remarks in a note to his description of C. Myxa, 
Linn., that Defile's plant is probably a native of the region about Mascate. From 
this species our Socotran plant differs in the pubescent buds and slightly hispid 
young leaves, the smaller and more compact cymes, the densely pubescent 
calyx in flower, and the glabrous corolla, besides having shorter stamens and 
a larger fruit. In general appearance there is, however, considerable 
similarity. 

With C. ovalis, Hochst. (in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. ii. n. 1218), — to which 
C. ovalis, E. Br. (in Salt Abyss, app.), is probably correctly referred by De 
Candolle (Prod. ix. 479), though Ach. Richard (Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 82) is 
undoubtedly wrong in taking this plant to be C. Myxa, Linn., — there are many 
points of resemblance in the Socotran specimens, but the Abyssinian species? 
is more scabrid, and by other technical characters is easily distinguished. 

On Socotra the tree is very common, and its fruit is one of the few edible 
ones on the island. 

2. C. obtusa, Balf. fii. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 80. 

Arborea; foliis petiolatis ellipticis v. elliptico-obovatis obtusis v. late acntis integris glabris 
siccitate nigricantibus ; cyrais pseudo-axillaribus paucifloris ; pedicellis validis brevibus ; 
calyce sub fructu cupulaeformi glabro ; drupa ovoidea aurantiaca 1-loculari. 

Arbor parva, cortice griseo, fere omnino glabra simpliciter ramosa, ramulis ultimis striatis. 
Folia petiolata elliptica v. elliptico-obovata obtusa v. late acuta integra v. apice obscure 
crenata basi sequilateralia ssepe subcuneata coriacea siccitate nigricantia If— 2^- poll, 
longa f-1 poll, lata, petiolo concolore \- § poll, longo canaliculato. Gemmae pubescentes. 
Cymae pseudo-axillares pauciflorae, rbacbi primaria petiolo breviore ; pedicelli sub fructu 

validi breves. Flores ignoti Calyx sub fructu cupubeformis trilobatus | poll. 

diam. glaber coriaceus. Drupa f poll, longa ovoidea abortu 1-locularis. • 

Socotra. On the hills near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 325. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

I have described this species on some fragmentary specimens which I have 
not been able to identify with a described form. It resembles somewhat the 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. Z 



178 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

foregoing species, but its glabrous, smooth, usually entire, leaves, and the shortly 
stalked inflorescences, exclude it from the other species in the section Myxa 
to which it belongs. Until better specimens are obtained it must remain an 
unsatisfactory species. 

3. C. Rothii, Rcem. et Schult. Syst. iv. 798 ; DC. Prod. ix. 480 : Clarke 
in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 138 ; Wight Ic. t. 1379. 

C. oblongifolia, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. ii. n. 789. 
C. subopposita, DC. Prod. ix. 480 ; Aob. Bicb. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 81. 
C. quercifolia, Klotzscb in Peters' Mossamb. Bot. 247. t. 43. 
Comics sanguinea, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 33, (fid. DC). 

Socotra. On the Haghier range. Not common. B.C.S. n. 186. 

Distrib. Nile Land, Mozambique, Scindh, and western India. 

We have fragmentary specimens of a plant which appears to be this species. 
Unfortunately neither flowers nor fruit are present on our specimens ; there 
are only the bases of the flower panicles remaining upon leafy shoots. 

The species, as it grows on the dry plains of Scindh and in Abyssinia, is a 
much more woody and rigid plant than it is in the regions of south tropical 
Africa and western India. Our plant resembles most the Scindh form. 

2. EHRETIA. 
Ehretia, Linn. Gen. n. 257 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 840. 

A considerable genus of trees and shrubs inhabiting the warmer regions of 
both old and new worlds, but most abundant in the old world. 

1. E. obtusifolia, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. ii. n. 652 ; DC. 
Prod. ix. 507 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 83 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 
124; Clarke in Hook. Fior. Brit. Ind. iv. 142. 

E. obovata, B. Br. in Salt Abyss, app. 

Socotra. On the hills. B.C.S. n. 177. Schweinf. n. 478. 

Distrib. Abyssinia, Scindh, Beloochistan. 

We only obtained this tree in leaf, and our specimens only admitted of our 
referring the plant doubtfully to this genus. Schweinfurth sends specimens in 
flower which enable us to complete the identification. 

2. Ehretia sp. 

Socotra, On the hills. B.C.S. n. 717. 

We have specimens without flower and fruit of a small shrub which is 
evidently an Ehretia and allied to E. buxifolia, Roxb. (Cor. PI. i. 42, t. 57 ; 
DC. Prod. ix. 509 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 144), but they are too 
fragmentary for exact determination. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 179 

3. HELIOTKOPIUM. 

Hcliotraphim, Linn. Gen. n. 179 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 843. 

A large genus of herbs or shrubby plants ranging through the warmer and 
temperate regions of the world. Of the nine Socotran species, three are 
endemic, four are plants confined to tropical Africa and south-west Asia, the 
remaining two, whilst essentially tropical African and south Asiatic species, 
reach also to Australia. 

1. H. (Catimas) zeylanicum, Lamk. Illustr. i. 393; Clarke in Hook. 
Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 148 ; Wight Ic. t. 892. 

H. hirtum, Heyne in herb. Bottler. 

H. curassavicum, var. zeylanicum, Burm. Flor. Ind. 41, t. 16. f. 2. 

H. fruticosum, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 38.? 

H. suoulatum, Hochst. in kerb. Kotsch. Nub. n. 163. 

Tournefortia subulata, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Arab. sect. ii. n. 1285; DC. Prod. ix. 528; 

Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 83. 
T. zeylanica, Wight Illustr. t. 170. 

Soeotra. On the Haghier hills. B.C.S. n. 534. Schweinf. nn. 499, 682 
in lit. 

Distrib. India, Scindh, Arabia, and tropical Africa. 

Like other Heliotropes this species varies much in clothing. Our specimens 
from Soeotra are very hispid; those of Schweinfurth are much less so. 

2. H. (Monimantha) dentatum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xii. 
(1883), 81. Tab. LIV, A. 

Aunuum ramulis a collo patentibus ; foliis linearibus v. lineari-lanceolatis dentatis hispidis 
inflorescentiis laxe ramosis paucifloris ; corolke tubo calyce longiore ; styli lobis non 
exsertis ; nucibus glabris. 

Herba parva a collo raultiramosa ramis hispidis patentibus adscendentibus in inflorescentias 
tenues ramosas deliquescentibus. Folia angusta oblanceolata v. lineari-lanceolata v. 
liuearia apice obtusa ssepe leviter expansa basi gradatim in petiolum tenuem attenuata, 
basalia 2\ poll, longa £ poll, lata, superiora multo minora, hispida margine deutata. 
Inflorescentia laxe ramosa basi bracteata, ramis gracilibus plerumque extra-axillaribus basi 
non floriferis apice pauci (saepe l-2)-fioris, floribus sessilibus v. breviter pedicellatis 
scorpioideo-dispositis plerumque ebracteatis. Calyx -^ poll, longus fere ad basim partitus, 
segmentis lineari-lanceolatis extus hirsutis. Corolla} albae limbus induplicatus 5-fidus, 
lobis elliptico-rotundatis obtusis obscure crenulatis, tubo \ poll, longo intus glabro extus 
strigoso-pubescente. Stamina medio tubo affixa ; antherse ad orem corollini tubi 
attingentes ovatse apice vix appendiculatte. Ovarium glabrum ; styli parte inferiore 54 
poll, longa, sxiperiore longiore infra conica et apice in ramulos duos filiformes puberulos 
fissa non exserta. Fructus in nuculas 4 glabras tuberculatas solvens. 

Soeotra. On the plains about Galonsir, Tamarida, and elsewhere. 
B.C.S. n. 40. Schweinf. nn. 781, 789. 
Distrib. Endemic. 
An interesting species on account of its deeply bifid style. This is not a 



180 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

common feature in the genus, but is found in another old world species 
11. Ophioglossum, Stocks (in Aitch. Punj. Cat. 94; Boiss. Flor. Orient, i. 
145), a plant of Scindh and Beloochistan, and also of Somali Land, whence it was 
brought by Revoil, and is described and figured as a new species, H. stylosum, 
by Franchet (Sert. Somal. in Miss. ReVoil 45. t. 4, non H. stylosum, 
Philippi). With this species our plant has its nearest affinity, but its less 
woody character, narrow dentate leaves, few flowered cymes, and longer 
corollas with enclosed styles, distinguish it. 

Franchet has with justice created a new section, Monimantha, of the genus, 
for the Somali Land plant, though the nomenclature is hardly happy, and into 
this section our plant also goes. The section has been adopted by Clarke (in 
Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind iv. 149). 

3. H. undulatum, Vahl Symb. i. 13 ; DC. Prod. ix. 536 ; Boiss. Flor. 
Orient, iv. 147 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 150. 

//. ramosissimum, Sieber. exsicc. /Egypt. ; DC. Prod. ix. 536. 

H. crispmn, Desf. Flor. Atl. i. 151, t. 41. 

H.persicum, Lamk. Diet. i. 393 ; DC. Prod. ix. 537 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 147. 

H. marocanum, Lehm. Asper. 5G ; DC. Prod. ix. 536. 

Lithospermum hispidum, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 38. 

Soeotra. Very common. B.C.S. nn. 6, 49, 185, 536. Schweinf. n. 787. 
Nimmo. 

Distrib. North Africa and south-west Asia. 

A widely distributed species, exhibiting a vast number of forms. We have 
four sets of specimens from Soeotra, and most of them are more thickly 
clothed with hairs than is common in the species. 

Those numbered 6 and 49 agree in habit, being closely branched, compact, 
woody, prostrate plants, with small leaves and throughout densely hispid, on 
the younger parts silkily so. The inflorescences are clustered; the calyx 
5-partite with segments hispid externally ; the corolla, which is whitish in n. 
6, citron yellow in n. 49, is cut nearly half way down, and is externally 
strigulose-hispid ; the anthers are oblong-ovate and have a small apiculus ; the 
stigmatic portion of the style is pyramidal, longer than the basal part and in 
n. 6 is slightly strigulose, in n. 49 is quite glabrous. No specimens of the 
species in Kew Herbarium are exactly like this form, but I can fix on no 
technical characters by which to differentiate it. 

Our n. 185, Schweinfurth's n. 787, is a plant with ascending branches and 
larger leaves, thoroughly hispid. The calyx is deeply divided and densely 
hispid ; the corolla, which is citron yellow and is pubescent, has a limb the 
lobing of which extends through only a quarter of its length ; the anthers are 
ovate and gradually narrow upwards into longish points ; the stigmatic surface 
is conical, longer than the basal part, and covered with long appressed hairs. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 181 

Dr Nimmo's plant in Kew Herbarium is of this form, and there is also a 
similar plant in Kew Herbarium brought by Major Madden from the neighbour- 
hood of Suez. 

N. 536 is a much less hispid form, except on the very young buds, and the 
tuberculation of the leaves, which are much larger than in our specimens, is 
evident. The deeply cut calyx is shortly hispid ; the limb of the corolla 
is cut through a third of its extent ; the anthers are oblong-ovate, and at the 
apex, end abruptly and bear a small cusp ; the stigmatic part of the style is 
hairy, and is equal in length to the basal portion. This form is not unlike 
specimens of the plant from Yemen collected by Bove. 

There is a plant in Kew Herbarium brought from Nubia by Schweinfurth, 
and labelled by him Lithospermum lignosum (n. 2111), which is a Heliotropium, 
nearly allied to, if not identical with, the species under consideration, and 
especially with the form of it last referred to. The differences it exhibits are 
these, — the calyx is divided through half or three-quarters of its length, and the 
segments are somewhat blunt, rather pubescent than hispid ; the corolla is but 
slightly pubescent externally, and the basal part of the style is much shorter 
than the hairy upper stigmatic portion. 

I have contented myself with merely indicating the features of the Socotran 
forms, including them in this species without attempting to constitute varieties. 
How far it is possible to recognise varieties, or to break up this assumed species 
into a series of nearly allied species, is a question that can only be settled after an 
examination of a more extended set of specimens than I have been able to see. 

4. H. rariflorum, Stocks in Hook. Kew Joum. Bot. iv. (1852), 174 ; 
Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 144 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 152. 
Lithospermum leucophlceum, Schweiuf. in herb. Afr. Cent. n. 696. 

Soeotra. On the Haghier range near Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 627. 
Schweinf. n. 439. 

Distrib. Scindh, Beloochistan, Nubia. 
An interesting species in respect of its flowers, which have the corolline lobes 
distinctly hooded, and the stamens with very small anthers inserted at the top 
of the corolline tube ; the stigma, too, is very small, spongy, and capitate. An- 
other interesting feature is the papery bark, which, white at first, peels off in 
layers, the under layers being of a dark reddish-brown. The fruit in the Scindh 
plant has a clothing of bristling hairs, and the Nubian specimens exhibit this 
also. In some of our plants the hairs on the fruit are quite appressed. 

5. H. (Heliophytum) pterocarpum, Hochst. et Steud. in herb. Schimp. 
Arab. n. 835. 

Heliophytum pterocarpum, DC. Prod. ix. 552. 

Soeotra. On the slopes of Haghier. B.C.S. n. 535. 



182 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Distrib. Arabia, Nubia, Senegal. 

A species of considerable distribution in tropical Africa and south-west 
Asia, but commonly confounded with H. undulatum, Vahl, from which it is 
easily distinguished by the fruit splitting into two parts, each of which is two 
celled, and has both margins broadly winged. 

6. H. (Heliophytum) odorum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. 
(1883), 81. 

Suffruticosum plus minusve scabrido-puberulum ; foliis alternis petiolatis oblongis v. oblongo- 
ovatis basi subcuneatis ; spicis conjugates ebracteatis ; fructu bifido, pyrenis bilocularibus 
bispermis. 

Suffrutex ramis longis ramosis, ramulis scabrido-puberulis, ultimis striatis. Folia alterna 
petiolata l\-2 poll, longa £-£ poll, lata oblonga v. oblongo-ovata v. oblongo-elliptica 
obtusa basi subcuneata ssepe inaequilateralia margine irregulariter erosa v. obscure 
crenulato-uudulata reticulato-venulosa scabridula subtus pallidiora ; petiolus \~^% P oU - 
longus canaliculatns scabrido-puberulus. Inflorescenticc extra-axillares saepe oppositifolias 
rarius axillares, rbacbi primaria ^-1 poll, longa scabrido-puberula bifida spicas conjugatas 
ebracteatas 2-3 poll, longas sparsim scabridulas gerente. Flores sessiles secundi. Calyx 
£ poll, longus fere ad basim in segmenta liuearia apice triangularia crassa pilis patentibus 
paucis vestita partitus. Corolla extus strigulosa alba, tubo intus glabro basi glanduloso 
calyci aequilongo, limbi parvi lobis obovatis v. rotundatis crenulatis. Stamina infra medium 
tubum affixa ; antherai oblongse obtusae. Discus conspicuus lobatus. Ovarium glabrum ; 
stylus omnino glaber, parte stigmatica biloba parti inferiori eequilonga. Fructus bifidus, 
pyrenis 2-locularibus loculis 1 sperm is -^ poll, longis glabris leviter rugosis nonalatis 
sulco medio lsevi dorsali apice breviter bicoinutis. 

Nom. Vern. Hamhamo (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the Haghier hills. Not uncommon. B.C.S. n. 181. 
Schweinf. nn. 221 in lit., 461. 

Dtstrib. Endemic. 

Nearly allied to the widely spread H. indicum, Linn. (Sp. 187 ; Bot. Mag. 
t. 1837). It may, however, be readily distinguished from that species by its 
clothing, which is not woolly, its leaves, which are never cordate at the base, 
and by its fruit, which is much smaller with non-mitriform segments. 

H. longijiorum, Hochst. et Steud. (in Herb. Schimp. Arab. n. 842), a well 
known Arabian species is also a neighbour. 

7. H. (Orthostachys) ovalifolium, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt, Arab. 38. 

II. coro-mandelianum, Eetz. Obs. ii. 9 ; DC. Prod. ix. 541 ; Ach. Rich. Teut.Flor. Abyss, ii. 84 ; 

Wight Ic. t. 138. 
77. Kunzei, Lehm. Ic. Asp. 19, t. 29 ; DC. Prod. ix. 541 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 130. 
II. niloticum, DC. Prod. ix. 541. 
H. villosum, Sieber. exsicc. iEgypt. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 533. 

Distrib. Tropical Africa, south-west Asia, India, and Australia. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 183 

The Socotran plant is the large-leaved form of the species, the true H. 
ovalifolium, Forsk. 

8. H. (Orthostachys) strigosum, Willd. Sp. i. 743 ; DC. Prod. ix. 546 ; 
T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Snppl. 25 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 
143 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 151. 

H. laxiflorum, Roth. Nov. PL Sp. 102 ; DC. Prod. ix. 548. 

H. bracteatum, R. Br. Prod. 493 ; DC. Prod. ix. 547 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 151. 

H. bicolor, Hochst. et Steud. in herb. Schimp. Arab. n. 848 ; DC. Prod. ix. 546 ; Ach. Rich. 

Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 85. 
H. brevifolium, Wall. Cat. 914; DC. Prod. ix. 546. 
IT. zeylanicum, Wall. Cat. 2091. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 531. Schweinf. n. 282 in lit. 

Distrib. Southern Asia, tropical Africa and Australia ; widely spread. 

The specific name above cited is to be regarded as a convenient one under 
which to group a multiplicity of forms described by various botanists as 
distinct species, of which a partial list is given. The forms run into one 
another so completely that specific diagnoses seem to me of doubtful value. 

Our n. 351 may be considered as very near the type, and resembles much 
the forms growing at Aden and in Arabia generally. Besides it, we have two 
other forms which I refer to the following varieties. 

var. scabrum. 

H. scabrum, Retz. Obs. ii. 8 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 152 ; Wight Ic. t. 1389. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 552. Schweinf. nn. 391 in lit, 790. 

One of the most distinct forms, by its tufted habit and somewhat rosulate 
leaves. 

var. marifolium. 

H. marifolium, Retz. Obs. ii. 8 ; DC. Prod. ix. 547 (excl. syn.); Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. 

Ind. iv. 152 ; Wight Ic. t. 1390. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 553. 

A very fragmentary specimen, probably of this form, which is characterised 
by having slightly larger flowers and longer bracts than the preceding. 

9. H. (Orthostachys) nigricans, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. 
(1883), 81. Tab. LIV, B. 

Suffruticosum intricato-ramosum decorticans ramulis strigosis angulosis; foliis suboppositis 
breviter petiolatis parvis ab forma elliptica ad formam obovatam variantibus nigricantibus 
strigosis; inflorescentiis paucifloris bracteatis; corollse tubo calyci aequilongo, limbo 
magno ; stigmate truncato vix bilobato ; nuculis scabridis. 

Suffrutex lignosus intricato- multoque ramosus, cortice glauco albido papyraceo erumpente, 
ramulis ultimis brevibus 2-4 poll, longis internodiisque sursum dilatatis complanatis 
strigosis. Folia parva opposita v. subopposita breviter petiolata elliptica v. subrotundata 



184 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

v. oblouga rarius obovata obtusa v. ernarginata rarius subacuta \-j% poll, louga ^ poll, 
lata v. sa-pe minora margiue integra subrevoluta coriacea breviter strigosa siccitate 
nigricantia decidua. Flores ad extremitates ramulorum dispositi sympodia scorpioidea 
bracteata brevia formantes pedicellati extra-axillares, in quoque ramulo pauci saepe 1-2 ; 
pedicelli £ poll, longi; bracteue foliosse. Calyx *fo poll, longus alte 5-partitus, segmentis 
subulatis crassis extus strigosis basi paulum membranaceo-marginatis. Corollce limbus fere 
\ poll longus tubo longior, lobis late ovatis acutis obscure crenulatis extus leviter strigulosis, 
tubi ore constricto intus parum puberulo extus striguloso sed basi glabro. Stamina 
medio tubo affixa; antberae ovatae in apiculos ad orem tubi corollini attingentes 
productae. Ovarium glabrum ; styli glabri parte superiore conica subtruncata vix 
bilobata inferiori aequilonga. Nuculoz 4 saepe abortu 2 distiuctae scabridae. 

Soeotra. A shrubby plant of the plains. B.C.S. n. 581. 
Distrtb. Endemic. 

A species with a very distinctive foliage, inflorescence, and corolla, without 
any very near affinities in the genus. 

4. TRICHODESMA. 

Trichodesma, E. Br. Prod. 496 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 845. 

A small genus of about a dozen species of herbs, or rarely half shrubby 
plants, inhabiting warmer regions of Africa and Asia. One widely spread 
species extends to Australia. The three Socotran species are endemic. 

1. T. Scotti, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 81. Tab. LV. 

Fruticosum ; foliis magnis ellipticis acutis basi angustatis sparsim setosis ; floribus magnis in 
corymbos magnos terminales dispositis ; nuculis magnis § poll, longis anguste marginatis. 

Frutex 4-5-pedalis ramulis validis striguloso-puberulis. Folia opposita petiolata magna £-| 
ped. longa 3-5 poll, lata elliptica v. oblonga acuta basi attenuata margine undulata 
siccitate nigricantia subtus pallidiora setis ex tuberculis albidis orientibus sparsim vestita, 
proventu setis delapsis ; petiolus 1-2 poll, longus. Flores magni evolventes in cymas 
bracteatas ad apicem rbacbis basalis subcompressse nonfloriferae semipedalis confertas 
et paniculam corymbosam globosam terminalem formantes; pedicelli 1£- 1| poll, longi 
validi hirti seepe curvati ; bracteae magnae foliis similes. Calyx alte 5-fidus, segmentis ovatis 
longe acutis basi rotundato-cordatis \ P°U- longis basi § poll, latis dense cano-sericeo- 
pubescentibus venulis a basi versus apicem incurvatis glanduloso-punctulatis, fructiferis 
non auctis. Corolla magna calyce longior sordido-alba basi fornicibus atris suffulta 
omnino glabra ad partem trientem lobata, lobis rotundatis cuspide longa terminatis. 
Stamina exserta in conum couniventes ; antberae lineares § poll, longa?. aristis glabris 
sinistorsum convolutis suffulta) dorsaliter lanatac lateraliterque inter se pilis lauatis intri- 
cato-implectis conjunctoa. Stylus glaber corolbc acquilongus. Nuculoz mill to coinplanatu; 
\ poll. longae ^ poll, crassae ovataa dorsaliter nitidae venulosae subpuberulae margine in 
alam angustam denticulatam breviter introflexam produetae. Testa glabra Crustacea. 
Soeotra. On the higher parts of the Haghier hills, at an elevation 

over 2500 feet. B.C.S. n. 438. Schweinf. n. 623. 
Distbib. Endemic. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 185 

A species distinguished from all others by the large size of its leaves and 
flowers. A plant of Griffiths, from the Khasia hills, named T. kkasianum, by 
C. B. Clarke (in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 154), approaches it in this respect, 
but is altogether smaller and is quite a distinct plant. 

I have named the species after Scott, our collector, who first found the plant 
on Socotra. 

2. T. microcalyx, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1882), 81. 

Annuum hispido-asperum ; foliis ellipticis v. ovatis, inferioribus petiolatis ; floribus mediocris ; 
calycis segmentis lanceolatis sub fructu non auctis ; nuculis deltoideis dorsaliter valde 
muricatis non marginatis. 

Herba annua 2-3-pedalis erecta aspera canescente-hispida pilis basi tuberculatis bipavtim 
ramosa, caulibus quadrangulatis internodiis elongatis in innorescentias deliquescentibus. 
Folia opposita, basalia 5.] poll, longa 2 poll, lata elliptica acuta basi inrequilateralia 
subcuneata, margine obscure crenato-serrata, supra pilorum delapsorum baseis tuberculata 
subtus scabrida, petiolo 1 poll, longo, superiora gradatim minora sessilia ovato-acuta basi 
subcordata hispida. Gcmmcc fulvo-hirsuta?. Inflorescentia primum dichasialis bracteis 
magnis foliaceis, ramulis peuultimis 1^-2 poll, longis basi nonfloriferis hirsutis apice 
sympodialiter ramosis bracteatis paucifloris, floribus pedicellatis extra-axillaribus 
plerumque cernuis, pedicellis hirtis |— \ poll, longis. Flores mediocri. Calyx alte 
5-fidus, segmentis lanceolatis acutis \ poll, longis intus in parte superiore strigulosis 
extus dense hispidis medio nervo prominente, sub fructu non auctus. Corolla azurea } 2 poll, 
longa, tubo calyci aequilongo, lobis late rotundatis mucronulatis. Stamina exserta ; 
antherre anguste ovato-oblongti? £ poll, longas aristis glabris aequilongpe dorsaliter in 
parte superiore villosae et contiguae pilis implectis conjunctte, basi vix villosye. Nuculm 
calyce non opeitae deltoideaj \ poll, longoe glabrae dorso valde muricatae non alatse sod ad 
apicem margine paulum products. 

Socotra. On the Haghier range near Adona. B.C.S. n. 538. Schweinf. 
n. 632. Nimmo. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another very distinct species of this genus. It differs from all described 
forms, especially in the calyx, which has narrow segments, and they do not 
enlarge in fruit, or become prolonged at the base. Thus the nucules are not 
completely hidden. In habit, it is a close ally of T. africanum, 11. Br. (Prod. 
498), a plant of wide distribution in tropical Africa, and south-west Asia. But 
our plant is more hispid, not so scabrous as the African plant, and then the 
calyx in that species has the segments enlarging, and becoming very cordate at 
the base in fruit, and the nucules are shortly marginate with hooked projections, 
and on the back is a median row of tubercles. 

This is one of the Socotran plants in Kew Herbarium sent by Dr Nimmo. 

3. T. laxiflorum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1882), 81. 

Annuum sparsim setulosum ; foliis ovatis v. oblongo-ovatis, inferioribus petiolatis ; inflorescentiis 
laxe ramosis ; floribus parvis ; calycis segmentis lanceolatis sub fructu non auctis : nucidis 
obovatis dorsaliter minute tuberculatis margine alatis. 
TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 2 A 



186 BOTANY OF SOCOTEA. 

Herba annua 2-3-pedalis bipartim non copiose ramosa, caulibus teretibus erectis in infloresc- 
entias nltime deliquescentibus pilis basi tuberculatis sparsim vestitis proventu setulis 
demissis plus minusve tuberculatis. Folia opposita, basalia petiolata 4 poll, longa 1* 
poll, lata ovata v. oblongo-ovata acuta basi attenuata rarius rotundata margine obscure 
crenato-serrata ciliata submembranacea sparsim setulis brevibus ex tuberculis orientibus 
vestita, superiora sessilia basi subcordata minora cateroquin basalibus similia. Infloresc- 
entice primum laxe dicbasiales bracteis lanceolatis foliaceis, ramulis peuultimis 3£-4 poll, 
longis v. longioribus sympodialiter et subanfractuose ramosis paucifloris sparsim puberulis, 
floribus pedicellatis sapius oppositibracteis, pedicellis capillaribus £— £ poll, longis 
strigulosis. Flores parvi. Calyx alte 5-fidus, segmentis \ poll, longis lanceolatis acutis 
nervo medio inconspicuo dorsaliter bispidis iutus versus apicem strigulosis, fructiferis 
non auctis. Corolla \ poll, longa calyce vix longior omnino glabra, lobis obovatis 
mucronulatis sape irregulariter dentatis. Stamina exserta ; anthers lineares \ poll, 
longa aristis glabris J poll, longis sinistrorsum contortis suffulta dorsaliter puberula 
lateraliter longe pilosa pilisque implectis inter se conjuncta. Nuculce \ poll, longse 
compressa obovata glabrae dorso irregulariter tuberculata margine in alam magnam 
introflexam subvesiculosam vix dentatam products. 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 532. Schweinf. nn. 293 in lit., 788. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A third new species of the genus, not far removed from the last described, 
and like it an ally of T. africanum, R. Br. (Prod. 496). But it is a much smoother 
plant, and is further distinguished by its long lax inflorescences, small flowers with 
a calyx not enlarging around the fruit, the nucules of which have a very broad 
margin, folded in, bladder-like, over the back, which is irregularly tubercled. 

5. CYSTISTEMON. 
Cystistemon, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1882), 82. 

Calyx 5-partitus, segmentis linearibus, fructifer auctus nuculas includens. Corolla campanulafca, 
supra staminum insertionem dilatata, fauce nuda ampliata ; lobi 5, ovati, acuminati, 
imbricati, per antbesin patentes revoluti. Stamina 5, medium tubum versus affixa, 
exserta, filamentis obcordatis expansis inflatis basi annulo villoso cinctis ; anthera oblongo- 
lineares, longe acuminata, erecta, conniventes, cohserentes. Ovarii lobi 4, distincti, 
gynobasi parva plan;e impositi ; stylus filifonnis erectus, stigmate subintegro ; ovula 
erecta. Nuculas 4, erecta, acuta, angulata, verrucosa, areola basalari. Semina recta; 
embryo rectus, cotyledonibus ovatis crassis plano-convexis, radicula supera. — Herba 
canescens, setoso-luspida pilis simplicibus. Folia alterna. Cymse scorpioidea terminales, 
bracteis parvis inferioribus foliaceis. Flores azurei, pedicellati. 

A monotypic endemic genus founded chiefly on characters of the an- 
droecium. Each filament has an inflated sac attached to its back. One 
might take these at first for corolline scales, but they do not arise from the 
corolla nor are they attached to it in any way, but are distinct expansions of 
the filaments to which the anthers are dorsally affixed by a small area. The 
true anther lobes are very short, but have long apical appendages. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 187 

The fruit is that of Lithospermece, and in that tribe the affinities of the genus 
are with JEchium and Onosma. But the former has a corolla of a different 
type, and the filaments are filiform, whilst the latter has a tubular corolla with 
obtuse anthers. 

The form of the corolla and the general floral aspect bring it more satis- 
factorily into Anchusece, where its nearest ally seems to be Borago. With this 
genus I have not been able to unite it as there are no faucial corolline scales, 
and although the solid dorsal mucro of the filaments in Borago maybe regarded 
as representing the dorsal vesicle of our genus, yet the anthers want the long 
appendages which are so prominent in our plant. There are in addition ovarian 
and fruit characters which distinguish the genera. 

Etym. kwtis, a bladder, and ^t^wv. 

C. socotranus, Balf. fil. he. cit. Tab. LVI. 

l-2-peclalis canescens plus minnsve liispidus setulis basi tuberculatis interque eos strigulosus 
a collo ramosus, caulibus angulatis, ramis in racemos cymarum scorpioidearurn excurrenti- 
bus, cortice rumpente. Folia oblanceolata v. lanceolata acuta integra subtus pallidiora 
inferiora petiolata 4 poll, longa f poll, lata basi gradatim attetiuata, superiora minora 
sessilia basi cordata. Cymce 2-1 poll, longse villoso-hispidre ; pedicelli \ poll, longi. 
Cahjx in segnienta £ poll, longa obtusa partita. Corolla ^ poll, longa ad medium 5-fida, 
lobis venulosis margine obscure crenulatis extus puberulis. Staminum filamenta y 1 ^ poll, 
longa glabra ; antherse ^ poll, longa? minute tuberculata? extus subtiliter puberula? 
medio dorso affixte, aristis ^ poll, longis nervo medio conspicuo margineque subin- 
crassato-denticulatis puberulis. Discus inconspicuus. Numlce dorsaliter convexpe ven- 
tialiter medio jugo prominulo apice deltoidere £ poll, longse glabra?. 

Socotra. On the limestone cliffs at an elevation of over 1500 feet. Not 
uncommon. B.C.S. n. 309. Schweinf. n. 593. 

The only species. A Borage-like plant with lovely azure blue flowers. 

Order XLIX. CONVOLVULACE^E. 

A large order of plants of very various habit occurring in every part of the 
world, but most abundant in the tropics. Of the eight Socotran genera all 
have a wide distribution over the globe, save two ; and of these, one is essen- 
tially American, but has a few cosmopolitan species, and the other is South 
Asiatic, reaching to Madagascar and Australia. 

1. IPOMCEA. 

Ipomoea, Linn. Gen. n. 216 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 870. 

A very large genus of, commonly twining, plants, found all over the world. 
Of the five Socotran species, two are widely spread over the globe, two are 
southern Asiatic and tropical African, and the fifth, belonging to the restricted 
section Quamorlit, is endemic. 



188 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

1. I. obscura, Ker in Bot. Reg. t. 239 ; Choisy in DC. Prod. ix. 370. 
Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 69 ; Franch. Sert. Somal. in Miss. ReVoil 41 ; 
Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 207. 

/. ochracea, Don. Syst. iv. 270. 

Convolvulus obscurus, Linn. Sp. 220. 

C. gonatodcs, Steud. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. ii. n. 801. 

C. ochraceus, Liudl. in Bot. Reg. t. 1060. 

For the further extensive synonymy see authors quoted. 

Nom. Vern. Irrham (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. Not uncommon. B.C.S. n. 423. Schweinf. n. 451. 

Distrib. Throughout India and the East, in regions bordering on the 
Indian Ocean, and in tropical Africa. 

There appears to be no specific difference between the two plants figured 
in the Bota7iical Register as Ipomcea obscura and Convolvulus ochraceus. The 
hairiness of the one and the glabrousness of the other is not a persistent 
character, — we find amongst our Socotra specimens hairy and glabrous forms, — 
and the only point of difference between them is the colour of the corolla, — 
white or yellow, — white in /. obscura, and orange-yellow in C. ochraceus. Our 
Socotran plant has commonly orange flowers, and is therefore the ochracea form, 
which is perhaps only tropical African. Plants grown at Kew from seeds we 
sent from Socotra flowered in October 1880. 

2. I. biloba, Forsk. Fl. ^Egypt. Arab. 44 ; Clarke in Hook. Brit. Ind. 
iv. 212. 

I. maritima, R. Br. Prod. 486 ; Bot. Reg. t. 319. 

I. Pes caprae, Roth Nov. PI. Sp. 1 09 ; Choisy in DC. Prod. ix. 349 ; Franch. Sert. Somal. in 
Miss. Revoil 41. 

Socotra. Common on the shores. B.C.S. n. 545. Schweinf. n. 786. 
Distrib. On tropical shores, cosmopolitan. 

3. I. (Quamoclit) laciniata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1882), 82. 

Annua depressa radiatim ramosa ramis prostratis ; foliis laciniatis pinnatisectis longe petiolatis 
sparsim pilosis ; rloribus subsessilibus in axillis solitariis ; sepalis exterioribus subtrifidis ; 
corolla angusta ; ovario rostrato ; seminibus maculosis pubescentibus. 

Herba annua a collo radiatim ramosa, ramis prostratis srcpe longe patentibus 4 poll, longis 
sparsim pilosis. Folia f-1 poll, longa in ramis elongatis remota sed circum collum dense 
aggregata laciniatim et profunde pinnatisecta, segmentis linearibus terminali latiori et 
subcuneatim tridentato acutis ssepe lateraliter sectis fere 1 poll, longis, basi in petiolum 
canaliculatum plerumque lamina longiorcm attenuata sparsim pilosa subtus scrobiculata. 
Mores in axillis solitarii brevissime pedicellati v. subsessiles; pedicelli subflore bibracteol- 
ati ; bracteohi: lineares pilosae floribus breviores. Sqiala imequalia nonaculeata, tria 
exteriore majora ovata subtrifida lobo medio acuminato lobis lateralibus lanceolatis, parte 
basali subinembranacea extus pilosa. Corolla angusta tubuloso-cylindrica v. infundibuli- 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 189 

formis ^ poll, longa calyce multo longior. Staminum filamenta aatheris vix longiora. 
Ovarium 4-ovulatum glabrum apice rostratum et in stylum 5-lobatum productum. 
Capsular glabrae globosae 3-4-loculares in axillis foliorum basalium circum collum aggregatoe. 
Semina 3-4-maculata pubescentia. 

Soeotra. On the plains near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 100. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A pretty little species of the section Quamoclit. In habit and appearance 
it much resembles Corchorus erodioides, Balf. fil. (see page 39), and occurs with 
it on the plains. It has much smaller flowers and is altogether a more delicate 
species than any hitherto described. 

4. I. (Pharbitis) scabra, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 44. 

I. hederaeea, Jacq. Collect, i. 124, and Ic. Ear. i. t. 36 ; Bot. Eeg. t. 85 ; Clark in Hook. Flor. 

Brit. Ind. iv. 199. 
I. ccerulea, Kon ; Bot. Reg. t. 276. 

7". githaginea, Hocbst. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. ii. n. 784. 
Convolvulus Nil, Linn. Sp. 219 ; Bot. Mag. t. 188. 

Pharbitis hispida, Choisy in DC. Prod. ix. 341 ; Acb. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 65. 
P. Nil, Choisy loc. cit. 343. 
P. hederaeea, Choisy loc. cit. 344. 
P. githaginea, Hochst. in. herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. iii. n. 1446. 

And many other synonyms. 

Soeotra. On the hills. Common. B.C.S. n. 546. 

Distrib. Tropical and subtropical regions of the world. 

5. I. (Aniseia) cardiosepala, Hochst. in herb. Kotsch. Nub. (1841), nn. 
207, 384. 

I. blephccrosepala, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Arab. n. 319; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss. 

ii. 72.? 
I. calycina, Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 872 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 201. 
Convolvitlus calycinus, Roxb. Flor. Ind. ed. Carey and Wall. ii. 51. 
C. Hardwickii, Spreng. Syst. iv. 2, 60. 
Aniseia calycina, Choisy in DC. Prod. ix. 429 ; Wight Ic. t. 833. 

Soeotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 57. Schweinf. n. 445. 

Distrib. Indian Peninsula and north-west India, Nile Land and Senegal. 

The flowers of the Socotran plants are either white or rose. 

2. CONVOLVULUS. 

Convolvulus, Linn. Gen. n. 215 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 874. 

A large genus spread all over the globe, but not so abundant in the tropics 
as the last. Of the four Socotran species, two are endemic, whilst the other 
two are restricted to the drier districts of south-west Asia, north Africa, and 
the Mediterranean region. 



190 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

1. C. filipes, Balf. fil in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1882), 82. 

Sufifruticosus inermis ramosissimus ramis scopariis filiformibus strigosis v. subsericeis; foliis 
linearibus strigosis ; floribus longe pedicellatis laxos racemos terminales formantibus ; 
calycis lobis corolla multo-brevioribus ; ovario glabro ; seminibus pubescentibus. 

Suffrutex parvus a basi ramosus, ramis numerosissimis scopariis strigosis herbaceis divaricatim 
ssepeque fastigiatim ramosis, ramulis filiformibus ultimis sericeis subflexuosis. Folia 
linearia decidua, basalia f-£ poll, longa. strigosa, superiora remota miuora, suprema 
filiformia sericea. Mores pedicellati in axillis superioribus solitarii et longos laxos racemos 
formantes ; pedicelli capillares stricti 1 poll, longi v. minores supra medium articulati 
bibracteolati absque articulo sub anthesin anfractuosi. Calycis lobi subajquales ovato- 
acuti sericeo-strigosi ^ poll, longi. Corolla alba calyce triplolongior angulis extus 
sericeo-strigosis. Ovarium glabrum ; stylus inclusus. Capsida nitida glabra conoidea ( \ 
poll. diam. Semina pubescentia. 

Socotra. Very common. B.C.S. 116. Scliweinf. nn. 238, 382 in lit. . 

Distrib. Endemic. 

One of the commonest plants on the island, occurring on all the plains, and 
one would hardly expect that it should be an endemic species ; but I am 
unable to match it. Its nearest ally is C. chondrilloides, Boiss., a plant of south 
Persia ; but the glabrous subaphyllous condition of this plant, its less scoparioid 
habit, the inflorescence and hirsute ovary are sufficiently distinctive. Indeed, 
from all the species in Boissier's section Inermes, our plant is readily 
diagnosed by its glabrous ovary. 

2. 0. sarmentosus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1882), 83. 

Subpulvinatus inermis lignosus perennis argenteo-sericeus ramis brevibus basi congestis cum 
ramulis paucis virgatis sarmentosis ; foliis basalibus rosulatis oblanceolatis, superioribus 
ovato-acutis v lanceolatis ; floribus pedicellatis breves racemos simplices formantibus ; 
ovario glabro ; seminibus puberulis. 

Suffrutex lignosus bumilis prostratus subpulvinatus argenteo-sericeus a collo ramosus, ramorum 
baseis brevitms congestis perennibus depressis, ramulis superioribus in virgas annuas 
sarmentosas apice adscendentes elongatis. Folia ad apices ramorum inferiorum rosulata 
oblanceolata v. anguste obovata obtusa v. late acuta 1 poll, longa | poll, lata in petiolum 
gradatim attenuata, in ramis pulvinatis folia omnino minora, superiora in ramis elongatis 
remota subsessilia oblongo-acuta v. lanceolata longitudine latitudineque variantia. 
Flores solitarii in axillis superioribus et laxos simplices racemos formantes pedicellati ; 
pedicelli stricti adscendentes demum in parte superiore subcernui £-| poll, longi bracteis 
longiores supra medium articulati bibracteolati. Calycis lobi subrequales ovati acuti j^ 
poll, longi sericei. Corolla \-\ poll, longa alba extus quinquc lineis sericeis notata. 
Ovarium glabrum ; stylus ad medium bifidus inclusus. Capsida glabra globosa £ poll. 
diam. Semina subtil iter puberula. 

Socotra. On the limestone plateau overlooking Galonsir valley on the 
west, at an elevation over 1500 feet. B.C.S. nn, 131?, 302. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A pretty white-flowered species, a very characteristic plant of the dry lime- 
stone plains. We only found it at one locality. Its position in the genus is in 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 191 

Boissier's section Pannosi, of the eastern forms, in which are a set of 
species almost entirely denizens of the dry regions of south-west Asia. With 
no described form, however, is it conspecific. 

The specimen n. 131, a fragmentary one, is, with doubt, referred to this 
species. 

3. C. glomeratus, Choisy in DC. Prod. ix. 401 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 24; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 102; Clarke in Hook. Flor 
Brit. Ind. iv. 219 ; Wight Ic. t. 1366. 

I. auricoma, Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 67.? 

Soeotra. Common on the plains and hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 115 
Schweinf. n. 387. 

Distrib. India, south-west Asia and north-west tropical Africa, a plant 
varying much, both in size of leaf and in size of head. The larger heads on 
our specimens are associated with a distinctly twining habit of stem. 

4. O. siculus, Linn. Sp. 223 ; Choisy in DC. Prod. ix. 407 ; Ach. Rich. 
Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 73 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 109 ; Sibth. Flor. Graec. t. 
196 ; Bot. Beg. t. 445. 

Soeotra. Near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 165. 

Distrib. Canary Islands and Mediterranean region into Syria. 

3. EVOLVULUS. 

Evolvulus, Linn. Gen. n. 385 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 875. 

A considerable genus, almost entirely American ; but a few species spread 
into the old world. 

E. alsinoides, Linn. Sp. 392 ; Choisy in DC. Prod. ix. 447 ; Boiss. Flor. 
Orient, iv. 113; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 220. 

E. linifolius, Linn. loc. cit. ; Choisy loc. cit. 449 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 75 ; Lamk. 

Illustr. ii. 351, t. 216, f. 1. 
E. fugacissimus, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. ii. n. 828 ; Ach. Rich. loc. cit. 
E. hirsutus, Lamk. Encyc. iii. 538, and Illustr. ii. 351, t. 216, f. 2. 

Soeotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 271. Schweinf. nn. 418 in lit., 496. 
Distrib. Cosmopolitan in tropical and subtropical regions. 
Both the extremely hairy and the more glabrous forms of this species occur 
on the island, as well as the narrow-leaved and broader-leaved types. 

4. POBANA. 

Porana, Burm. Flor. Ind. 51, t. 21* f. 1 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 876. 

A small genus of seven species of climbing or twining plants distributed in 
India and the Malay Archipelago. One species is found in Madagascar, and 
one in Australia. 



192 I'.OTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

P. obtusa, BaJf. til. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1882), 83. Tab. LVII. 

Fruticosa scandens; foliis oblongo-obtusis ; sepalis sub fructu paulum auctis ; corolla; lobis 
induplicato-valvatis ; stylis duobus. 

Frutex late scandens subtiliter pubescens. Folia petiolata altema oblonga obtusa stepe 
apiculata basi subinrequilateralia 2J-3 poll, longa |-1 poll, lata margine subundulata 
coriacea, oblique pennivenia supra glabrescentia subtus venulosa puberula; petiolo £-§ 
poll, longo. Cymce racemoso-paniculatie axillares 3-4 poll, longte, ramis primariis I poll, 
longis strictis, pedicellis £-£ poll, longis omnibus pubescentibus ; bracteobe miuutissimae. 
Sepala obovata obtusa subsequalia extus pubescentia subsequalia persistentia i poll, 
longa fructifera parum aucta subpatentia -fa poll, louga vix membranacea venulosa. 
Corolla campanulata ad medium 5-fida calyce brevior, lobis induplicato-valvatis extus 
villosis et glanduloso-punctulatis. Stamina fere ad basin tubi corollini late aftixa inclusa, 
filamentis basi dilatatis glabris antberis oblongis sublongioiibus. Discus annularis. 
Ovarium 2-loculare 4-ovulatum ; styli 2 requales a basi soluti filiformes, stigmatibus 
capitatis. Fradus pyriformis v. ovoideus parvus glaber indebiscens \ poll, longus niger, 
pericarpio glanduloso punctulato tenui coriaceo. Semina abortu 1 rarius 2 erecta late 
inserta glabra ovoidea, testa mucosa ; albumen abundans mucosum ; embryo replicatus 
cotyledonibus arete 2-lobis, radicula in f era, 

Socotra. At the west end of Kadhab plain. B.C.S. n. 355. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A somewhat remarkable climber referred provisionally to this genus. At 
one time I was inclined to take it as the type of a new genus. But it has so 
many points of resemblance with species relegated to the polymorphous genus 
Porana, that for the present I have placed it here. 

There are, however, several noteworthy points of divergence from the generic 
character. In the calyx, which is very small in the flower, but in fruit enlarges 
enormously, is found one of the chief characteristics of Porana. But in our 
plants the sepals are large, and somewhat membranous in the flower, and only 
increase to a small extent in fruit, never becoming so thoroughly scarious as in 
typical Poranw. Again, in our plant Ave find two distinct styles, whereas in 
Porana, although the style is often deeply cleft, the division never extends to 
the very base. In Breweria as much variation exists, so that this is a character 
upon which much stress need not be laid. Further, in the corolla we find the 
aestivation of our plant is induplicato-valvate, in Porana it is plicate. Our plant 
is of a more robust habit than most Poranw, and has obtuse, not pointed leaves, 
nor are these cordate at the base. Although our plant presents these dif- 
ferences, in the majority of technical characters it agrees well with the genus, 
and I consider it more judicious to regard Porana as an incompletely defined 
genus including our plant, than to create a new one for it. 

With the monotypic and little known Madagascar genus Bonamia, the 
Socotran plant shows many points of resemblance, but the hairy bases of the 
stamens, and the absence of albumen in that genus exclude our plant, 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 193 

5. BREWERIA. 

Breweria, E. Br. Prod. 487 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 876. 

A genus of about twenty-four species varying greatly in habit, distributed 
over the warmer parts of both the old and new worlds. Three of the Socotran 
species are endemic, and the fourth is essentially a plant of the desert plains of 
north-west Africa, and south-west Asia. 

1. B. (Seddera) latifolia, Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 877. 

Seddera latifolia, Hochst. in Flora 1844, Beil. 7, t. 5, ff. B, C. ; Choisy in DC. Prod. ix. 440 ; 

Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 114. 
Cressa latifolia, T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (I860), Suppl. 25 (syn. plur. excl.). 

Soeotra. On the plains. Not uncommon. B.C.S. nn. 17, 727. Schweinf. 
n. 352. 

Distrib. Abyssinia, south-west Asia. 

A characteristic desert plant presenting a very various appearance according 
to its locality of growth. Frequently a hard dwarf undershrub with small 
leaves, in other places developing long twigs with larger leaves. 

It is quite a distinct plant from B. evolvuloides, Choisy (Convolv. Or. 112, 
and in DC. Prod. ix. 439), with which T. Anderson considered it conspecific. 

2. B. (Seddera) pedunculata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 

83. 

Suffruticosa virgata incana pubescente-tomentosa ; foliis oblongis subsessilibus ; fioribus valide 
pedunculitis in axillis solitariis ; calyce corolla breviore ; ovario hirto ; stylis 2. 

Suffrutex virgatus incanus pubescente-tomentosus a basi ramosus ramis strictis divaricatis. 
Folia remota pauca subsessilia oblonga obtusa v. apiculata \-\ poll, longa £ poll, lata, 
superiora multo minora, dense pubescentia. Flores pedunculati in axillis foliorum 
superiorum solitarii et racemos longos laxos formantes ; pedunculi breves validi 
adscendentes bracteis longiores ad medium v. supra articulati bracteolisque 2 minutis 
suffulti. Sepala subeequalia | poll, longa ovata subacuta extus pubescentia post 
anthesin patentia. Corolla in superiore dimidio exserta extus pilosa. Staminum filamenta 
tenuia. Ovarium hirtum ; styli 2 corolla breviores, stigmatibus capitatis. Capsula 
£ poll. diam. supra pilosa calyce £ longior. Semina glabra minute punctulata. 

Soeotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 158. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A form with some resemblance to the foregoing species, but very Convolv- 
uloid in aspect. Its two styles with capitate stigmas technically exclude it 
from Convolvulus, and its four ovules shut it out of Evolvulus. In Breweria 
it falls into the section Seddera, and is readily distinguished in the section by 
its stout floral pedicels and its virgate habit. 

3. B. (Seddera) glomerata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 
83. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 2 B 



194 BOTANY OF SOCOTKA. 

Suffruticosa nana prostrata lignosa albido-tomentosa ramis congestis ; foliis ovatis v. ellipticis 
subsessilibus; floribus in capitula liirta terminalia confertis ; calyce corolla longiore; 
ovario hirto ; stylis 2. 

Suflrutex nanus lignosus prostratus subpixlvinatus molliter albido-tomentosus, ramis validis 
brevibus congestis v. interdum ultimis elongatis. Folia subsessilia v. breviter petiolata 
ssepe ad extremitates ramulorum lateralium contractorum rosulata ovata v. elliptica 
obtusa v. acuta £— § poll, longa \ poll, lata mollia incana venulis subtus parurn 
prominulis. Mores in capitula terminalia globosa multiflora hirta noninvolucrata ^ poll, 
diam. aggregati flore quoque bracteolo setuloso hirtello subtento. Sepala oblanceolata v. 
obovata acuminata \ poll, longa extus hirta. Corolla angusta infundibularis inclusa 
extus hirtella. Stamina inclusa filamentis subtilibus. Ovarium adpresse hirsutum ; styli 
2 exserti apice capitati. Capsulam maturam non vidi. 

Socotra. On the plains. Not common. B.C. S. n. 114. Schweinf. n. 258. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Anotlier Convolvuloid species of this genus, closely resembling such 
Arabian forms as Convolvulus compactus Boiss. (Diagn. ser. i. 4. 40, and Flor. 
Orient, iv. 98) and its allies. But as in the case of the foregoing species the 
capitate stigmas technically exclude it from Convolvulus, and its ovary equally 
separates it from Evolvulus. It is quite a distinct species in this genus, and 
a very typical desert form. 

4. B. (Seddera) fastigiata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Boy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 
83. Tab. LVIII. 

Suffruticosa argenteo-sericea fastigiatim denseque ramosa ramis strictis ; foliis approximatis 
subimbricatis lanceolatis sessilibus ; floribus sparsis in axillis subsessilibus ; sepalis apice 
conniventibus corolla brevioribus ; ovario glabro ; stylo breviter bilobato. 

Suffrutex 4-pedalis argenteo-sericeus lignosus dense fastigiatim ramosus ramis ultimis strictis 
rigidis brevibus post folia delapsa persistentibus marcidis siccitateque subspinosis. Folia 
minuta approximata cauli appressa et subimbricata sessilia lanceolata acuta £ poll, 
longa 2V poll, lata argenteo-sericea. Floras sparsi subsessiles in axillis foliorum solitarii. 
Calyx tubulosus subovoideus ore constricto, segmentis \ poll, longis oblongis subacuminatis 
subcrustaceis extus sericeo-strigosis, interioribus latioribus margine membranaceis. Corolla 
alba parva infundibularis \ poll, longa extus in parte exserta hirtella. Stamina inclusa. 
Discus cupuliformis subtiliter crenulatus. Ovarium glabrum 4-ovulatum ; stylus vix 
exsertus bilobatus lobis brevibus obovoideis. Capsula omnino calyce inclusa I poll, 
longa. 

Nom. Vern. Sahdek (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. Common on the plains. B.C.S. nn. 73, 273. Schweinf. n. 249. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

One of the commonest plants on Galonsir plain and on other plains of the 
island, its dwarf, half shrubby dendriform habit giving a peculiar feature to 
the plains. There can be little doubt a plant so abundant on the island occurs 
on the adjacent continents, but as yet we only know it as endemic in Socotra. 

Is it rightly referred to this genus? Its habit is thoroughly Breweriod, 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 195 

but at the same time its calyx and the style are quite different from those of 
other species in the Seddera section of the genus, or indeed, in the whole genus. 
With Cressa its flowers have some resemblance, but the solitary bilobate style 
is diagnostic. By certain of its technical characters, especially of the style, it 
might fall into Ipomcea — but the habit is against such an identification. 

All that I can say for its position here is, that it is the most natural one I 
can find for the plant, which may be considered as one of those forms which 
break down the somewhat artificial distinctions upon which several of the genera 
*n this order are, for convenience, based. 

6. DICHONDRA. 

Dichondra, Forst. Char. Gen. 39, t. 20 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 879. 

A genus of some five species of creeping herbs, spread through the warmer 
parts of the globe. 

D. repens, Forst. Char. Gen. 39, t. 20 ; Choisy in DC. Prod. ix. 451 ; 
Lamk. Illustr. ii. 328, t. 183. 

Socotra. Not uncommon. B.C.S. n. 612. Schweinf. n. 613. 

Distrib. Tropics and sub-tropics of both hemispheres. 

Extending northwards to China in the old world, and though found at the 
Cape, in the Mascarene and Canary Islands, is not reported from tropical Africa, 
nor is it found in India. 

7. CRESSA. 

Cressa, Linn. Gen. n. 313 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 881. 

Includes a single species which occurs in sandy shore districts of all warmer 
regions of the globe. 

C. cretica, Linn. Sp. 325 ; Choisy in DC. Prod. iv. 440 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. 
Flor. Abyss, ii. 75; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 114; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. 
Ind. iv. 225; Sibth. Flor. Grsec. t. 256 ; Lamk. Illustr. ii. 328, t, 183. 

Socotra. On the sandy plains. Common. B.C.S. n. 539. 
Distrib. Of the genus. 

8. CUSCUTA. 
Cuscuta, Linn. Gen. n. 170 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 881. 

A considerable genus of warm and temperate regions of the whole globe. 
Both Socotran species are widely dispersed old world forms. 

1. C. planiflora, Tenore Syll. 128, and Flor. Neap. t. 220, f. 3; Engelm. 
Cusc. in Trans. Acad. Sc. St, Louis i. (1859), 464 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 116 
Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Inch iv. 227. 



1 ( .H) BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

C. minor, Choisy in DC. Prod. ix. 453. 

C. brcvistyla, Braun in herb. Scbimp. Abyss, sect. iii. n. I486, ex Acb. Ricb. Tent. Flor. Abyss. 

ii. 79 ; Engelm. Cusc. loc. cit. 467. 
C. palocstina, Boiss. Diagn. ser. i. 11. 86, and Flor. Orient, iv. 116 ; Engelm. Cusc. loc. cit. 467. 

And many other synonyms, for which see authors quoted. 

var. globulosa, Balf. fil. 

Saepius rubella caulibus tenuissime capillaribus ; floribus minutis sessilibus capitula minima 
2-3-flora glabra basi bracteata formantibus ; calyce purpureo breviter obconico ; corolla' 
lobis supra capsulam conniventibus. 

C. f/lobulosa, Boiss. et Beut. Diagn. ii. 3, 126 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 117. 

Socotra. Common. Parasitic on Vernonia cinerascens, Sch. Bip., 
Indigo/era intricate/,, Boiss., and Dicliptera effusa, Balf. fil. B.C.S. n. 113. 

Distrib. Of the species — from the Canary Islands through north Africa, 
and south Europe to south-west and Central Asia. Of the variety — from 
Syria eastwards to southern Persia. 

A very variable and widely dispersed species, the forms of which have been 
ranked by various authors as species, and hence the synonymy is very 
extensive. 

Our Socotran plant is the form found from Syria eastwards to south Persia, 
and described by Boissier {loc. cit.) as C. globulosa. Its characteristics are, 
marked purpling both of stems and calyx, exceeding delicate habit with very 
minute flowers aggregated in few-flowered heads, usually only two or three in 
each, and the corolla-lobes connivent in fruit over the capsule. 

While I regard this as one of the forms of the above widely dispersed 
species, it is so distinct as to merit recognition as a variety for which Boissier's 
specific name may be retained. 

2. C. chinensis, Lamk. Encyc. ii. 229; Choisy in DC. Prod. ix. 457; 
Engelm. Cusc. in Trans. Acad. Sc. St. Louis i. (1859), 479 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, 
iv. 120 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 226 ; Wight Ic. t. 1373. 

Nom. Vern. Kzich (Schweinf). 

Socotra. Common on many plants, such as, Ochradenus baccatus, Del. 
Convolvulus siculus, L., Dicliptera effusa, Balf. fil., Abutilon fruticosum, Guill. et 
Perr., Forskohlia viridis, Ehrenb., species of Boerhaavia, Commelina, Hypoestes, 
&c. B.C.S. n. 108. Schweinf. n. 364. 

Distrib. From Syria eastwards, through south Asia to China. Also in 
Australia. Apparently not African. 

Order L. SOLANACE^E. 

A vast order of herbs, shrubs, or soft-wooded trees in tropical and warmer 
regions of the globe. Especially abundant in America. Some species reach 
more temperate zones in both hemispheres. Of the five Socotran genera all 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 197 

are widely dispersed over the world, save one which is restricted to south 
Europe, Africa, and southern Asia. 

1. SOLANUM. 

Solanum, Linu. Gen. n. 251 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 888. 

A huge cosmopolitan genus attaining its maximum of development in 
America. Of the Socotran species one is cosmopolitan, one is widely spread 
in tropics of the old world, the third is a south-west Asiatic species. 

1. S. nigrum, L. Sp. 266; Dunal in DC. Prod. xiii. 1, 50; Ach. Rich. 
Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 99 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 284 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. 
Brit. Ind. iv. 229 ; Syme Eng. Bot. tt. 931, 932. 

For the very extensive synonymy, see the authors quoted. 

Socotra. Common near villages. B.C.S. n. 9. Schweinf. n. 401. 

Distrib. Cosmopolitan. 

2. S.indicum, Nees ab Esenb., in Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. (1837), 55; Dunal 
in DC. Prod. xiii. i. 309 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 234 ; Wight Ic. 
t. 346. 

Nom. Vern. Harchem (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Common near villages. B.C.S. n. 68. Schweinf. n. 325. 
Hunter 5. 

Distrib. Tropics of the old world. 

3. S. gracilipes, Dene, in Jacquem. Voy. Ind. 113, t. 119; Dunal in DC. 
Prod. xiii. i. 286 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 286 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. 
iv. 237. 

Nom. Vern. Mrchea (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. At the foot of the limestone hills, west from Tamarida. 
Schweinf. n. 366. 

Distrib. Beloochistan and north-west India. Arabia ? 

Schweinfurth sends a couple of fragments of this species, which we did not 
obtain. It is not improbable that this is the S. cor datum, Forsk. (Fl. ^Egypt. 
Arab. 47), but in the absence of specimens of the latter, it is not possible to 
decide. 

2. PHYSALIS. 

Physalis, Linn. Gen. n. 250 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 890. 

A genus of thirty species of herbs or small undershrubs, chiefly American, 
but dispersed all. over the world. 

P. minima, Linn. Sp. 263 ; Nees ab Esenb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. 
(1837), 69 ; Dunal in DC. Prod. xiii. 1. 445 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. 
iv. 238. 



198 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Soeotra. Near Tamarida. Schweinf. n. 317. 
Distrib. Common in the tropics of the old world. 

3. WITHANIA. 

Withania, Pauq. Diss, de Bellacl. Paris, 1824, ex End. Gen. 666 ; Benth. et Hook.Gen. PI. ii. 893. 

A small genus of some half-dozen species of woody shrubs or undershrubs 
ranging through south Europe and south Asia, and through north Africa to 
the Canary Islands. Also found at the Cape. Of the Socotran species, one 
has the distribution of the genus, the other is endemic. 

1. W. SOmnifera, Dunal in DC. Prod. xiii. 1. 453; Boiss. Flor. Orient, 
iv. 287 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 239. 

Physalis somnifera, Linn. Sp. 261 ; Nees ab Esenb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. (1837), 66 ; 
Wight Ic. t. 853 ; Sibth. Flor. Graec. t. 233. 

Soeotra. Near Tamarida. Schweinf. n. 341. Hunter. 
Distrib. Of the genus. 

Schweinfurth sends this, which he found growing along with the next species. 
We did not obtain it, and I fancy it is not so abundant as the next. 

2. W. Riebeckii, Schweinf. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 83. 
Tab. LIX. 

Frutex parvus habitu foliisque W. somniferce seel ab ea differens calyce profunde diviso et 
fructifero non vesicoso oreque subaperto. 

Suffrutex erectus 8-pedalis plus minusve^tomentosus pilis stellatis canus ramis rectis saepe 
subanfractuosis. Folia ovata v. elliptico-oblonga v. obovata obtusa 2-3^ poll, longa 1-1A 
poll, lata ssepe multo majora basi ina'qualia et in petiolum plerurnque atteuuata integra 
nonnunquam margine undulata. Flores $ in axillis 4-6 conferti breviter pedicellati ; pedi- 
celli £ poll, longi fructiferi subcernui. Calyx campanulatus arete 5-fidus laciniis lanceo- 
latis fructifer \ poll, longus auctus non inflatus sed apertus. Corolla subrotata. Stylus 
filiform is apice bilobatus. Bacca globosa rubra vix pisi magnitudine. Semina tuberculata. 

Nom. Vern. Obap (B.C.S.). Abab (Schweinf.). 

Soeotra. On the plains near villages. B.C.S. n. 32. Schweinf. nn. 326, 794. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A species, which in habit and foliage, closely resembles the foregoing widely 
spread form, but as Schweinfurth clearly recognised, presents characters which 
are very distinctive. These lie in the calyx. 

In true W. somnifera, the calyx in fruit has quite a Physaloid character, 
the narrow short calycine segments forming a crown of subciliate appendages 
at the apex, and the berry is quite concealed in the vesicose covering. But in 
this Socotran species the calyx is in the first instance much more deeply 
divided, almost two-thirds of the way down, and then in fruit, whilst it enlarges 
to a certain extent, it never forms a nearly closed sac around the berry. The 






PHANEROGAM M — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 199 

differences in appearance are very pronounced, and, notwithstanding their great 
likeness in habit and foliage, there is no difficulty in separating the species. 

I have searched through the specimens of W. somnifera, in Kew Herbarium, 
but have not been able to find on any of them an approach to the calycine con- 
dition of this new Socotran species. All plants even from the adjacent shores 
of Arabia and Africa are typical W. somnifera. This is the only species in our 
collection, but Schweinfurth found it growing along with the true W. somni- 
fera. 

The vernacular name Abab or Obap is, according to Schweinfurth, the same 
as that given by the Arabs on the opposite Arabian coast to W. somnifera. 
His specimens from Schugra, he tickets, ' Abubb.' 

4. LYCIUM. 

Lycium, Linn. Gen, n. 262 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 900. 

A moderate genus of usually spiny shrubs or small trees, inhabiting 
temperate and subtropical regions of the whole world, but most abundant in 
south America, and south Africa. 

L. europseum, Linn. Mant. 47 ; T. Anders, in Ann. Nat. Hist. ser. 2, xx. 
126, and in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 20 ; Clarke in Hook. Flor. 
Brit. Ind. iv. 240; Sibth. Flor. Graec. t. 236. 

L. arabicum, Schweinf. in herb. ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 289. 
L. mediterraneum, Dunal in DC. Prod. xiii. 1. 523. 

There are many other synonyms, for which see authorities quoted. 

Socotra. Common about Galonsir and elsewhere. B.C.S. n. 95. 
Schweinf. n. 728. 

Distrib. Mediterranean region and south-west Asia, India. 

5. DATURA, 

Datura, Linn. Gen. n. 246 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 901. 

A small genus of a dozen species, widely dispersed over the globe. 

D. fastuosa, Linn. Sp. 256 ; Dunal in DC. Prod. xiii. 1. 542 ; Clarke in 
Hook. Flor. Brit. Ind. iv. 242 ; Wight Ic. t. 1396, 

var. alba, Clarke loc. cit. 243. 

D. alba, Nees ab Esenb. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xvii. (1837), 73 ; Dunal in DC. Prod. xiii. i. 541 ; 
Wight Ic. t. 852. 

Socotra. Common near villages. B.C.S. n. 218. Schweinf. n. 316. 
Distrib. Cosmopolitan weed. 



200 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Order LI. SCROPHULARINE.dE. 

A large order widely dispersed over all parts of the world. Twelve genera 
are represented in Socotra, of which one is endemic, two are entirely African, 
one of them reaching to the Cape, and four of the others are essentially north- 
west African and south-west Asiatic species, though one extends to the Cape 
de Verde Islands. The remainder have a wider range, — either in the old 
world alone, or in both old and new worlds. 

1. ANTICHARIS. 

Anticharis, Endl. Gen. 682, and Iconogr. t. 93 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 928. 

A small genus of four species of viscid herbs entirely confined to north-west 
tropical Africa and the plains of south-west Asia. 

A. arabica, Endl. Nov. Stirp. Decad. 23, and Iconogr. t. 93 ; Benth. in DC. 
Prod. x. 347 ; Aschs. in Monatsb. k. Akad. Wiss. Ber. 1866, 881 ; Boiss. Flor. 
Orient, iv. 422 ; Franch. Sert. Somal. in Miss. Revoil 54. 

Meisarrhena tomentosa, E. Br. in Salt Abyss, app. 

Capraria arabica, Hochst. et Steud. in herb. Schimp. Arab. n. 748. 

Socotra. On the sandy plains. B.C.S. n. 537. 

Distrib. Arabia, Beloochistan, Nile Land. 

Very nearly allied to the other Arabian and tropical African species, A. 
gland ulosa, Aschs. (in Monatsb. k. Akad. Wiss. Berol. 1866, 880), and A. 
linearis, Hochst. (Aschs. loc. cit.), with which it has been often confused. The 
A. arabica of Ach. Richard (Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 119) is A. linearis, Hochst, 
and the Aden plant, referred by T. Anderson (in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), 
Suppl. 27) to A. arabica, is A. glandulosa, Aschs. 

2. LINARIA. 

Linaria, Juss. Gen. PL 120 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 932. 

A large genus of herbs inhabiting extratropical regions in the northern 
hemisphere of the old world, but a few are tropical species. One only occurs 
in extratropical America. 

L. (Elatinoides) hastata, R. Br. in Salt Abyss, app. ; Benth. in DC. 
Prod. x. 269 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 113. 
L. capillipes, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. ii. n. 1042. 

Socotra. On the plains. Not uncommon. B.C.S. nn. 21, 718. 
Schweinf. n. 311. 

Distrib. Abyssinia. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 201 

The leaves on the Socotran specimens do not show the hastation so clearly 
as those of the type, and they are more generally linear. The radical leaves 
in some specimens are somewhat pilose. 

3. SCHWEINFURTHIA. 

Schweinfurthia, A. Braun in Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berol. 1866, 872, c. ic. ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. 
PL ii. 933. 

A small genus of three species of Linarioid herbs. One occurs in Arabia 
and in Nile Land, another is found in Persia and Scindh, and the third is the 
Socotran plant, which is found elsewhere only at Aden. 

S. pedicellata, Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 934. 

Anarrhinum pedicellatum , T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 26. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 540. 

Distrib. Aden. 

The Socotran plant has a much stouter habit than that from Aden. 

4. ANTIRRHINUM. 

Antirrhinum, Linn. Gen. n. 750 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 934. 

A. small genus of about twenty-five herbaceous species, inhabiting temperate 
and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. 

A. Orontium, Linn. Sp. 860 ; Benth. in DC. Prod. x. 290 ; Ach. Rich. 
Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 114; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 385; Hook, in Flor. Brit, 
Ind. iv. 253 ; Syme Eng. Bot. t. 954. 

Socotra. On Kadhab plain. B.C.S. n. 350. 

Distrib. Europe, and from the Azores and Canary Islands eastwards 
through the Mediterranean region, Abyssinia, and Persia to Afghan and 
northern India. 

Our plants are distinctly pilose at the base. 

5. SCROPHULARIA. 

Scrophularia, Linn. Gen. n. 756 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 937. 

A large genus widely spread in the northern hemisphere, its maximum 
being reached in the Mediterranean region, and south-west Asia. Few are 
American. 

S. arguta, Ait. Hort. Kew. ed. 1, ii. 342 ; Benth. in DC. Prod. x. 305 : 
Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 395 ; Webb Flor. Canar. Ic. t 177. 

S. rostrata, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. iii. n. 1428. 

Socotra. On the hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 604. Schweinf. 537. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 2 C 



202 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Distrib. From Canary Islands through north Africa, Syria, Abyssinia, and 
Somali Land to Persia. 

Very common on the hill slopes, growing with such other annuals as 
Campanula dichotoma, Erytkrcea Centaariiun, &c. 

6. LINDENBERGIA. 

Linclenberyia, Lehtn. in Link et Otto, Ic. PI. Ear. i. 95, t. 48 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 948. 

A small genus of nine species of herbs, usually hairy, distributed in southern 
Asia and east tropical Africa. 

L. sinaica, Benth. Scroph. Ind. 22, and in DC. Prod. x. 377 ; T. Anders, 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 27; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 425. 
Bovca sinaica, Dene, in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, ii. (1834), 253. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. nn. 70, 530. Schweinf. n. 332. 

Distrib. From Nubia and Egypt, along the shores of the Red Sea to 
Arabia and Persia. 

As it occurs on Socotra this plant is liable to some variation. In some 
localities it forms a hard-wooded herb with stiff erect branches, in others it has 
a delicate trailing habit. The leaves, too, vary in size. Some of the woody 
specimens present only sessile or subsessile, very minute leaves, and in such 
forms the flowers are usually small, with corollas only twice as long as the 
calyx. In the delicate spreading specimens the leaves have long stalks and the 
flowers are large, the corolla usually three times, or more, the length of the 
calyx. 

The woody somewhat shrubby specimens appear so very different from the 
other forms, which more nearly resemble the type, that one might expect they 
would constitute a distinct species. But I can draw up no sufficient diagnosis 
between the forms, and indeed amongst continental specimens, I find nearly 
as much variation. 

7. HERPESTIS. 

Herpcstis, Gartn. fil. Fruct. iii. 18G, t. 214; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 951. 

A genus of about fifty species of herbs, found in the warmer regions of both 
hemispheres. Especially abundant in America. 

H. Monnieria, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. et Sp. ii. 366; Benth. in DC. Prod. x. 
400 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 426 ; Bot. Mag. t. 2557. 

Socotra. Common in marshy places. B.C.S. n. 34. Schweinf. nn. 273, 
701 in lit. 

Distrib. Cosmopolitan in the tropics. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 203 

8. CAMPTOLOMA. 

Camptoloma, Benth. in DO. Prod. x. 430 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 960. 

A genus hitherto monotypic ; the species, C. rotundifolia, Benth., growing 
in the western region of south tropical Africa, at Elephant's Bay. 

C. villosa, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 84. Tab. LX. 

Herba perennis villosa ; foliis rotundato-cordatis crenulato-dentatis ; floribus paucis in racernos 
terminales breves dispositis ; capsula calycem excedente. 

Herba a basi ramosa pedalis omniuo dense villosa ramis in inflorescentiam excurrentibus. 
Folia longe petiolata rotundato-cordata v. suborbicularia f-1 poll. diam. basalia sa?pe 1£ 
poll. diam. grosse crenata lobis denticulatis ; petiolns 1 poll, longus. Bacemi simplices 
terminales pauciflori. Flares longe pedicellati ; pedicelli \ poll, longi bracteas excedentes. 
Calyx \ poll, lougus, laciniis lineari-acutis. Corolla alba, tubo \ poll, longo. Capsula 
glabra calyce longior. 

Socotra. On the cliffs of the Haghier range at an elevation over 3000 
feet. B.C.S. n. 237. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

It is interesting to have in Socotra a species of this hitherto monotypic 
and exclusively south African genus. The Socotran species differs from the 
African plant in its inflorescence, relatively longer corolla, and the capsule 
exceeding the calyx. 

9. CAMPYLANTHUS. 

Campylanthus, Roth Nov. PI. Sp. 4. ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 961. 

A small genus of five species, all of limited distribution ; two are Cape de 
Verde Island species, one is found at Aden and reaches Scindb, one occurs in 
Scindh and Beloochistan, and the fifth is our Socotran plant. None are known 
from Africa. 

O. spinosus, Balf. fil. in. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 84. Tab. LXI. 

Suffraticosus intricato-ramosissimus incanus spinosus ; foliis minutis crassiusculis linearibus 
obtusis ; floribus solitariis subsessilibus axillaribus ; corolla? tubo calyce duplolongiore ; 
capsula oblouga glabra. 

Suffrutex parvus circa 2-pedalis omnino incanus a basi tortuosus et intricato-ramosissimus 
ramis ultimis spinosis. Folia minuta crassiuscula liuearia obtusa persistentia £ poll, 
longa ^ poll, lata arete approximata plerumque plus minusve adpressa et subimbricata 
apice parum recurvata. Flores axillares solitarii sessiles v. subsessiles bracteis multo 
longiores. Calyx \ poll, longus, laciniis lanceolatis lanato-incanis. Corolla purpurea, 
tubo \ poll, longo, limbi lobis obcuneato- v. obovato-oblongis. Capsula glabra oblonga 
calyci a^quilonga. 

Socotra. A very abundant little shrub on the plains near Galonsir and 
elsewhere. B.C.S. n. 101. Schweinf. n. 261. Hunter. 
Distrib. Endemic. 



204 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

A pretty and very distinct species of the genus. In habit it resembles 
C. ramosissimus, Wight (Ic. t. 1416), a plant of Scindh and Beloochistan. But 
that species is not so hoary, has pedicellate flowers arranged in racemes, and a 
nearly orbicular fruit. The other species of the genus are distinguished by 
their virgate habit. 

This is another very interesting find from the point of view of geographical 
distribution, as all the other species have a limited distribution, and none are 
African. 

10. STKIGA. 

Striga, Lour. Flor. Cochinch. 22 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 968. 

A genus of about eighteen species of mostly root-parasites, inhabitants of 
the tropical regions of the old world. Both the Socotran plants have a wide 
range in Africa and south-west Asia, and one reaches Australia. 

1. S. orobanchoides, Benth. in Comp. Bot. Mag. i. 361, t. 19, and in DC. 
Prod. x. 501 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 129 ; Wight Ic. t. 1414. 

S. orchidea, Hochst. in herb. Kotscb. Nub. n. 387. 
Buchncra orobanchoides, B. Br. in Salt. Abyss, app. 

For the extensive synonymy of this species see Bentham loc. cit. 

Socotra. Common on the plains. Parasitic on species of Vitis. B.C.S. 
n. 38. Schweinf. n. 700 in lit. 

Distrib. Tropical Africa, south Africa, and north-west India. 

2. S. hirsuta, Benth. in DC. Prod. x. 502 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, 
ii. 132. 

X lutea, Bentb. in Comp. Bot. Mag. i. 363 (non Lour. Flor. Cochincb. 22). 
S. pusilla, Hocbst. in berb. Scbimp. Abyss, sect. ii. n. 1209. 
S. gracilis, Miq. PI. Ind. Or. (ed. Hobenack.) n. 141. 
Campulcia coccinea, Hook. Exot. Flor. iii. t. 203. 

For the rest of an extensive synonymy see Bentham loc. cit. 

Socotra. Not uncommon on the plains about Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 142. 

Distrib. Throughout India, islands of Indian Ocean, Abyssinia, and 
tropical Africa, and in Australia. 

A very variable species in the colour of its flower ; and it has been described 
under a great number of names. Bentham originally identified this plant with 
S. lutea, Lour.; but that is described as glabrous, and we never observe this 
character in our plant. In Socotra the flowers vary in tint from white to purple. 

11. GRADERIA. 

Gradcria, Benth. in DC. Prod. x. 521 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 970. 

A small genus of three species. Hitherto this genus has been considered 
monotypic, having its only representative in South Africa, — G. scabra, Benth. ; 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 205 

but in Kew Herbarium there is a second species, undescribed, found by 
Welwitsch in Angola, and we have now a third from Socotra. The discovery 
of our Socotran species necessitates slight emendations in the generic character 
as given by Bentham and Hooker, to wit,— the habit is shrubby as well as 
herbaceous, and the stamens may be glabrous as well as villous, with ciliate 
anthers. 

G. fruticosa, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 84. Tab. LXII. 

Fruticosa ; foliis oblongo-ellipticis v. ellipticis minute aculeolatis ; floribus breviter pedicell- 
atis raceinos formantibus ; corolla sesquipollicari ; filamentis etantheris staminum glabris. 

Frutex 8-10-pedalis cortice griseo ramulis rigidis scabro-pubescentibus. Folia opposita v. 3- 
verticellata elliptica v. oblongo-elliptica apice obtusa ssepe angustata basi attenuata f— 1 
poll, longa f 2 I poll, lata breviter petiolata margine revoluta coriacea nitida siccitate 
nigricantia nervis subtus prominulis et utrinque minute aculeolatis ; petiolo ^ poll, 
longo. Flores in axillis bractearum foliacearum solitarii breviter pedicellati et racemos 
elongates formantes ; pedicelli £ poll, longi scabrido-pilosi. Calycis tubus subpoculi- 
formis 10-angulatus angulis prominentibus minute aculeolatis, laciniis tubo sequilongis. 
Corolla atro-purpurea 1£-1£ poll, longa extus pilis apice capitatis vestita. Stamina 
omnino glabra. Fructus loculi basi subaequales. Semina minute pilosa. 

Nom. Vern. 'Ouhereteh (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. Rare on the slopes of the Haghier hills, at an elevation of 
about 3000 feet. B.C.S. n. 398. Schweinf. n. 634. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

In this handsome shrub we have another plant of this family, interesting 
from the point of view of distribution, and affording further striking proof 
of the close affinity of the south African and this northern flora. The fruit 
in our plant is much larger and more obliquely acuminate than in the south 
African species, and the loculi are nearly equal at the base, but towards the 
apex one rapidly aborts. 

We found this on the top of Sicante peaks behind Tamarida. Schweinfurth 
has it from Kischen. It appears to be rather uncommon. 

12. XYLOCALYX. 

Xylocalyx, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 84. 

Calyx campanulatus, ad medium v. altius 5-fidus, fructifer accrescens lignascens, laciniis 
angustis. Corollte tubus vix exsertus, superne ampliatus, paulum incurvus ; limbus patens, 
lobis 5 latis integris subaequalibus 2 posticis interioribus. Stamina 4, didynama, exserta ; 
antbera; liberae, glabra, per paria approximate, loculis distinctis parallelis rectis, altero 
cujusque antbera? tenuiore. Stylus filiformis, apice stigmatoso leviter incrassato obtuso ; 
ovula in loculis numerosa. Capsula basi globosa, apice compressa, calyce aucto inclusa, 
loculicide debiscens, valvis integris medio septiferis. Semina numerosa, obcuneata, testa 
foveolata. — Suffrutex rigidus, lignosus. nanus, minute aculeolatus, siccitate nigricans. 



206 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Folia opposita, interdum plura alterna, oblonga v. elliptica, integra. Flores in axillis 
superioribus subsessiles v. breviter pedicellati, 2-bracteolati. Bracteolaa calyci adhosrentes 
proven tu lignascentes. 

A genus with remarkable characteristics, especially of the calyx, from which 
its name is derived. This, which in the flower is soft and leaf-like in texture, 
and has a pair of small bracteoles adherent slightly above its base, increases in 
size with the maturation of the fruit, and completely encloses the capsule, at 
the same time getting hard and woody ; and the bracteoles share in this aug- 
mentation and hardening, and thus, finally, form a pair of horn-like projections, 
one on either side near its base. 

The technical characters of the genus are those of the Gerardiece, a tribe in 
which are a number of small genera, readily distinguished by technicalities, but 
yet so closely allied as to admit, perhaps, when we know a few more forms, of 
their consolidation into one large genus. But the habit of our plant is 
different from members of the tribe, and is more like that of some of the 
Aptosimew, from which its androecium excludes it. 

The most natural position for the genus is in Gerardiece, where it finds its 
nearest allies in Sopubia, Graderia, and Micrargeria, from all of which its 
androecium, fruit, and habit readily separate it. 

Etym. %j\ov, wood, and koXv'^. 

X. asper, Balf. fil. he. oil Tab. LXIII. 

Foliis J-l poll, longis £ poll, latis crassis supra stepe glabris infra aculeolatis, aculeolis 
uncinatis albidis ex papulo basali orientibus ; calyce \ poll, longo sub fructu £ poll, longo ; 
corolla cserulea ^ poll, longa. 

Socotra. On the limestone plains and elsewhere. B.C.S. nn. Ill, 697. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

From Socotra we have two sets of specimens. One (n. Ill) from the plains 
near Galonsir, and the other (n. 697) from a different locality, but the field-ticket 
having, unfortunately, been lost, I am not certain of the place of collection, but 
I believe they are from the hills above Galonsir, on the limestone cliffs. I have 
been puzzled as to the specific identity or not of the specimens. 

n. Ill is a dwarf scrubby undershrub with widely-spreading branched roots 
and a stem greatly branched, but quite prostrate, hard, gnarled, and knotted. A 
thoroughly typical desert plant. The fruits are very persistent, and as they wither, 
beautiful skeletons are formed and remain attached to the branches. The whole 
plant is covered with very small prickles, but they are not very conspicuous. 

n. 697 is a virgately-branched undershrub, covered with coarse prickles and 
with flowers and fruit larger than in n. 111. The pedicels, too, of the flowers 
are longer, and the bracteoles in fruit are somewhat softer. 

I have concluded, for the present, to regard them as mere forms of the 
one species, the latter being the more typical. 






PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 207 

Order LIL OROBANCHACE^. 

A small order of parasitic herbs found in most parts of the globe. Most 
abundant in extratropical regions of the northern hemisphere, but a few species 
are tropical, and some occur in the southern hemisphere. Both Socotran genera 
are confined to the old world. 

1. CISTANCHE. 

Cistanche, Hoffm. et Link Flor. Port. i. 318, t. 63 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 983. 

A small old world genus, with a distribution limited to the Mediterranean 
region, and west tropical Asia and tropical Africa. 

1. C. lutea, Hoffm. et Link. Flor. Port. i. 319, t. 63. 

Phclipcea lutea, Desf. Atl. ii. 61, t. 146 ; Renter in DC. Prod. xi. 13; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 
500. 

Soeotra. Abundant about Galonsir on species of Boerhaavia and other 
hosts. B.C.S. n. 170. 

Distrib. Canary Islands and Mediterranean region to Arabia and Persia ; 
also tropical Africa. 

In the date groves, not at all an uncommon plant. 

2. C. tubulosa, Wight Ic. t. 1420 Us. 

Phelipcea titbidosa, Schenk. PI. iEgypt. Arab. 23 ; Reuter in DC. Prod. xi. 12 ; Boiss. Flor. 
Orient, iv. 500. 

Soeotra. Near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 163. 

Distpjb. Arabia, Scindh, Afghanistan, and northern India. 

A specimen we have referred to this species is in a very much decomposed 
condition, and affords very poor material for examination, and I have some 
doubt of the identification. 

2. OROBANCHE. 

Orobanche, Linn. Gen. n. 779 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 984. 

The largest genus of the order and of wide range in the north temperate 
regions of the old world, much rarer in the tropics and southern hemisphere, 
and absent from the new world. 

1. O. (Osproleon) abyssinica, Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 137. 

Nom. Vern. 'Ebbehat (Schweinf.). 

Soeotra. Frequent on Haghier. B.C.S. h. 333. Schweinf. n. 539. 

Distkib. Abyssinia. 

Our Socotran plant answers well Richard's description, and ressmbles 



208 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

specimens in Kew Herbarium from Abyssinia. It is questionable whether 
this is a true species. It has general resemblances with several of the south 
European forms, 0. minor and its neighbours ; and whilst its distinguishing 
feature is the low insertion of the stamens upon the corolla tube, this is a 
sexual character of really no specific value. 

2. O. (Osproleon) cernua, Lofl. It. 152 ; Linn. Sp. 882 ; Reuter in DC. 
Prod. xi. 32 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 514 ; Reichb. Flor. Germ. t. 1808. 

Soeotra. Very abundant. B.C.S. nn. 372, 720. 

Distrib. Mediterranean region eastwards through Arabia and Persia to 
Afghanistan and northern India; also Australia. 

This is the commonest Orobanche on the island, and occurs on a variety of 
hosts. 

3. O. (Trionychon) ramosa, Linn. Sp. 882 ; Reichb. Iconogr. s. PI. Crit. 7, 
t. 693. 

rhclipcea ramosa, C. A. Meyer Enuin. PL Cauc. 104; Eeuter in DC. Prod. xi. 8 ; Ach. Eich. 
Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 136 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 498. 

Soeotra. On Laciuca, near Galonsir. B C.S. n. 12(3. 

Distrib. Europe, and from the Canary Islands through the Mediterranean 
region to Arabia, and in Abyssinia and south Africa. 

A widely-spread species. As it occurs on Soeotra it assumes the small 
simple unbranched form with dense spikes to which Boissier (loc. cit.) gives the 
varietal name " nana " ; a variety hitherto reported only from the sanely plains 
of Syria in the vicinity of Sidon. 

Order LIII. PEDALINE^. 

A small order of herbs, rarely half shrubby, inhabiting the warmer regions of 
both hemispheres, but most frequent in Africa. 

PEDALIUM. 

Pedalium, Linn. Gen. n. 794; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 1056. 

A monotypic genus of the Indian Peninsula, south-west Asia, and tropical 
Africa. 

P. Murex, Linn. Sp. 892 ; DC. Prod. ix. 250 ; Wight lc. t. 1615. 

Soeotra. Frequent on the plains about Galonsir, Tamarida, and else- 
where. B.C.S. n. 18. Schweinf. n. 350. 
I JiSTRIB. Of the genus. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 209 

Order LIV. ACANTHACE^. 

A large order of the tropical and warmer regions of the globe, rarely found 
in temperate regions. The order has a remarkable development in Socotra. 
Twenty-seven species in all are known from the island, and they are referable 
to fifteen genera. Of the genera, three are endemic, one of them being- 
represented by three species, and another by two. Of the remaining twelve, 
one is only known from Arabia, seven are entirely African and Asiatic in dis- 
tribution two of them reaching to Madagascar, one is a widely-spread old 
world tropical genus, and the rest are dispersed more or less widely over the 
tropics and warmer regions of the whole globe. 

1. RUELLIA. 

Ruellia, Linn. Gen. u. 784; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1077. 

A large genus of often showy plants, having its headquarters in tropical 
America, but spread throughout warmer regions of both the old and new 
worlds. Of our Socotran species, two are endemic, and the third is a widely- 
spread south-west Asiatic and tropical African species which occurs also in 
Madagascar. 

1. R. patula, Jacq. Misc. Bot. ii. 358, and Ic. PI. Rar. i. t. 119 ; T. Anders. 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. (1864), 24, and ix. (1867), 460. 

B. matutina, Hochst. et Steud. iu herb. Schimp. Arab. n. 874. 

Dipter acanthus patuhis, Nees ab. Esenb. in DC. Prod. xi. 126 ; Wight Ic. t. 1505. 

D. erectus, Nees ab. Esenb. in Wall. PI. As. Ear. iii. 82. 

Socotra. On the plains near Galonsir and elsewhere. B.C.S. n. 184. 
Schweinf. nn. 452, 781 in lit. Nimmo. 

Disteib. Indian Peninsula and south-west Asia, tropical Africa and 
Madagascar. 

All the Socotran specimens of this common plant show small-leaved pro- 
strate forms, with the flowers solitary in the leaf-axils, and the fruits somewhat 
smaller than in the type. 

There are three well-marked forms on the island. 

The first (our n. 184, Schweinf. n. 452) has the clothing of the type, and is 
like some of the Arabian plants, and those of Nimmo in Kew Herbarium. 

The second set of specimens are from an altogether more densely pubescent 
plant ; very thickly pubescent it is, with rounded, obtuse leaves, and the 
corollas one-third largerthan in the foregoing form; the style, too, is at least a third 
longer, and has more expanded lobes. The plant from Nile Land collected by 
Speke and Grant, referred to this species by Oliver (in Trans. Linn. Soc. xxix. 
(1875), 127), is probably our form. It may be well described as a variety, as 
follows : — 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 2 D 



210 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

var. pubescens, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Dense pubescens, foliis obtusis subrotundis. 

Socotra. B.C.S. n. 579. Schweinf. n. 614. 
Distrib. Nile Land. 

A third set of specimens are distinguished from those mentioned, and from 
iill other forms of the species, by their stunted habit, hoary covering, and by 
the small size of the flowers and fruits. The corolla is not more than a half- 
inch, and the fruit is only a quarter-inch long. The leaves and other parts are 
small in proportion. We may describe this also as a variety, thus : — 

var. minor, Balf. fil. in Proc Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Nana canescens ; foliis floribusque parvulis ; corolla vix £ poll, longa ; f ructu £ poll, longo ; 
semiuibus £ poll. diam. 

Socotra. B.C.S. nn. 270, 728. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

2. R insignis, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 85. Tab. LXIV. 

Fructicosa ; foliis petiolatis ellipticis v. subrhomboideis obtusis, lamina glabra supra papulosa 
cystolithifera ; floribus axillaribus solitariis ; bracteolis calyce viscido brevioribus 
viscidis ; corolla magna ; capsula 4-sperma. 

Frutex 6-10-pedalis multo breviterque ramosus cortice griseo plus minusve verrucoso ramulis 
ultiinis quadrangulatis puberulis. Folia petiolata elliptica v. subrhomboidea rarius 
subrotundata plerumque versus extremitates angustata obtusa 1|-2J poll, longa £-1 poll, 
lata saepius minora margine undulata crenulata coriacea lamina glabra supra papilloma et 
cystolithis notata siccitate nigricante infra pallidiore, petiolo J-f poll, longo striguloso. 
Florcs in axillis foliorum superiorum solitarii pedicellati ; pedicelli petiolo bractea; 
subasquilongi ^ poll, longi quadrangulati pubescentes. Bractcolce oblongre v. oblanceolata: 
\r poll, longse J poll, latse calyce breviores pilis viscidis glandulis capitatis dense vestitse, 
in axillis villosre. Calyx § poll, longus profunde 5-partitus, segmentis linearibus apice 
angustatis pilosis et pilis glandulis capitatis viscidis vestitis. Corolla lilacina magna 
infundibularis, tubo \\ poll, longo inferne cylindraceo superne ventricoso intus glabro 
extus sparsim piloso, limbi lobis rotundatis I poll, longis. Stamina stylo breviora inclusa; 
antherre J- poll, longa: 1 . Ovarium glabrum ; stylus 1 poll, longus puberulus sursum 
complanatus. Capsula glabra nitida clavato-pyriformis |- poll, longa calyce longior apice 
punctata, stipite J poll, longo. Semina 4 orbiculata fusco-tomentosa. 

Nom. Vern. Ojehit (B.C.S.). Sizhin (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Common on the Haghicr hills. B.C.S. n. 376. Schweinf. n. 490. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very distinct species, differing in foliage from all old world forms, and, in- 
deed, from all other species in the genus. 

It is one of the largest-flowered plants on the island, and one of the most 
beautiful. Unfortunately, none of the seeds we brought home have germinated, 
and Messrs Haage and Schmidt inform me they have failed to raise it from 
the seed sent by Schweinfurth. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 211 

3. R. carnea, Balf. fil. inProc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 85. Tab. LXV. 

Fruticosa dense stellatim tomentosa et viscida ; foliis cordatis ; floribus solitariis axillaribus ; 
bracteolis calyce brevioribus; corolla magna; capsula pubescente. 

Frutex parvus albido-incanus omnino stellatim tomentosus indumento facile detecto 
viscidus pilis apice glanduloso-capitatis inter pilos stellatos suffultus, ramis adscendentibus 
strictis augulatis canaliculatis. Folia petiolata cordata v. rotundato-cordata \\ poll, longa 
| -poll, lata obtusa rare basi truncata integra subtus venulis prominulis. Florcs viscidi 
in axillis foliorum superiorum solitarii pedicellati; pedicelli |— f- poll, longi stricti 
adscendentes. Bracteolce subspathulata? £ poll, longte calyce breviores. Calyx £ poll, 
longus profunde partitus, segmentis lineari-lanceolatis obtusis intus villosis margine 
piloso-ciliatis. Corolla magna carnea extus puberula, tubo 1 poll, longo inferne sub- 
cylindrico superne parum ampliato, limbi lobis oblongo-rotundatis f poll, longis. Stamina 
exserta stylo longiora ; antheras £ poll, longte. Ovarium pubescens ; stylus 1\ poll, 
longus puberulus. Capsula § poll, longus \ poll. diam. calyce longior ovoidea punctata 
pubescens, stipite \ poll, longo. 

Socotra. On the plains near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 510. Scliweinf. n. 714. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A most marked species, with lovely large red flowers, easily distin- 
guished from all others by its indumentum, and from most by the form of its 
leaves. In this latter character it agrees with R. Carrori, T. Anders, (in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. vii. (1864), 24), an imperfectly known plant of west tropical Africa, 
its nearest ally ; but it may be readily separated by the mode of branching, 
indumentum, and other minor characters. It is not common on Socotra. 

2. BLEPHARIS. 

Blepharis, Juss. Gen. n. 103 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1089. 

A genus of rigid, often prickly herbs or shrubs, natives of tropical and south 
Africa and of India. Of the Socotran species, one is endemic and the other is 
spread in tropical Africa, south-west Asia, and Ceylon. 

1. B. boerhaavisefolia, Jnss. in Pers. Synops. ii. 180 ; Nees ab. Esenb. in 
DC. Prod. xi. 266 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 150 ; T. Anders, in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. vii. (1864), 34, and ix. (1867), 500 ; Franch. Sert. Somal. in Miss. 
Revoil. 53 ; Wight Ic. t. 458. 
B. abyssinica, Hochst. in lierb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. i. n. 247, sect. iii. nn. 1492, 1895. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 331. Scliweinf. n. 319. 

Distrib. Tropical Africa, Arabia, Indian Peninsula, and Ceylon. 

All our specimens are of a plant with not very wiry stems, and with small 
flowers and seeds, only slightly shaggy at the apex ; in some points resembling 
B. molluginifolia, Juss. (Nees ab. Esenb. in Wall. PI. As. Rar. iii. 97). Abyssinian 
specimens of this species have usually firmer leaves, and much more longly 
ciliate bracts, than in the type and in our specimens. The species is one 
which in tropical Africa apparently passes through many well-marked varieties. 



'21 2 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

2. B. spiculifolia, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 85. Tab. LXVI. 

Fruticosa nana ramnlis lateralibur, contractus ; foliis rigidis oblanceolatis v. sublinearibus rarius 
subbastatis spinosis ; floribus solitariis terminalibus ; bracteolis calyce brevioribus ; calycis 
lobis integris. 

Frutex nanus prostratus rigidus lignosua intricato-raniosus cortice griseo sublepidoto, caulu 
valido ramisque elongatis superne marcescentibus inferne ramulos contractos laterales 
plures gerentibus. Folia vix petiolata, ad ramos elougafcos 4-verticellata 2 oppositis 
minoribus, ad contractos confertim in lineas 4 spirales dextrorsum versas evoluta, parva 
|— | poll, longa j^ poll, lata oblanceolata v. linearia versus extremitates ambos attenuata 
apiceque subulata spiculata baud raro subbastata basi longe attenuata cum raargine 
utroque in spiculum suboppositum producto nitida nervo medio dorsaliter prominulo 
venulis longitudinaliter striata viridia pubibus albis brevissimis capitatis obscure 
puberula nervoque medio supra substriguloso. Flores ad apices ramulorum contractorum 
solitarii sessiles. Bracteolce acerosad spiculosaa puberulse \ poll, longa?. Calyx 4 partitus, 
segmentis rigidis cuspidato-spiculatis obscure puberulis margine membranaceis, latioribus 
subrequalibus longe ovatis § poll, longis integris lateralibus oblongis \ poll, longis. 
Corolla flava, tubo I poll, longo dorsaliter truncato fauce constricta et annulo villoso 
cincta, limbo ^ P°H- longo venuloso extus glabro intus breviter villoso panno glabro 
centrali excepto. Stamina exserta, filamentis supra annulum corollas affixis validis pilosis. 
Ovarium glabrum disco parvulo cupulaeformi cinctum ; stylus ^ poll, longus bidentatus. 
Capsula ovoidea compressa glabra nitida } poll, longa. Semiva obliqua oblonga hirta J poll, 
longa. 

Socotra. On the plains near Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 183. Schweinf. n. 442. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A peculiar and very distinct species, differing slightly from the generic type 
in the anterior and posterior calyx lobes, which are entire and not toothed, and 
in the presence of a villous ring around the throat of the corolla tube, but 
undoubtedly referable to this genus. 

Its foliage is remarkable. Each leaf is a small rigid sharply-pointed dart, 
sometimes taking on a halbert shape, with a spicule developed on each margin. 
The leaves are easily detached, and the plant is therefore a most objectionable 
one in the scrub. 

3. BARLERIA. 

Barleria, Linn. Gen. n. 785 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1091. 

A considerable genus of often prickly herbs and shrubs, chiefly tropical 
Asiatic and tropical and south African. A few are natives of the tropics of the 
new world. In Socotra we find three endemic species. 

1. B. aculeata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 85. Tab. LXVII. 

Fruticosa non-spinosa fere glabra ; foliis petiolatis obovatis v. subellipticis coriaceis aculeatis ; 

floribus axillaribus solitariis; bracteolis calyce brevioribus ; staminibus 2 ; staminodiis 3; 

capsula obovoidea basi vix contracta 4-sperina. 
Frutex parvus 4-G-pedalis rigidus lignosus. Folia opposita breviter petiolata persistentia 

obovata basi cuneata v. subelliptica v. subrotundata apice cuspidato-aculeata margine in- 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 213 

crassata late undulata integra v. grosse aculeata \-\ poll, longa \-% poll, lata ssepe 
multo minora recurva glabra supra grosse papulata subtus pallidiora rigida coriacea, 
petiolo ^-\ poll, longo obscure puberulo. Flores in axillis solitarii breviter pedicellati ; 
pedicelli petiolo aequilongi obscure puberuli. Bracteolce £ poll, longse anguste ovatte v. 
lanceolatse medio nervo prominulo in aculeum apicalem producto. Calyx 4-partitus, 
segmentis latioribus i poll, longis J-j poll, latis late obovatis v. ellipticis apice cuspidato- 
aculeatis venulis a basi sursum currentibus prominenter auastomosantibus pilis 
minutissimis capitatis etiamque punctatis obscure puberulis, lateralibus I poll, longis 
lanceolatis longe acutis membranaceis reticulato-venulosis glauduloso-puberulis. Corolla 
lilacina extus pubescens pilis apice capitatis glandulosis, tubo ^ poll, longo inferne 
cylindrico sursum ampliato, limbo 5-lobato patente lobis obovatis obtusis crenulatis 
anticis 2 minoribus lateralibus exterioribus. Stamina 2 antica perfecta f poll, longa 
exserta fauci affixa, filamentis validis angulatis basi dilatatis pilosis ; anthera? dorso 
affixa? sagittatse g- poll, longa? ; staminodia 3 postica acerosa lanceolota \ poll, longa. 
Discus couspicuus cupulseformis dentatus. Ovarium glabrum loculis 2-ovulatis ; stylus 
| poll, longus apice dentatus. Capsula ^ poll, longa obovoidea punctata basi vix 
contracta complanata glabra nitida nigra. Semina 4 v. abortu pauciora orbiculata \ 
poll. diam. indumento vestita, retinaculis glabris acutis. 

Nom. Vern. Sheitan-ereteh (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. Common on the north slopes of the Haghier range. B.C.S. 
nn. 399, 408. Schweinf. nn. 553, 576 in lit. 

Disteib. Endemic. 

An interesting novelty, and one of the prettiest flowering plants on the 
island. Its habit and prickly coriaceous foliage readily distinguish it from all 
knoAvn species. 

2. B. tetracantha, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 85. Tab. 
LXVIII. 

Fruticosa nana glabra ramis lateralibus axillaribus verticellatim tetracanthis; foliis crassis lan- 
ceolatis oblanceolatis v. obovatis apice aculeatis ; floribus axillaribus ; bracteolis pungente- 
subulatis calyci fequilongis ; staminibus 4, 2 brevioribus ; ovarii loculis 1-ovulatis. 

Suffrutex glaber nanus spinosus radice valido lignoso, caule duro multo brevissimeque 
ramosissimo cortice griseo, ramis srepe prostratis ultimis paucis elongatis tetragonis 
leprosis laterales ramulos axillares basi rigidosalbos l~l poll, longos apiceque verticillatim 
4-spinosos gerentibus spinis divaricatis subulatis albis primum substrigulosis rhacbi 
sequilongis v. brevioribus rariusdongioribus. Folia lanceolata v. oblanceolata vix petiolata 
sed versus extremitates ambos angustata apiceque aculeata basi gradatim attenuata f-1 poll, 
longa 4-1 poll, lata v. sa^pe minora £ poll, longa I poll, lata et obovata v. subelliptica et 
aculeatim mucronata subcrassa glauca glabra venulis margiuibusque obscure strigulosis. 
Flores solitarii v. in spicas 2-floras dispositi subsessiles in axillis foliorum nonspiniferum 
(rarius spiuiferum) superiorum ; bracteee foliacete calyce longiores. Bracteolm 2 trigono- 
pubulaUe apice aculeatpe basi anguste marginatai subconnat?e sparsim strigulosse. Calyx 
alte 4-fidus, lobis integris intus strigosis margiue striguloso-eiliatis, anticis posticisque 
paulum latioribus, exterioribus basi expansis rotundatis sursum longe acuminatis in aculeos 
productis, interioribus linearidanceolatis apice aculeatis. Corolla f poll, longa, tubo ^ 
poll, longo basi paulum dilatato supra basim incurvo medio leviter constricto ibique annulo 



214 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

villoso interne cincto extus pubescente, linibi lobis subreqnalibus lateralibus exterioribus 
ellipticis acutis integris. Stamina 4 longiora -J poll, longa, breviora i poll, longa, 
filamentis puberulis ; autberse omnes 2-loculares basi sagittatre. Discus conspicuus 
minute clentntus. Ovarium glabrum loculis 1-ovulatis ; stylus § poll, longus integer 
obtusus sub apice tumidus. Capsula immatura rostrata. Semina 2. 

Socotra. On the plains abundant. B.C.S. n. 605. Schweinf. n. 374. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This species belongs to the two-seeded group of the genus, and is remarkable 
in having only two ovules in the ovary, one in each cell. This is a most 
unusual character in the order, indeed I can find such a condition described in 
no other genus. Our specimens are not very large, and we have not many 
flowers, but I have found this uniovular condition of the ovarian cells in all those 
I have examined. The most distinguishing other features of our plants are the 
narrow four-branched spine-branches in the leaf-axils, and the narrow linear- 
subulate spiny bracteoles. By all these it is readily separable from B. 
triacantha, Hochst., and other allied forms. 

It is a very characteristic plant of the plains, and forms an unpleasant im- 
pediment to any one traversing them, for the small stunted woody stem projects 
frequently but a few inches above the ground, and over it one is apt to trip. 

3. B. argentea, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 86. 

Fruticosa inermis argentea canescens ; foliis lanceolatis v. oblanceolatis strigulosis acutis v. 
submucronulatis ; floribus in cymas bifloras axillares pedunculatas dispositis ; bracteolis 
lineari-subulatis calyee brevioribus ; staminibus 2 ; staminodiis 2 ; ovarii loculis 1-ovulatis ; 
capsula rostrata pubescente 2-sperma. 

Suffrutex inermis a basi intricato-ramosus, caulibus ramisque argenteo-canescentibus, ramis 
srepe decumbentibus ramulis rigidis adscendentibus. Folia petiolata v. subsessilia lanceolata 
v. oblauceolata v. lineari-lanceolata versus extremitates ambos angustata fig poll, longa 
\-\ poll, lata apice acuta v. submucronata basi gradatim attenuata integra omnino 
sparsim v. nervo medio marginibusque solum strigosa. Mores in cymas trifloras 
(rarius 1) pedunculatas in axillis superioribus dispositi, rlore singulo sessili, pedunculo \ 
poll, longo ; bractete liueari-lanceolataj strigosae. Bracteolce 2 lineari-subulatae v. acerosae 
strigosse calyee multo breviores. Calyx basi puberulus alte 4-fidus, segmentis lanceolatis 
longissime acutis extus strigosis intus nitidis inrequalibus, postico maxim o \ poll, longo, 
lateralibus minimis -J poll, longis. Corolla parva || poll, longa extus pubescens, tubo ^ 
poll, longo basi dilatato intus glabro, limbi lobo antico altius soluto ^ poll, longo obovato 
emarginato, postico breviter lobato segmentis obtusis subsequalibus lateralibus extimis. 
Stamina 2 psrfecta exserta, filamentis glabris supra basin corollino tubo affixa ; antherarum 
lobi basi divergentes ; staminodia minuta inconspicua. Ovarium inferne in disco 
bilobato lobis ovatis immersum superne pubescens, loculis 1 ovulatis ; stylus apice obtusus 
incrassatus. Capsula ^ poll, longa subcompressa pubescens sessilis superne in rostrum 
solidum contracta inferne 1-sperina. Semina vestita, retinaculis acutis subuncinatis. 

No.m. Veiin. Shiamham (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the Kadhab plain. B.C.S. n. 544. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 215 

Distrib. Endemic. 
A third and very distinct species I have placed in this genus. Like the 
foregoing it belongs to the two-seeded section of the genus in which the fruit is 
beaked, and like it is exceptional in the order, as there is but one ovule in each 
cell of the ovary. The two species have no very close affinity, one with the 
other, and it is therefore all the more remarkable to find this unusual character 
developed in both of them. 

4. NEURACANTHUS. 

Neur acanthus, Nees ab. Esenb. in Wall. PI. As. Ear. iii. 76, and in DC. Prod. xi. 248 ; Benth. et 
Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1093. 

A small genus of, rarely spiny, herbaceous or half-shrubby species, of which 
two or three are tropical African, two are endemic in Socotra, and the rest are 
Indian. 

N. aculeatus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 86. , Tab. 
LXIX, A. 

Suffruticosus incanus ^-1-pedalis ramulis brevibus; foliis linearibus sinuato-undulatis ; spicis 
axillaribus brevibus ; bracfceis apice lignosis subulato-pungeutibus. 

Suffrutex aculeatus erectus saepe subprostratus ^-1-pedalis incanus dense lanato-pubescens 
multo intricatoque ramosus, ramis brevibus. Folia mollia breviter petiolata saepe ad 
extremitates ramulorum rosulata linearia sinuato-uudulata obtusa 1 poll, louga. v. minora 
^ poll, lata crassa subinvoluta nervo medio subtus prominulo. Flores in spicas breves 
1-]^- poll, longas axillares haud raro ramosas dispositi ; bracteae floribus longiores \—^ poll, 
longae basi ellipticse amplexicaules nervo medio lignoso et in aculeum subulatum longum 
recurvuni producto plus minusve lanatas, basales saepe cassae. Bracteolai 0. Calyx sub 
fructu auctus 2-lobatus, lobis involutis inaequalibus lanceolatis v. anguste-ellipticis, postico 
-£ poll, longo -^ poll, lato 3-nervio apice 3-5-fido segmentis subulatis pungentibus, antico 
minore bifido segmentis pungentibus. Corolla \ poll, longa infiindibuliformis extus dense 
lanato-pubescens intus postice glabra antice villosa, tubo cylindrico, limbo expanso patente 
minute 5-lobato plicato lobis acutis posticis 2 altius connatis. Stamina 4 didynama fauci 
affixaper paria basi subconnata, filamentis brevibus ; anthems muticae anticorum longiorum 
perfecte 2-loculares loculis distinctis altero altiore villoso ciliato, posticorum minores 
1-loculares v. loculo secundo imperfecto. Discus inconspicuus. Ovarium glabrum apice 
paulum productum ; stylus validus basi tumidus apice obliquus expansus obovoideus antice 
cavus stigmatiferus ; ovula in quoque loculo 2. Capsula glabra oblonga v. anguste ovata 
apice angustata § poll, longa a basi vix contracta 2-locularis septo parallelis compressa 
basi et ad medium seminifera. Semina 4 apice paulum marginata ^ poll, longa retinaculis 
acutis fulta. 

Socotra. A plant of the plains. B.C.S. n. 502. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A plant possessing so fully the technical characters of this genus that I am 
constrained to place it here, although in habit it differs entirely from the type, 
and indeed from any species included in the genus. It is a very characteristic 



216 BOTANY OF SOCOTEA. 

hoary and prickly plant of the Socotran plains, and is a rather unpleasant 
scrub plant, for its close-set branches with soft leaves bear large numbers of 
flower-spikes, the bracts of which all terminate in sharp prickles. The common 
habit in the genus is a more or less glabrous, erect herb, with large leaves and 
bracts hardly, if at all, prickly. Beyond habit, there are few divergences 
from the generic character in our plant. One may note, however, that the 
stamens are exserted, not included, the style is tumid at the base, and there 
are never more than two ovules in each ovarian loculus. 

2. N. capitatus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Hoc. Edin. xii. (1883), 86. Tab. 
LX1X, B. 

SufTruticosus incanus nanus ramis elongatis decurnbentibus ; foliis ellipticis v. obovatis sinuato- 
undulatis ; spicis congestis in inflorescentias eapitatas aggregatis ; bracteis angustis apice 
subulato-pungentibus. 

Suffrutex srepe congestus subca3spito:nis radice lougo recto lignoso incanus a collo ramosus ramis 
late patentibus decurnbentibus ramulos laterales contractos multos gerentibus. Folia 
elliptica v. ovata v. obovata obtusa crenata sinuato-uudulata, basi abrupte in petiolum 
brevissimem contracta v. gradatim attenuata |-§ poll, longa \- $ poll, lata mollia 
pubescente-tomentosa ad apices ramulorum contractorum srepe rosulata. Flores spicas 
breves formantes plures ad extremitates ramulorum lateralinm capitatim congestas ; 
bracteai angustre apice in aculeum subulatum products £ poll, longse. Calycis lobi post 
antbesin elliptici dense lanati apice aculeati fimbriati. Cret. io;nofc. 

Socotra. On Kadhab plain. B.C.S. n. 360. 

DisTiiiu. Endemic. 

Another plant of the dry limestone regions. Unfortunately we have only 
imperfect specimens. The flower spikes are all withered and partly rotted, and 
I have not been able to find any flowers, nor get a perfect fruit. Yet the 
plant undoubtedly belongs to the same genus as the foregoing, from which it 
differs in having short spikes all clustered in dense globose heads at the end of 
short lateral branches borne upon long spreading shoots with broader and 
shorter leaves. This and the foregoing species stand quite alone in the genus, 
but this second species approaches in the arrangement of its inflorescence, 
though at a considerable distance, some of the tropical African forms. 

The heads of spikes are a marked feature in this species. As one finds the 
plant on the plains, the trailing branches appear as if studded all over with 
burrs ; for when dry the spikes in each cluster all close in over one another 
after the manner of the branches of the rose of Jericho, and like them when 
placed in water they expand. 

5. ASYSTASIA. 

Asystasia, Blume Bijdr. 796 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1094. 

A small genus of tropical and south African and Asiatic species, many 
having a considerable area of distribution. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 217 

A. coromandeliana, Nees ab. Esenb. in Wall. PI. As. Rar. iii. 89, and in 
DC. Prod. xi. 165. 

Justicia gangctica, Linn. Amcen. Acad. iv. 299. 

Socotra. A common weed. B.C.S. n. 468. Schweinf. mi. 330 in lit., 479. 

Distrib. A widely-dispersed weed of tropical Africa, Arabia, India, and 
Malay. 

A very variable species. Our specimens are delicate, with slender branch- 
ing stems, tender membranous leaves, and short racemes of flowers, the corollas 
of which are little more than one-third of an inch long. Many of the tropical 
African forms are slender, but possibly when these are worked out more than 
one species may be found included under this name. 

6. BALLOCHIA. 

BallocUa, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 86. 

Calyx 5-partitus, segmentis angustis acutis suboequalibus. Corollas tubus longiusculus, 
recurvatus, extus pubescens, intus glanduloso-puberulus, fauce ampla ; liinbus 2-labiatus, 
labio postico exteriore oblongo erecto concaviusculo breviter 2-lobato, antico 3-partito 
segmentis planis inter se subaequalibus lateralibus erectis intermedio intimo patente. 
Stamina 2 antica perfecta, fauci affixa, labio postico paulum breviora v. sublongiora, 
nlamentis decurrentibus validis complanatis postice cum staminodiis parvis sublinearibus 
uncinatis subconnatis ; antherae 1-loculares, oblongae, medio dorso affixae, muticae, apertae 
late membranaceae. Discus pulvinatus. Stylus filiformis, apice integer obtusus v. 
brevissime bifidus ; ovula in quoque loculo 3. Capsula oblonga, basi in stipitem solidum 
longe contracta. Semina 4 v. abortu pauciora, compressa, suborbiculata, rugosa, scrobicul- 
ata, retinaculis tenuibus fulta ; embryo normalis. — Frutices elati v. humiles, lignosi, 
rigidi, inflorescentia glanduloso-puberula excepta glabri. Folia parva, integerrima, crassa, 
Flores flammeo-flavi. v. flavidi, pedicellati, in axillis solitarii v. dichasia axillaria simplicia 
formantes. Bracteae minimae, aiigustae. 

A very distinct genus of the Eajusticiece section of the tribe JusticAece, and 
belonging to a group of genera characterised by the possession of two stamens 
with one-celled muticous anthers. Oreacantltus, a monotypic genus of the 
Cameroon mountains, is its nearest ally, but in addition to several technical 
characters — such as the axillary inflorescences, the external posterior lobes of the 
corolla limb, the staminocles — in which our plant differs from that genus, the 
habit and general facies of the plants render their combination in one genus 
impracticable. 

Mofiothecium, an Abyssinian and Indian genus, Rutty a, a tropical and south 
African one, and Brachystephanus, from Madagascar and tropical Africa, are all 
genera of the set to which Ballochia belongs, but the first of these has linear 
setaceous bracts, the second has appendaged anthers, and the third has the 
posterior corolline lobe internal, whilst all of them have more or less spicate 
inflorescences. Thus by technical character they are sufficiently diagnosed, 
and besides, in habit they are readily and completely distinguished. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 2 £ 



218 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

There are three quite distinct species of the genus on the island. 

Etym. Dedicated to Robert Balloch, Esq., Glasgow, a keen student of 
Botanjr in his earlier years, to whom, whilst working out this flora, I have 
been much indebted for many kindnesses. 

1. B. amcena, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 87. Tab. LXX. 

Virgata ramulis albis saepe subspinescentibus ; foliis parvis subsessilibus oppositis v. 
fasciculatis oblungis obtusis margine revolutis ; floribus solitariis axillaribus pedicellatis ; 
pedicellis foliis longioribus glandulosis ; stylo apice bifido. 

Erecta virgata 8-pedalis ramulis albidis saape versus extremitatem marcescentibus subspinesc- 
entibus, lateralibus baud raro contractis. Folia parva subsessilia ad ramos elongates 
opposita, ad contractos fasciculata, oblonga v. obovata v. elliptica v. subovata \- £ poll, 
longa \ poll, lata obtusa rarius apiculata v. emarginata integra margine revoluta siccitate 
cystolithis papillosa. Flores in axillis solitarii ; pedicelli § poll, longi sparse glandulosi. 
Calyx \ poll, longus, laciniis longe acutis glandnloso-puberulis. Corolla tlanimeo-flavida 
v. flavida 1£ poll, longa. Stamina corolla vix longiora ; staminodia ^ poll, longa. Stylus 
pollicaris apice breviter bifidus glaber. Capsula glabra -j'g-f poll, longa. 

Nom. Vern. Misah (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. Near Kadhab, and near Tamarida, B.C.S. nn. 364, 430. 
Schweinf. nn. 419 in lit., 648, 780. Hunter. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A pretty species found in several places, both on the plains and on the 
hill slopes. Schweinfurth sends two sets of specimens, one of which (n. 780), 
he notes as having entirely yellow flowers. These flowers have also a some- 
what longer corolla-tube, which is considerably more enlarged in the throat 
than is usual. 

This is the smallest leaved of the species of this genus, and by this character 
as well as its virgate, sometimes half-spiny, twigs, it is easily distinguished. 

2. B. rotundifolia, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 87. 
Tab. LXXI, A. 

Subarborea nonnunquam nana ramulis obscure alatis ; foliis brevissime petiolatis late ovatis v. 
subrotundatis acutis v. obtusis margine revolutis subtus albido-lepidotis ; floribus in 
dicbasia axillaria dispositis rarius solitariis ; pedicellis longis glanduloso-puberulis ; stylo 
apice obtuso integro. 

Pllata subarborea ramis elongatis nonnunquam nana ramisque brevibus intricatis lignosis, 
ramulis obscure alatis. Folia brevissime petiolata late ovata v. subrotundata v. obovata 
interdum elliptica rarius lanceolata § poll, longa fe \ poll, lata, in forma nana sa?pe 
rotundala \ poll, diam., acuta v. obtusa basi rotundata v. cordiformia integra margine 
revoluta siccitate cystolithis papillosa subtus pallidiora albido-lepidota, petiolo vix J poll, 
longo. Flores plerumque in dicbasia axillaria dispositi rarius solitarii; pedunculi \-\ 
poll, longi cum pedicellis $-| poll, longis glanduloso-puberulis. Calyx % poll, longus, 
laciniis acutis dense glanduloso-puberulis. Corollal poll, longa. Stamina corolla brevior; 
staminodia .} 4 poll, longa. Stylus apice integer obtusus. Capsula g poll, longa. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 219 

Socotra. A shrub or small tree of the Haghier hills, and also on the lime- 
stone plateaux south-west from Galonsir at an elevation of over 1500 feet. 
B.C.S. nn. 300, 529. Schweinf. n. 605. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Like so many other plants this species exhibits a dwarfed intricately- 
branched small-leaved form (n. 529) on dry limestone regions, and a more 
twiggy erect habit with larger leaves in regions with a more favourable soil. 
Its flowers are very pretty, and it may be at once diagnosed from the other 
species by its rounded leaves, and the cymose axillary inflorescence. 

3. B. atro-virgata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 87. 
Tab. LXXI, B. 

Erecta ramulis strictis nigris ; foliis brevissime petiolatis elongato-oblongis v. oblauceolatis 
obtusis margine undulatis subtus glaucis ; floribus solitariis axillaribus; pedicellis foliis 
multo brevioribus glabris ; stylo apice breviter bifido. 

Frutex erectus ramulis strictis nigris lenticellatis. Folia brevissime petiolata opposita oblonga 
v. oblanceolata rarius subobovata |— 1 poll, longa fy ^ poll, lata apice obtusa rarius 
emarginata basi abrupte contracta margine undulata subtus glauca siccitate cystolithis 
papillosa nervoque medio albo-punctulato, petiolo gV P°h- longo. Flores solitarii axillares ; 
pedicelli £-£ poll, longi glabri. Calyx \ poll, longus, laciniis acutis extus glabris iutus 
strigulosis. Corolla 1^ poll, longa. Stamina corolla breviora ; stamiuodia -j^ poll, 
longa. Stylus apice breviter bifidus glaber. Capstila pollicaris. Semina ^ poll. diam. 

Soeotra. In several localities on the hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 255. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A third pretty-flowered species of this genus, readily recognised by its per- 
sistently oblong leaves, which are longer than in the other species, and by its 
very conspicuous black twigs. 

7. JUSTICIA. 

Justicia, Linn. Gen. n. 27 ; Beuth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1108. 

A large genus of polymorphous species widely dispersed over the warmer 
regions of the globe. One of the Socotran species is endemic, the other is a 
remarkable south-west Asiatic and north-east African species. 

1. J. (Harnieria)heterocarpa, T. Anders. inJourn.Linn. Soc. vii. (1864), 41. 

Rostellularia heterocarpa, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, (ed. Hohenack.), n. 2300. 
Harnieria dimorphocarpa, Solms in Schweinf. Flor. iEthiop. 110. 

Nom. Vern. Khertom (B.C.S.). 

Soeotra. Near Tamaricla. B.C.S. n. 417. Schweinf. n. 291. 

Distrib. Scindh and Abyssinia. 

A very remarkable species exhibiting a curious dimorphism in the 
fruit. This feature has been noticed in the plant, as its names indicate, from 
the date of its discovery, but it is one to which sufficient prominence has not 



220 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

been given. Solms (loc. cit.) gives the fullest description of the fruit, but neither 
he nor Anderson take note of another feature, viz., the difference in the seeds 
contained in the two kinds of fruit. Briefly, the characters of the fruit are 
these : — In the same fascicles, without apparently any definite arrangement, two 
quite different forms of fruit are produced. Oneis the normally-shaped Acanthace- 
ous capsule, such as belongs to other Justiciar, and contains four seeds ; but 
the other is a one- celled fruit with a softer wall, girt with a series of longitudinal 
wings, each of which has its margin produced into a number of hooked processes, 
and there is only one seed rising upon a small retinaculum from near the 
bottom of the fruit cavity. The seeds in the normally-shaped fruit are small 
and papillose tuberculate, whilst the single seed of the winged fruit is twice 
as large, hardly so much compressed, and is quite smooth or slightly fluted 
and warted. Apparently the one-celled fruit is indehiscent. Though I have 
devoted some time to the examination of our specimens, I have not been able 
to determine what, if any, difference exists in the flowers which respectively 
produce these two kinds of fruit. The winged and hooked fruits do not appear 
to be quite so numerous as the normal form, and afford additional means for 
seed dissemination, though what is the importance of the development in this 
species is at present difficult to explain. 

Professor Oliver directs my attention to a case of dimorphism amongst Poly- 
gonacere, with, apparently, similar aim. In the south African Oxygonum alatum, 
Burch. (Trav. i. 548 ; Benth. in Hook. Ic. PI. t. 1321), also a plant of dry regions, the 
perianth around some fruits is greatly developed forming broad expanded wings, 
in others these wings are hardly visible, and reduced to a series of mere tubercles. 

2. J. (Gendarussa) rigida, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Eclin. xii. (1883), 87. 
Tab. LXXII. 

Fruticosa rigida lignosa cauo-velutina ; foliis rninutis obovatis v. oblanceolatis ; floribus spicatis 
axillaribus ; bracteolis rninutis calyce brevioribus ; capsula cana strigulosa. 

Frutex lkniosus nanus incanus cortice comumto ramis ad extremitates defoliantibus marcescenti- 
bus proventuque subspinescentibus ramulos laterales numerosos contractus gerentibus. Folia 
sessilia v. subsessilia ad ramos elongatos opposita ad contractos fasciculata, lineari-obovata 
v. oblanceolata obtusa saepe emarginata iutegra \—\ poll, longa (rarius £ poll.) t^-^ poll, 
lata crassa cano-tomentosa v. velutina. Florcs subsessiles in racemos v. spicas breves §-1 
poll, longos o-6-floros anfractuosos axillares dispositi rbacbi angulata cano-pubescente 
ad nodos bracteis 2 oppositis subovatis rninutis pubescentibus instructa. Bracteolm subulate 
T 'j poll, longai pubero-cana3. Calyx alte 5-fidus, segmentis lineari-lanceolatis £ poll, longis 
subsequalibus extus velutino-pubescentibus. Corolla \ poll, longa extus striguloso- 
pubescens ad medium 2-labiata, labio antico trifido segmentis obtusis medio majore postico 
ovato-acuto erecto, tubo inferne tenui extusque glabro sursum parvus ampliato. Stamina 
2 infra medium tubum afiixa, filamentis basi incrassatis pilosiusculis cum pulvinis villosis 
interpositis ; antherarum loculus inferus longe calcaratus inrlexus. Discus cupulrcformis 
dentatus. Stylus validus basi pilosiusculus apice 2-dentatus. Capsula % poll, longa 4- 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 221 

sperma striguloso-cana, stipite | poll, longo. Semina glabra -^ P°H diam. scabrido-tuber- 
culata. 

Socotra. On the plains. B.C.S. n. 358. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another characteristic, hoary and woody, intricately-branched plant of the 
plains, and belonging in this genus to the section Gendarussa, which includes 
shrubby plants with small spicate subsessile flowers and minute bracts and 
bracteoles. With species in this section its alliances are south African. J. 
incana, T. Anders, (in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. (1864) 42), which is Adhatoda incana, 
Nees ab. Esenb. (in DC. Prod. xi. 393), is its nearest affinity. But though in 
habit and foliage almost identical, the plants are easily distinguished, as the 
south African one has large solitary flowers and large capsules. 

8. TKICHOCALYX. 

Trichocahjx, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 87. 

Calyx alte 5-partitus, segmentis angustis linearibus acutis apice subulatis sequalibus. Corollse 
tubus extus pubescens, intus glaber, limbo sequilongus, paulum incurvus, sursum ampliatus ; 
limbus 2-labiatus, labio postico interiore erecto concaviusculo brevissime 2-lobato, antico 
obloDgo patente breviter 3-lobato lobo medio extimo palato nullo. Stamina 2, fauci affixa, 
labio postico aequilonga, filamentis leviter arcuatis decurrentibus ; autherse 2-loculares, 
loculis discretis, altero altius affixo mucronato v. submutico, altero inferiore basi calcare 
brevi parvo albo appendiculato ; staminodia 0. Discus cupularis v. pulvinatus, dentatus 
v. integer. Stylus filiformis, apice obtusus minute 2-lobatus ; ovula in quoque loculo 2. 
Capsula oblonga, basi in stipitem solidum contracta. Semina 4 v. abortu pauciora, com- 
pressa, suborbiculata reuiformia, papilloso-tuberculata, retinaculis obtusis complanatis fulta. 
— Frutices parvi. Folia integra, crassiuscula. Flores sordide purpurei, ad extremitates 
ramorum in cymas densas congesti. Bracteolse calycis segmentis similes iisque parum 
breviores. Gibbi 2 pilosi ab extero basi corollse tubum iutrusi. 

A genus of Justiciew with two-celled anthers, the lobes of which are slightly 
unequal and discrete, the upper one being sometimes almost muticous, but is 
commonly mucronate, whilst the lower, which is always spurred, has at times 
the spur much reduced. Its other prominent features are the thread-like 
bracts, bracteole, and calyx-segments, which both in flower and fruit radiate 
from the clustered inflorescence, and the form of the corolla. 

The genus has some resemblances with members of the group to which 
Ballochia belongs, but the antherine characters exclude it, and relegate it to the 
vicinity of Justicia itself. With some shrubby members of this genus it agrees 
in habit, but the mucronate upper anther-lobe, and the absence of all palate on 
the corolla, as well as the general form of this latter, are diagnostic. From 
Adhatoda, so nearly allied to Justicia, similar characters separate it, and whilst 
its habit is that of Anisotes, presently to be referred to, it wants the long anterior 
corolline lip of that genus, and has quite a different inflorescence. Isoglosm is 



222 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

another genus of this Justicioid group which claims an affinity, but, amongst 
other points, habit distinguishes it. 

There are two species found in Socotra, one being very abundant. 

Etym. 0/»t£, a hair, and ku\v]~. 

1. T. obovatus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 88. Tab. 
LXXIII, A. 

Ramulis glaueis lepidotis pilisque brevibus puberulis; foliis anguste obovatis v. oblongo obovatis. 

8-10-pedalis ramulis sulcatis tenuibus glaucis lepidotis pilisque brevissimis puberulis, internodiis 
elongatis saepe 1^ poll, lougis. Folia petiolafca anguste obovata v. oblongo-obovata rarius 
late sublanceolata v. elliptica |— 1£ poll, longa £— (j P°ll ^ a ^a obtusa saepe subtruncata et 
emarginata v. rarius late acuta basi in petiolum glaucuin puberulum £-£ poll, (interdum 
^ poll.) longuni gradatim attenuata crassiuscula glabra siccitate papillosa. Flores in cymis 
brevissirne pedicellata ; bracteae lanceolato-acutae. Bracteolcc ^ poll, longae. Calycis 
segmenta ^ poll, longa glandulis stipitatis capitatis vestita leviterque pubescentia. Corolla 
1\ poll, longa. Stylus puberulus pollicaris. Capsula glandulis vestita, inatura non visa. 

Nom Vern. Elhal (B.C.S.). Hunter. 

Socotra. Common on the hills. B.C.S. nn. 428, 541, 597. Schweinf. 
n. 371. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A pretty flowered plant. The inflorescences are very characteristic. 
The leaves on adventitious twigs and young plants are often much reduced in 
size, and the laminaa assume a somewhat orbicular shape at the end of long 
petioles. Our n. 597 is such a form. 

Messrs Haage and Schmidt send me a twig of a plant they have raised 
from seed brought home by Schweinfurth. It is this species. 

T. orbiculatus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 88. Tab. 
LXXIII, B. 

Ramulis tomentoso-pubescentibus ; foliis orbiculatis. 

Arbor parva v. frutex elatus ramulis validis pubescente-tomeutosis sulcatis, internodiis brevibus 
plerumque \-\ poll, longis ramulos axillares breves foliosos gerentibus. Folia breviter 
petiolata orbiculata ssepe latitudine longitudinem excedente £-§ poll. diam. apice interdum 
retusa crassa glauca glanduloso-lepidota siccitate papillosa, petiolo fa— fa poll- longo. 
Flores in cymis subcapitals brevissime pedicellati ; bracteae lanceolatae acutae bracteolis 
lutiores. Bracteola; segmentis calycis angustiores ^ poll, longae. Calycis segmenta \ poll, 
longa pubescentia glandulis capitatis stipitatis paucis vestita. Corolla atro-purpurea 
\ poll, longa. Stylus puberulus exsertus. Garpsula \ poll, longa pubescens. 

Socotra. On the hills south-west of Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 175. 

Distrib. Endemic. 
Another pretty shrub of this genus with dark purple flowers and shortly- 
stalked approximated leaves, by which character and their shape it is readily 
distinguished from the foregoing. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 223 

9. ANISOTES. 

Anisotes, Nees ab. Esenb. in DC. Prod. xi. 424; Benth. efc Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1111. 

A genus of two species of shrubs, one a native of Arabia, the other peculiar 
to Socotra. The plant described by Forskal (Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 7) as 
Dianthera trisulca (Justicia trisulca, Vahl Symb. ii. 10), is the type of this 
genus, founded by Nees and kept up by Bentham and Hooker, although it is 
very closely allied to Adhatoda, on account of the long narrow anterior lip of the 
corolla. Our plant adds a second species to this hitherto monotypic genus, and 
our specimens enable us to complete the description of the genus, which has 
hitherto been deficient in fruit and seed characters ; these are, — 

Capsula oblonga basi in stipitem solidum loculis longiorem contracta. Semina 4 v. abortu 
pauciorasuborbiculataplano-compressa, testa crassiuscula muricata, retinaculis obtusisfulta. 

2. A. diversifolius, Balf. fil. in. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 88. 
Tab. LXXIV. 

Fruticosus ; foliis plus minusve obovatis ; cymis axillaribus v. terminahbus. 

Frutex glabrescens ramis eortice griseo ulthnis striatis puberulis. Folia petiolata elliptica v. 
oblonga v. obovata haud raro obcordata v. subrotundata apice rotundata v. angustata 
obtusa ssepe retusa basi in petiolum attenuata v. subrotundata 1-1^ poll, longa \-l poll, 
lata v. minora integra vix revoluta glabra crassiuscula pennivenia papillis paucis siccitate 
notata, petiolo 4— £ poll, longo striate puberulo. Flores in cymas axillares |-1 poll, longas 
dispositi, rhachi primaria stricta adscendente £-£ poll, longa pubescente bracteas oppositas 
minutas \ poll, longas ovatas glanduloso-pubescentes gerente ; pedicelli brevissimi 
bibracteolati. Bracteolcc bracteis similes. Calyx \ poll, longus, segmentis lineari-lanceol- 
atis extus glanduloso-puberulis. Corolla llammeo-rubra 1^- poll, longa, tubo angusto 
cylindrico extus piloso-pubescente, limbo longissime 24abiato, labio postico erecto 
subconcavo antico aequilongo apice brevissime 2-lobato lobis reflexis, antico % poll, longo 
apice breviter 3-lobato lobis obtusis subaaqualibus plerumque reflexis. Stamina corollse 
aequilonga, filamentis complanatis venulo medio promiuulo marginibusque membranaceis 
ad corollinem orem affixis et decurrentibus ; antherarum loculi sequales £ poll, longi 
disjuncti basi acuti. Ovarium glabrum basi disco magno crasso angulato cinctum ; 
stylus filiformis staminibus sequilongus puberulus apice incurvus et obscure 24obatus. 
Capsula | poll, longa £ poll. diam. oblonga punctata loculis angustis glabra superne vix 
puberula, stipite f poll, longo. Semina retinaculis pubescentibus fulta. 

Nom. Vern. Elhan. 

Socotra. On the hills near Galonsir and Keregnigiti. B.C.S. nn. 506, 
576. Schweinf. n. 477. 

Distrtb. Endemic. 

A very interesting plant, for reasons stated above under the generic name. 
It may be readily distinguished from its congener A. trisulcus, Nees ab. Esenb. 
(loc. cit.), by its foliage. 

We have another set of specimens which I think are to be considered of 
this species. The leaves are not, however, so markedly rounded at the apex 
but have a general tendency to narrow at the point, and the calyx is different, 



224 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

the segments being very short, about one-twelfth of an inch long, and sometimes 
more or less deltoid ; otherwise I cannot find characters to distinguish them. 
Very likely intermediate forms may be hereafter discovered, but meanwhile one 
may distinguish this as a variety, — 

var. brevicalyx, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 
Foliis apice angustatis ; calycis lobis brevibus -^ poll, longis. 

Socotra. On Haghier. B.C.S. n. 479. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

10. EHINACANTHUS. 

Ehinacanthus, Nees ab. Esenb. in Wall. PI. As. Ear. iii. 76, and in DC. Prod. xi. 442 ; Benth. et 
Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1102. 

A small old-world genus, including a few species dispersed in tropical Asia, 
tropical and south Africa, and in Madagascar. 

R. scoparius, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 88. Tab. LXXV. 

Herba subglabra scoparia ramulis striatis ; foliis longis linearibus. 

Herba fere glabra subapbylla scoparia a collo axis subterranei ligoosi multo et divaricatim 
ramosa, ramis internodiis elongatis srepe 2-3 poll, longis in inflorescentiam excurrentibus 
tetragonis striatis ultimis subscabridulis. Folia mox decidua sessilia panca linearia acuta 
l|-2 poll, longa ^ poll, lata supra glabra subtus strigulosa. Cijmm spicatce anfract- 
uosse sympodiales in axillis foliorum superiorum orientes et omnino inflorescentiam 
terminalem laxam ramosam formantes ; pedunculi pedicellique breves scabriduli; bracteoe 
subulate minutse. Bracteolm 2 minutai subulatse pubescente-glandulosie. Calyx i poll, 
longus, segmentis breviter pubescentibus et glandulis capitatis stipitatis vestitis. Corolla 
alba | poll, longa extus pubescens, tubo | poll, longo intus minute puberulo, limbi lobis 
ellipticis obtusis. Staminum filamenta rigida complanata breviter pilosa; antberarum 
loculus inferior parum major dorsaliter obscure puberulus. Ovarium glabrum, loculis 
2-ovulatis ; stylus £ poll, longus puberulus apice breviter bifidus, lobis basi incrassatis. 
Capsula i ? 2 poll, longa pubescens, stipite 4_ poll, longo. Scmina nigra glabra \ poll. diam. 

Socotra. Near Tamarida and elsewhere. B.C.S. n. 687. Schweinf. nn. 
448, 782 in lit, 783. 

A new species of this small genus growing on the dry plains and well distin- 
guished from all others by its Scoparioid habit and very narrow linear leaves. 

11. ANCALANTHUS. 

Ancalanthus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 88. 

Calyx alte 5-partitus, segmentis lanceolatis acutis 3-5-nerviis suba^qualibus. Corolla extus 
pubescens ; tubus limbo brevior, incurvus, superne ampliatus, intus basi dense villosus ; 
limbus longe 2-labiatus, labio postico exteriore ligulato truncato eroso recurvo apice 
spiraliter revoluto, antico suba^quilongo recurvo patente lato elliptico-oblongo trifido lobis 
linearibus obtusis spiraliter revolutis intermedio latiore intimo. Stamina 2, fauci aftixa, 
labio postico vix sequilonga, filamentis complanatis breviter decurrentibus ; antberre 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 225 

oblongae 2-loculares sagibtatae, loculis parallelis aequalibus muticis ; staminodia 0. Discus 
inconspicuus. Ovarium glabrum ; stylus filiformis exsertus apice breviter bilobatus ; 

ovula in quoque loculo 2. Capsula ignofca — Frutex. Folia subiutegra. Flores 

flammeo-flavi in spicas lougissimas terminales v. axillares dispositi. Bracteas bracteolseque 
minutse ovatae. Alabastri falciformes. 

A remarkable monotypic genus of which we have unfortunately incomplete 
specimens. It falls into the Eujusticiece section of the tribe Justiciece, amongst 
the genera with two-celled anthers having equal and muticous loculi. Its most 
prominent features are its habit, for it exhibits long straggling branches some- 
what arcuate and striate with long internodes possessing a large pith contracted 
at the nodes, its long spicate inflorescence, and its curiously-bent corolla, with 
a long ligulate upper lip, external in aestivation, and a broad trifid lower lip. 

In the set of genera with which it is associated there is no old world genus 
with which it has a close affinity. The tropical African Himantochilus is the 
nearest of them, but is readily distinguished by its inflorescence and corolla. 
Possibly its nearest ally is the Brasilian Schaueria which presents the same 
habit and striate stems with a large pith, and has also long somewhat similar 
spicate inflorescences ; but it is readily separated by its calyx, corolla, bracts, and 
other characters. 

Etym. d-7 KaXh, the bent arm, and «V0os. 

A. paucifolius, Balf. fil. loc. tit, Tab. LXXVI. 

Suffrutex ramis elongatis subteretibus v. apud nodos obscure tetragonis leprosis glaucis, inter- 
nodiis multo elongatis, nodis subconstrictis, in innorescentiam excurrentibus. Folia 
petiolata opposita sparsa in speciminibus nostris 4 solum visa oblonga v. late lanceolata 
versus extremitates ambos angustata obtusa fere apiculata niargine obscure crenato- 
repanda, maxima 2 poll, longa § poll, lata et petiolo \ poll, longo. Spicce saepe pedales 
pauciramosai rbachi breviter pubescente, floribus basalibus brevissime pedicellatis 
(pedicellis -^ poll, longis) superioribus sessilibus ; bractese ovatae minutae subcarinatae 
inferiores saepe cassae. Calyx \ poll, longns extus pubescens pilisque glandulas capitatas 
gerentibus vestitis. Corolla; tubus § poll, longus, limbi lobo postico f poll, longo. 
Anthcra: ad medium dorso affixae £ poll, longae. Styli lobi elliptic! acuti. 

Socotra. At the entrance of valley Ireh opening upon Nogad plain. 
B.C.S. n. 610. 

This curious plant we only observed at this one spot on the south side of 
the island amongst large limestone boulders. 

12. ECBOLIUM. 

Ecbolium, Kurz in Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. xi. 2. (1871), 75, and xlii. 2. (1873), 99 ; Benth. et 
Hook. Gen. PL ii. 1118. 

A genus of two species one of which is widely dispersed in tropical Asia 
and Africa, the other is endemic in Socotra. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 2 F 



226 BOTANY OF SOCOTKA. 

E. striatum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 89. Tab. 
LXXVII, A. 

Fru ticosum ramis striatis ; foliis longe petiolatis plus minusve ovatis ; bracteis integris pilosis 
viscidis ; bracteolis calyce longioribus ; corolke limbo tubo subajquilongo calyceque duplo- 
longiore. 

Frutex ramis glaucis striatis lepidotis. Folia petiolata ovata v. ovato-oblonga v. subelliptica v. 
ovato-lanceolata v. subrhomboidea 2-3 poll, longa f-1 poll, lata apice obtusa augustata 
basi cuneatim attenuata v. subrotundata obscure crenata coriacea glabra lseto-viridia ; 
petiolus |— 1 poll, longus striatus. Spiccv tetragonse 3 poll, longse termiuales v. in axillis 
supremis positse pilis glanduloso-capitatis viscidie rhacbi pubescente, floribus approximatis 
solitariis v. 1-3-nis in axillis bractearum imbricatarum oppositarum obovatarum v. 
oblongo-ellipticarum v. obcuneatarum v. trapeziformium acutarum v. breviter acuminatar- 
um ^— | poll, lougarum 4— £ poll, latarum integrarum vemilosarum viscido-pilosarum. 
Bracteolce lineari-lanceolatse § poll, longse calyce longiores molliter et viscide pilosse. 
Calyx alte 5-fidus r 7 2 poll, longus, segmentis lineari-lanceolatis apice filiformibus 
membranaceis nervis a basi ad apicem currentibus extus viscide pilosis. Corolla 1£ poll, 
longa, tubo sursum ampliato T V poll, longo, labii antici lobis subsequalibus linearibus obtusis 
^q poll, latis, labio postico vix bilobato in medio ^ poll. lato. Stamimim filamenta 
pilosiuscula exserta; antberse oblongse basi sagittatse T ^ poll, longse. Ovarium 4-ovulatum 
apice pilosum ; stylus 1 poll, longus basi pilosus. Ca/psula § poll, longa pubescens \ poll, 
diam., stipite £ poll, longo. Semina orbiculata § poll. diam. rugoso-muricata. 

Nom. Vern Kilea (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the Haghier bills at an elevation over 2000 feet. B.C.S. n. 
504. Schweinf. n. 652. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A new species of tins, hitherto monotypic, genus. The other species E. 
Linneaniim, Kurz (loc. cit.), is a well known and widely-spread type in 
tropical Africa, Arabia, and India, and passes through a vast number of forms, 
many of which have been described as species under the genus Justicia. From 
that genus, however, they are readily separated by the four-celled muticous 
anthers, and have been well associated by Kurz in his genus Ecbolium, The 
extensive synonymy is given by T. Anderson (in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. (1864), 
116) under the Linnean name Justicia Ecbolium. 

In habit and some technical characters our plant is very like the type, but 
differs from all the forms of this in, firstly, the longly-petiolate leaves. In E. 
Linneaniim, the leaves of almost all the forms are very shortly stalked, or are 
subsessile, and in the petiolate forms the stalk never reaches nearly the length it 
attains in our specimens. But secondly, and more markedly, our plant differs 
in the corolla; for it wants the long narrow tube of E. Linneanum, and the broad 
segments of the lower lip. The whole corolla is indeed much shorter, has a rela- 
tively wider and much shorter tube, with which the limb is nearly equal, and the 
segments of the anterior lip are narrow, linear, and subequal. and equal in length 
to the slightly wider shortly-bilobed posterior lip. Again, the bracts in our 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 227 

specimens are entire, uniformly hairy, with gland-tipped hairs, whilst Kurz's 
type plant has toothed bracts, often quite glabrous and not viscid. 

The Socotran species, it would appear, has 'also a tendency to variation. 
We have another set of specimens from the island, representative ot a more 
common plant than the one I have just referred to, which are merely miniatures 
of it. Reduce all the parts of the species as I have described it except the 
spikes by about one-half, and you have this second form. This may be regarded 
as a distinct variety, of which the following is a diagnosis : — 

var. minor, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 89. Tab. 
LXXVII, B. 

Fruticosum minus ; foliis minoribus late ovatis v. oblongis basi rotundatis seepe subcordatis longe 
petiolatis, petiolo saepe 1 poll, longo lamina longiore ; spicis multo elongatis 4-|— 5 poll, longis 
internodiis longioribus, floribus bracteisque adpressis sed non-imbricatis, bracteis oblongo- 
acutis § poll, longis fy poll, latis ; bracteolis lanceolatis £ poll, longis calyce brevioribus ; 
calyce ^ poll longo ; corolla § poll, longa, lobis anticis § poll, longis ^ poll, latis ; antheris 
-^2 poll, longis ; stylo £ poll, longo ; capsula J poll, longa. 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. nn. 433, 462. 

The features, in addition to the smaller size, in which this variety differs from 
the type are, the very long and narrow spike with internodes considerably 
elongated, and the flowers and bracts not at all or less closely imbricated, whilst 
the bracteoles are shorter than the calyx. 

13. DICLIPTERA. 

Dicliptera, Juss. in Ann. Mus. Par. ix. (1801), 267; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1120. 

A considerable genus dispersed widely in the tropical and subtropical 
regions of the whole world. Both the Socotran species are endemic. 

D. effusa, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 89. 

Annua diffusa ramosissima subglabra nitida; foliis ovatis longe petiolatis puugente-cuspidatis 
dicbasiis longe pedunculitis solitariis axillaribus; bracteolis viscidis lanceolatis v. oblance- 
olatis pungentibus ; corolla bracteolis breviter longiore ; capsula viscida. 

Sequipedalis glabrescens radice elongato a collo effuse multiramosa ramis patentibus inter- 
nodiis elongatis ad nodos saepe anfractuosis tetraquetris nv inflorescentiam gradatim 
excurrentibus, juveuilibus subcanescentibus. Folia petiolata ovata, inferiora latiora, 
superiora angustiora, radicalia maxima, lamina 1 poll, longa f poll, lata petioloque 1 poll, 
longo, sursum gradatim minora acuta saepe puugente-cuspidata v. obtusa basi rotundata v. 
subcordata v. late cuneata baud raro inaequalia margine integra v. obscure lateque crenata, 
seniora plus minusve pilosa ciliata, juniora substrigulosa v. subtus glauco-subvelutina 
tenuia. Flores in dichasia solitaria axillaria dispositi rhachi tetraquetra 1-1£ poll, longa 
stricta adscendente subvelutina; bractese duse setiformes \ poll, longae; pedicelli 
primum villosi v. pubescentes, terminali \— \ poll. longo, laterali § poll, longo, haud 
raro bracteolis 2 subulatis minutis supra v. infra medium instructi. Bracteolce subflorales 4 
rlorem unum plerumque includentes, 2 exteriores inaequales minore -ffc poll, longa 
lanceolata v. oblanceolata versus extremitatem utremque attenuata submembranacea 



228 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

pungente-cuspidata glanJuloso-puberula fcrinervia medio nervo perspicao, majore £ poll, 
longa majus foliacea nervo medio prominentiore venulisque superne conspicue reticularis 
ca'teroquin minori simili, 2 interiores aequales } poll, longaj calyce longiores lanceolato- 
acumiuatai membranacere nervo medio prominulo breviter puberube subciliatae. Calyx 
J poll, longus, segmentis subajqualibus lanceolato-aoerosis pubesceutibus glandulosis ciliatis. 
Corolla \ poll, longa purpurea, tubo } poll, longo extus superne pilosiusculo, limbo postico 
ovato v. subelliptico I poll, lato obtuso, antico late linear! ^ poll, lato apice brevissime 
trilobato postico sublongiore. Stamina limbo postico aequilonga; autberaa disjunctae sub- 
rotundata?. Ovarium glabrum -4-ovulatum ; stylus apice bidentatus. Capsula \ poll, longa 
viscida pilis glandulas capitatas gerentibus, stipite brevissimo. Semina plano-convexa 
tuberculata v. submuricata. 

Socotra. Very common. B.S.C. mi. 117, 566. Schweinf. n. 463. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

Quite a distinct form amongst the non-capitate species of the genus. It is 
a rather prettily-flowered species. 

2. D. ovata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 89. 

Annua parva pubescens prostrata ; foliis ovatis breviter petiolatis ; dicbasiis breviter pedicell- 
atis solitariis axillaribus ; bracteolis sparsim viscidis : corolla bracteas longe excedente. 

Herba parva pubescens pauciramosa ramis longis saepe procumbentibus. Folia parva 
petiolata late ovata acuta -^ poll, longa 2 poll, lata v. minora basi subcordata v. truncata 
rarius late cuneata pubescentia siccitate nigricantia, petiolo \ poll, longo. Flores in 
dichasia simplicia dispositi in axillis superioribus breviter pedunculata ; pedunculi \ poll. 
longi stricti ; bractese subulata; pubescentes \ poll, longse ; pedicelli sa?pe bibracteolati 
medio baud raro longiove ^ poll, longo. Involucrum 4-bracteolatum florem unum 
includens, bracteolis unequalibus, exterioribus latioribus oblanceolatis v. lauceolatis apicu- 
latis submembranaceis triuerviis reticulato-venulosis intus vix pubesceutibus extus venis 
pilis patentibus pubescentibus et intervallis strigosis cum glandulis stipitatis vestitis 
majore | poll, longa minore fe poll, longa, interioribus exterioribus subsequilongis v. 
longioribus oblanceolatis v. linearibus ad extremitates ambos attenuatis margine 
membranaceis medio Dervo conspicuo more exteriorum vestitis. Calyx J poll, longus alte 
5-fidus intus strigosus extus pubescens, laciniis lauceolatis ciliatis. Corolla \ poll, longa 
purpurea resupinata extus pubescens, tubo \ poll, longo limbo breviore abrupte reflexo 
intus pubescente, limbo postico late ovato v. subrotundato \ poll, lato, antico oblongo 
breviter 3-lobato. Stamina limbo corolke breviora, filamentis antice pilosis; anthera? 
muticse. Disci lobi ovati vix cuspidati. Ovarium glabrum ; stylus bifidus corolla longior. 
Capsula ignota. 

Socotra. Near Tamarida on the hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 577. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A species easily distinguished from the preceding one by its somewhat 
creeping, scarcely-branched habit, its dense pubescence, more shortly-stalked 
leaves, flowers on stouter peduncles, and the smaller bracteoles enclosing 
Mowers the corolla of which is fully one-half larger. The form and arrangement 
of the bracteoles allow of little doubt as to its correct position in this genus. 






PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 229 

Peristrophe, into which it might almost go, has rarely such broad bracteoles. 
Unfortunately we have no fruit to confirm the determination. 

14. PERISTROPHE. 

Peristrophe, Nees ab Esenb. in Wall. PI. As. Ear. iii. 112, and in DC. Prod. xi. 492 ; Benth. et 
Hook. Gen. PL ii. 1121. 

A genus of wide range through tropical Asia and tropical and south Africa, 
extending also to Madagascar. 

P. bicalyculata, Nees ab. Esenb. in Wall. PI. As. Rar. iii. 113, and in DC. 
Prod. xi. 496; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 160; T. Anders, in Journ. 
Linn. Soc. vii. (1864), 47, and ix. (1867), 521. 

P. Schimperiana, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. ii. n. 1095. 

P. Kotschyana, Nees ab. Esenb. in DC. Prod. xi. 497 ; Ach. Ptich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 160. 

Justicia ligulata, Lamk. Illustr. i. 42, t. 12, f. 2. 

And many other synonyms, for which see authorities quoted. 

Socotra. A common weed. B.C.S. n. 46. Schweinf. nn. 246 in lit., 784. 

Distrib. From Cape cle Verde Islands, through tropical Africa and Arabia 
to India. 

The Abyssinian specimens described as P. Kotschyana, are less hairy than 
is typical. 

15. HYPOESTES. 

Hypocstes, R Br. Prod. 474; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 1122. 

A considerable old world tropical and subtropical genus. One of the 
Socotran species is a tropical and south African and Arabian one, the other is 
endemic. 

1. H. verticillaris, R. Br. Prod. 474; Nees ab. Esenb. in DC. Prod. xi. 
507 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. vii. (1867), 48. 

H. Forskalei, R Br. loc. cit. ; Nees loc. cit. ; Ach. Rich Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 163. 

H. Forskalei, var. canescens, Frauch. Sert. Somal. in Miss. Pievoil 54. 

H. clinopodia, Nees ab. Esenb. in DC. Prod. xi. 508. 

H.polymorpha, E. Meyer Cat. PI. Afr. Austr. Drege. 

H. mollis, T. Anders, loc. cit. 49. 

H. Bothii, T. Anders, loc. cit. 49. 

Justicia verticillaris, Linn. Suppl. 85. 

J. clinopodia, E. Meyer Cat. PI. Afr. Austr. Drege. 

Soeotra. Very common. B.C.S. nn. 118, 514. Schweinf. nn. 222 in 
lit., 368. 

Distrib. Tropical Africa, Cape, and Arabia. 

A species showing considerable variation, both in form of leaf and in indumen- 
tum. Nees, in the Prodromus, distinguishes two varieties, and if we add another 



230 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

we obtain three groups into which, it appears to me, the forms of the species 
naturally fall. They are the following : — 

a. totu holosericeo pubescens. 

This includes //. polymorpha, E. Meyer, and is the common Cape form. It 
has also been found in Zambesi land. 

b. denudata, Nees. 

Minor glabra v. subglabra ; foliis plus minusve lanceolatis ad extremitates utrosque 
attenuates ; spicis floribus paucioribus ; calyce longiore ; disci lobis ovarium excedentibus. 

Includes H. Forskalei, R. Br. and H. Rothii, T. Anders. 

This form occurs in south Africa, and is the Abyssinian and Arabian type 
of the species. It is noticeable that the calyx nearly equals the involucre- 
bracteoles, and that the lobes of the disk, especially in Abyssinian plants, much 
exceed the ovary. 

c. mollis, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Molliter velutina v. velutino-pubescens albida ; foliis longius petiolatis plus minusve ellipticis 
v. late ovatis basi late cuneatis ; spicis densis pilis longis birtis ; calyce minore. 

Includes II. mollis, T. Anders., probably H. Forskalei, var. ccmescens, Franch., 
and probably H. clinopodia, Nees. This latter I have not seen, but the descrip- 
tion indicates its position in this sjDecies. 

This is the third variety and the one we constitute. It embraces the form 
from Angola and east tropical Africa, probably also a Cape form, and our 
Socotran plant. The Socotran specimens are more velvety than the African, 
which are rather velvety-pubescent. 

Our specimens, n. 514, approach somewhat the type a. 

2. H. pubescens, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 89. 

Annua parva pubescens ; foliis petiolatis ovatis ; cymis paucifloris terminalibus v. axillaribus ; 
bracteolis involucri 4 imequalibus calyce longioribus exterioribus majoribus ; corolla 
resupinata, labio postico longe mucronato ; capsula pubescente. 

Fedalis v. semipedalis pubescens. Folia breviter petiolata ovata v. elliptica v. elliptico-ovata £-1 
poll, longa J— J poll, lata acuta v. obtusa apice sa-pius rotundata basi parum angustataintegra 
dense pubescentia subtus pallidiora, petiolo \- J poll, longo. Gemmw villospe. Mores srepe 
in axillis solitarii v. in cymas spicatas breves paucifloras terminales v. axillares dispositi ; 
bractea? subspatbulat;e v. anguste obovatsc \ poll, longse. Involucrum florem unum 
includens, bracteolis exterioribus £ poll, longis majoribus glanduloso-pubescentibus ad 
medium connatis parte libera lineari-obtusa, interioribus \ poll, longis angustioribus 
oblanceolatis acutissimis lateraliter membranaceis nervo medio prominulo. Calyx \ poll, 
longus membranaceus intus strigulosus extus puberulus per partem trientem 5-fidus, laciniis 
longe acutis. Corolla resupinata §-| poll, longa dilute rosea v. alba, tubo £ poll, longo 
intus glabro extus piloso-puberulo ab medio abrupte reflexo, labio postico obCuneato eroso 
dent at o emarginato cum mucrone longo sub anthesin recurvato, antico postico longiore 
breviter trilobato lobis obtusis. Stamina limbo corolhe subaqualia v. longiora, filamentis 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 231 

antice hirtis ; antherarum loculi obovoidei. Disci lobi ovati cuspide lineari ovarium non 
excedente terminati. Ovarium glabruni ; stylus fore integer. Capsula £ poll, longa 
pubescens, stipite glabro ^ poll, longo. Semina glabra pannosa. 

Soeotra. On the Haghier hills at a considerable elevation. B.C.S. n. 
509. Schweinf. n. 612. 

A small and very distinct species. 

Order LV. SELAGINEiE. 

A small family of nine genera of herbaceous or shrubby plants, chiefly of 
old world extra-tropical distribution, having their headquarters in south Africa, 
but some occur in tropical Africa, Europe, and Asia. Represented in Soeotra 
by one endemic genus. 

COCKBUENIA. 

Cockburnia, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 90. 

Calyx 5-fidus, tubulosus, lobis angustis acutis requalibus. Corollse tubus brevis, superne 
ampliatus ; limbus 2-labiatus, patens, labio postico 2-lobato, antico parum longiore 
3-lobato lobis subrequalibus. Stamina 4, didynama, supra medium tubum affixa, exserta ; 
antberte versatiles, cunfluentes uniloculars, medio vix constricts. Ovarium 1-loculare, 
1-ovulatum ; stylus apice minute bilobatus. Fruct. ignot. — Frutex incanus, ramis diffusis, 
virgatus. Folia alterna, obovata, integerrima. Flores caesii, parvuli, in spicas breves 
terminales srepe compositas dense conferti, singuli in axilla bractere sessiles, ebracteolati. 
Bractere non involucratre, auguste lanceolate, calyce parum breviores, cum calyce hirtae. 

An interesting monotypic genus of this small family, distinguished from all 
other genera except Globularia by its one-celled ovary. 

With this latter genus it has its nearest alliance in the order, and forms a 
second member of the section which has hitherto embraced Globularia alone. 
From Globularia itself it is excluded by many characters. Notably there is a 
difference in habit and in the fibrous texture of our plants ; then the flowers are 
arranged in spikes to which there are no involucrate bracts. The corolla is 
unlike the corolla of the majority of species of Globularia-, being bilabiate with 
a short tube and short limb, there are, however, sometimes corollas in 
Globularia approaching it in form. Lastly, the anthers are hardly so con- 
stricted as in Globularia, though there is a distinct grooving of the surface. 

Etym. After Lieut. J. G. Cockburn, 6th Royal Regiment, a member of our 
expedition. 

C. socotrana, Balf. fil. loc. cit. Tab. LXXVIII. 

Ramis elongatis pendulis cortice fibroso ; foliis 1-1£ poll, longis \—fy poll, latis obtusis retusis v. 
apiculatis basi in petiolum brevem gradatim attenuatis, supremis sjepe subsessilibus, 
margine revolutis subtus pallidioribus breviterque velutiuo-pubescentibus supra pubernlis 
subtrinerviis venulis a basi versus apicem curvantibus ; spicis saepe 2 poll, longis ; bracteis 
\ poll, longis ; calyce ^ poll, longo ad medium trifido ; corolla? tubo £ poll, longo extus 



•232 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

intusque puberulo panno atro antice colorato, limbi lobis late rotundatis obscure dentic- 
ulatis ; styli lobis complanatis. 

Socotra. Common on the hills, at elevations above 1000 feet, B.C.S. 
nn. 262, 317, 558. Schweinf. nn. 568, 610. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

From some localities specimens of this plant show much smaller and narrower 
leaves, with less hairy clothing and therefore more vividly green. The 
branches, too, are shorter, somewhat erect, and at the same time the spike of 
flowers becomes greatly reduced in size, assuming a deltoid subcapitate form. 
Of this character are our specimens, n. 558, and Schweinfurth's, n. 568. 

Order LVI. YERBENACE^. 

A large order of the warmer regions of the world. Many species occur in 
extratropical regions of the southern hemisphere, but few in these regions of 
the northern hemisphere. Five genera are represented in Socotra. One of 
these is endemic, one is widely dispersed in the old world, though also occurring 
in America, whilst a third is chiefly American, with a few African representa- 
tives, and some world-wide weeds. The other two are cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

1. LIPPIA. 

Lippia, Linn. Gen. n. 781 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1142. 

A considerable genus of chiefly American herbs or shrubs, but a few are 
African and two are common tropical weeds. 

L. nodiflora, Michx. Flor. Bor. Amer. ii. 15 ; Schauer in DC. Prod. xi. 
585; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 168; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 532; 
Wight Ic. t. 1463. 

Verbena nodiflora, Linn. Sp. 28. 

V. capitata, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 10. 

Zapania nodiflora, Lamk. Illustr. i. 60, t. 17, f. 3. 

And many other synonyms. 

Socotra. In marshes, abundant, B.C.S. n. 10. 

Distrib. Cosmopolitan in the tropics. 

2. PRIVA. 

Priva, Adans. Fain. ii. 505 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 1145. 

A small genus of nine species of herbs, widely dispersed in the warmer 
regions of the world. 

P. leptostachya, Juss. in Ann. Mus. Par. vii. (1806), 70 ; Schauer in D( !. 
Prod. xi. 533. 

P.dcntata, Juss. loc. cit.; Schauer loc. cit. ; Acb. Eicb. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 165. 

P. Forslcaolii, E. Meyer Comment. PL Afr. Austr. 275 ; Jaub. et Spach, 111. PL Or. v. t. 455. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 233 

P. abyssinica, Jaub. et Spach loc. cit. tfc. 453, 454 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 533 ; Franch. Sert. 

Somal. in Miss. ReVoil 50. 
Streptium asperum, Roxb. PI. Corom. ii. 25, t. 146 ; Wight in Hook. Journ. Bot. i. (1834), 230' 

t. 130. 

Socotra. On the hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 542. 

Distrib. Indian Peninsula, tropical Africa, Cape of Good Hope. 

A species varying considerably in the sculpturing of its fruit, and its forms 
have consequently been described as distinct species. 

Abyssinian specimens show a dorsal armature of four rows, arranged in pairs, 
of long hooked spines radiating from the fruit, and separated mesially by a 
shallow transversely striated groove. Laterally there is no armature, but a few 
striae run ribwise to the commissure. The fruit is distinctly puberulous, often 
fuscous. This is the type of P. abyssinica. 

Cape specimens show but two rows of hooked spines which project at right 
angles to the side of the fruit, and are usually somewhat shorter. The back of 
the fruit has a mesial groove with transverse bars passing from it, and has a 
more regular surface than in the last, The sides are faintly ribbed. The fruit 
is puberulous, usually whitish. This is the type of P. dentata. 

Indian specimens show a general raised network spreading over the back 
of the fruit, from the angles of which uncinate spines arise and radiate in all 
directions, not falling distinctly into lines. The reticulation extends down on 
the side of the fruit to near the commissure. The fruits, too, are usually nearly 
glabrous and shining. 

The Socotran plants show fruits very small, much smaller than in any other 
specimens I have examined, and the back of the fruit is tuberculate muricate or 
often only warted, rather than spiny. It is but faintly puberulous. 

Although there are such differences, and some of them are beautifully 
figured by Jaubert and Spach loc. cit., yet the forms so run one into the other 
it is impossible to make out specific differences. 

3. CCELOCARPUS. 

Gcelocarpus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Ediu. xii. (1883), 90. 

Calyx tubuloso-campanulatns, membranaceus, 6-costatus costis in mucroues productis, frnctifer 
patens cupularis drupaqne brevior. Corollas tubus cylindraceus, aequalis ; limbus patens, 
5-fidus, lobis oblongis obovatis obtusis parum inaequalibus, 2 posticis minoribus. Stamina 
4, didynama, supra medium tubum affixa, inclusa, filamentis brevibus ; antherae cordiformes, 
inappendiculatte, loculis divergentibus. Ovarium integrum, 4-loculare, loculis 1-ovulatis ; 
stylus inclusus apice brevissime bifidus, lobo autico majore stigmatoso, postico erecto levi. 
Drupa succosa calyci patenti imposita, endocarpio osseo, pyrenis 2 bilocularibus lacuna 
intermedia separatis. Semina exalbuminosa. — Frutex pubescens, inermis. Folia opposita 
elliptica, crenata, venulis subtus prominentibus. Racemi terminales, breves. Flores parvuli 
in axillis bractearum minutarum breviter pedicellati, ebracteolati, secus rbachin alterui v. 
suboppositi approximati. 
TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 2 G 



234 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

A monotypic genus undoubtedly referable to the tribe Verbenece, and 
decidedly Lantanoid in habit, But, from the genus Lanlana and its allies the 
4-cellcd ovary and the fruit separate it, and its closest affinity appears to be 
with the tropical and subtropical American genus Cithareocylum, the species of 
which, twenty in number, are spread from Brazil and Bolivia to Mexico. 

The technical characters by which it is separated from its American ally are 
found in the andrcecium. In Citharexylum the connective is enlarged behind 
the anther, forming a sort of cushion upon which the parallel lobes lie, and this 
cushion often forms a small apical antherine appendage. In the Socotran plant 
the anthers are minute, divergent at the base, without an enlarged connective. 
In other characters the genera agree well, — in inflorescence, calyx, corolla, 
ovary, and most remarkably in the fruit, which is somewhat peculiar, having in 
the centre between the two-celled pyrenes a cavity larger than the loculi. 
This has given the name to our genus. In habit there is a slight difference. 
Species of Citharexylum are commonly shining, somewhat glabrous, plants, 
frequently spiny. Ours is an unarmed pubescent shrub. But there are species 
of Citharexylum which are tomentose. 

Altogether the affinity of the Socotran and the American plant is very close, 
so close indeed that, apart from their distribution, one would probably have 
been inclined to regard the Socotran plant as a Citharexylum, But the anti- 
podean distribution makes the union at present less advisable, when there are 
such differences in the staminal whorl. 

Whether congeneric or not the affinity is clear, and is interesting from the 
point of view of geographical distribution, as it adds another to those instances 
of species endemic in the Indian Ocean islands which find their nearest allies in 
new world or almost antipodean forms of either the same or closely related 
genera. Perhaps a more special interest attaches to this Socotran plant inas- 
much as in another genus, Nesogenes, of this order, we witness such features of 
distribution ; the endemic Rodriguez species N. decumbens, Balf. fil. (in Trans. 
Roy. Soc. 108 extra vol. 362), having its only congener N. euphrasioides, Alph. 
DC. (Prod. xi. 703), a native of the Polynesian islands. I have elsewhere 
alluded to these antipodean affinities, but may here mention as other examples 
our Socotran Geraniaceous monotypic Dirachma, with its American allies 
Wendtia and Viviania ; the monotypic Turneraceous Mathurina of Rodriguez, 
whose nearest ally is the monotypic Erblichia of Central America ; the American 
Thamnosma (Rutacerc), with one Socotran and two north American species ; 
the small Sapotaceous genus Labourdonnaisia, with four peculiar Mascarene 
species, one endemic in Natal and a sixth in Cuba ; and the large Laurineous 
Ocotea, a genus exclusively tropical and subtropical American, but for three old 
world species, one of them occurring in the Canary Islands, one in south 
Africa, and one in Madagascar. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 235 

Etym. koIXov, a hollow, and Kapno?. 

C. socotranus, Balf. fil. loc. tit. Tab. LXXIX. 

Lignosus 3-4-peclalis cortice albo ramis ultirais brevibus puberulis ; foliis 1-2 poll, longis |-f 
poll, latis ellipticis v. oblongis v. subtrapeziformibus v. obovatis basi cuneatis petiolatis 
margine crenatis v. subserrulato-creuatis supra strigosis infra pubescentibus, petiolo \-\ 
poll, longo ; spicis \ -1 poll, longis ; bracteis subulatis, pedicellis ^ poll, longis parum 
longioribus; calyce \ poll, longo extus glanduloso costis strigosis intus sericeo-villoso ; 
corollas tubo calyci aequali extus glabro, limbo plerumcpie revoluto striguloso piloso ; drupa 
ovoidea \ poll longa. 

Socotra. On the slopes of the hills at an elevation over 1000 feet. 
Not at all an uncommon shrub. B.C.S. nn. 299, 520. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

4. CLERODENDRON. 

Clerodendron, Linn. Gen. n. 789 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1155. 

A considerable genus of herbs, shrubs, or trees, widely spread in the warmer 
regions of the old world. Few occur in the new world. Both Socotran species 
are endemic. 

1. C. galeatum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 91. Tab. 
LXXX. 

Fruticosum fusco-tomentosum ; foliis petiolatis ellipticis v. subobovatis ; cymis strictis termin 
alibus ; bracteis magnis foliaceis ; corolla? lobo postico cucullato. 

Frutex omnino pubesceirfce-tomentosus fuscus ramis angulatis. Folia opposita petiolata 2-3| 
poll, longa 1-2 poll, lata elliptica v. oblonga v. rarius subobovata obtusa v. late acuta 
rarius emarginata basi angustata margine obscure crenata late revoluta subtus densius 
pubescente-tomentosa pallidiora. Inflorescmtia terminalis rigida erecta rhachi prim aria 
regulariter racemose ramosa ramis adscendentibus ex axillis bractearum magnarum foli- 
acearum sessilium subamplexicaulium ovatarum v. ellipticarum v. subrotundatarum orienti- 
bus et in parte basali stricta 1-2 poll, longa non floriferis sed apice semel v. bis dichasialiter 
ramosis bracteolisque spathulatis. v. lanceolatis petiolatis suffultis ; pedicelli £ poll, longi. 
Calyx ^ poll, longus per partem trientem 5-lobatus, lobis rotundatis extus breviter pilosis. 
Corolla tubo \ poll, longo intus glabro, lobo postico cucullato-galeato £ poll, longo, cseteris 
subasqualibus ellipticis obtusis extus strigulosis ciliatis. Stamina fauci corollse inserta, 
filamentis basi per \ poll, incrassatis rectis et villosis superne filiformibus strigulosis ; 
anthera? oblonga?. Drupa 4-lobata, putamine crustaceo levi. 

Nom Vern. Dnuha (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the Haghier hills behind Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 441. 

Distrib. Endemic 

An interesting species having its nearest allies in C. myricoides, and C 
pilosus, Benth. and Hook. (Gen. PI. ii. 1156), and a few other African species 
ranging from Abyssinia to the Cape, all characterised by the production of the 
posterior lobe of the corolla into a large helmetdike hood. Upon this character, 
Hochstetter (in Flora 1842, 225) founded the genus Cyclonema, but Bentham 



230 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

and Hooker have reduced this to Clerodendron, as the hooding is more or less 
apparent in many other species of this genus. 

The inflorescence of our species is a very marked feature with its large 
bracts, and this with the characters of the foliage easily separate it from related 
species. 

2. C. leucophlceum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 91. 

Arboremn cortice albo, ramis tomentosis ; foliis parvis oblongo-ellipticis ; floribus solitariis axillari- 
bus racemos longe pedunculatos formantibus ; calyce sub fructu pateute; fructu cernuo. 

Arbor parva cortice albo ultimo dichotome rarnosa, ramis angulatis fulvo-tomentosis lateralibus 
sajpe coutractis. Folia odora parva §— 1 poll, longa ^-^ poll, lata obovata v. oblongo- 
elliptica obtusa rarius emarginata basi in petiolura brevem attenuata margiue integra 
vix revoluta supra glauduloso-puberula subtus pubescentia. Flores in axillis foliorum 
oppositorum supremum solitarii et racemos breves paucifloros bilaterales formantes longe 
peduuculati ; peduuculi f-1 poll, longi pubescentes supra medium articulati et bibracteolati, 
bracteolis minutis. Calyx campanulatus sub fructu patens deltoide 5-dentatus puberulus. 
Fructtis ceruuus 4-lobatus parum succosas } poll, diam., putamine tenui crustaceo. 
Cset. ignot. 

Socotra. A very common tree. B.C.S. nn. 182, 335. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A strongly smelling species. Unfortunately our specimens are incom- 
plete, wanting the flowers. But it appears to be a distinct species with some 
affinity to the foregoing, and I am inclined to place it in the set of Cydonema ; 
for the inflorescence is much reduced, as it frequently is amongst species with 
corollas such as occur in that set. In our plant the lateral branches are 
single flowered, and the peduncular bracteoles are empty. 

In addition to the fruiting specimens I have taken as the type of this 
species, Ave have a number of leafy twigs collected at different localities from 
trees which are possibly identical with the one I have described. But there is 
no flower or fruit, and I shall refer to them here separately, leaving their definite 
determination to future exploration. 

n. 265. Specimens showing long twigs with leaves somewhat larger than in 
the above type, and with a tendency to become glabrous. When dried quite 
inodorous. Otherwise like the type. 

From the base of the limestone cliffs above Galonsir. Elevation over 1000 
feet. 

n. 385. Has longish twigs with large leaves, often as much as two and a half 
inches long by one inch broad, sometimes longly petiolate. When dry, faintly 
odorous. Otherwise like the type. 

Nom. Vern. Seminha (B.C.S.). 

From near the top of Sicante peaks of Haghier, at an elevation over 2000 
feet. 

n. 513. Is a stunted woody plant with many short contracted branches 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY/ BALFOUR. 237 

bearing leaves but slightly larger than in the type, and also less prominently 
pubescent, having very short inconspicuous hairs. Quite inodorous. Otherwise 
like the type. 

From the plains. 

n. 580. Shows elongated twigs with large leaves, nearly as large as in n. 
385, which are thin and membranous with longish petioles. Many of the 
lateral branchlets are contracted. Strongly odorous. 

From the Haghier hills near Tamarida. 

5. AVICENNIA. 

Avicennia, Linn. Geu. app. n. 1237; Beuth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 11G0. 

A genus of four species found on the shores of all countries in the warmer 
regions of the world. 

A. officinalis, Linn. Sp. ed. 1. 110 ; Schauer in DC. Prod. xi. 700 ; Boiss. 
Flor. Orient, iv. 536 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 173. 

A. tomentosa, Jacq. Stirp. Amer. 178, t. 112, f. 2 ; E. Br. Prod. 518 ; Schauer in DC. Prod. xi. 
699 ; Wall. PI. As. Ear. iii. 44, t. 271 ; Wight 1c. t. 1481. 

Soeotra. At Khor Hadjin and elsewhere. B.C.S. n. 559. 

Distrib. Of the genus. 

The Socotran plant is the form with narrow lanceolate and acute leaves. 

Order LVIL LABIATE. 

A large family of, commonly odorous, herbs found in all parts of the globe. 
There are fifteen species in Soeotra representing eight genera. Of these genera, 
three are widely spread round the world in the tropics, two of them also occurring 
in extratropical regions ; four are essentially old world tropical genera, one of 
them being now found introduced in the new world, another extending to the 
Pacific islands, another to Australia, while the fourth has its maximum in the 
Mediterranean region ; the eighth genus is one of limited range, occurring only 
in south Africa, Abyssinia, and Soeotra. 

1. OCIMUM. 

Ocimum, Linn. Gen. n. 732, pro parte; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1171. 

A large and widely-dispersed genus of odorous plants of the warmer regions 
of the globe. 

O. canum, Sims Bot. Mag. t. 2452 ; Benth. Lab. 3, and in DC. Prod. xii. 
32. 

Soeotra. Abundant everywhere. B.C.S. nn. 3, 435. Schweinf. n. 288. 

Distrib. A variable plant of cultivation widely dispersed in tropical Asia, 
and Africa. 



238 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

2. ORTHOSIPHON. 

rthosiphon, Benth. in Bot. Reg. sub. t. 1300 ; Bentli. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1174. 

A considerable genus of chiefly Indian and east Indian distribution, but a 
few species are tropical African, and one reaches Australia. Of the three 
Socotran species one is endemic, another is only known from Arabia, and the 
third is an Indian and south-west Asiatic species common at Aden. 

1. O. tenuiflorus, Benth. in DC. Prod. xii. 50. 

Socotra. Abundant. B.C.S. nn. 549, 578. Schweinf. nn. 392, 624, 731 
in lit. 

Distrib. Arabia. 

2. O. pallidus, Eoyle ; Benth. in Hook. Bot. Misc. iii. 370, and Lab. 
Suppl. 708, and in DC. Prod. xii. 50 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 539. 

Socotra. A common plant. B.C.S. n. 269. 
Distrib. India and south-west Asia. Aden. 
The Socotran plants are small and pubescent like the form from Aden. 

3. O. ferrugineus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 91. 

Suffruticosus tomentoso-pubescens demum gluber ; foliis longe petiolatis late ovatis v. subcordi- 
formibus rarius obovatis obtusis crenatis utrinque puberulis ferrugineis ; racemis 6-8-floris 
glandulosis ; corollee tubo calyce triplo-longiore, fauce nuda ; staminibus corolla breviori- 
bus. 

Suffrutex tripedalis ramulis striatis rigidis puberulis demum glabris fusco-nigris. Folia 
petiolata deltoidea ovata v. subcordiformia interdum elliptica v. obovata matura 1-lj poll, 
longa |— f poll, lata apice plerumque angustata saepe rotundata obtusa basi rotundata v. 
gradatim in petiolum attenuata margine crenato-undulata subrevoluta mollia utriuque 
velutino-subtomentosa et glandulis rufis vestita supra ferruginea subtus pallidiora 
juventute albida, petiolo |— ^ poll, longo. Flores in racemos 6-8-rloros axillares 1 poll, 
longos decussatim ramosos dispositi ; rbacbis glabra pedicellique \ poll, longi glanduloso- 
puberuli ; bracteolse minutae ovatae sessiles pubescentes ciliatae. Calyx intus glaber extus 
glandulis rubris capitatis vestitus \ poll, longus fructifer auctus, tubo recto, limbi lobo 
postico late ovato acuto, lobis anticis 4 acumiuatis. Corolla dilute rosea £ poll, longa 
extus pubescens et glandulis capitatis vestita intus nuda, tubo recto, limbi lobis 4 posticis 
brevibus intermediis 2 majoribus. Stamina corolla breviora, filamentis puberulis. 
Niiculm glabrae leves. 

Socotra. Abundant on the Haghier hills. B.C.S. n. 420. Schweinf. n. 
518. 

Distkib. Endemic. 

Apparently a distinct species remarkable in its shrubby habit and ferruginous 
soft foliage. Allied perhaps to O. somalensis, Vatke (in Linnrea xliii. (1880), 
87), a plant of Somali Land collected by Hildebrandt. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAY LEY BALFOUR. 239 

3. PLECTRANTHUS. 

Plectranthus, L'Her. Stirp. Nov. 85, tt. 41, 42 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1175. 

A large old world tropical genus represented also in the Pacific islands. 

Plectranthus sp. 

Nom. Vekn. Safahra (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. Abundant on the limestone plateaux above 1500 feet elevation. 
B.C.S. nn. 306, 645. Schweinf. n. 738. 

A plant from Socotra may be a species of this genus. Schweinfurth sends 
specimens from plants grown by him at Cairo, and these he labels Coleus sp. 
But as we have no flowers nor fruit it is not possible to decide the point. 

Amongst Plectranthi, its affinity is with forms like P. Forskalei, Vahl 
(Symb. i. 44). If it be a species of Coleus, then it will come near C. arabkus, 
Benth. (in herb. Mus. Par. and in DC. Prod. xii. 79). 

It is a very strongly odorous species. 

4. LAVANDULA. 

Lavandula, Linn. Gen. n. 711 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1179. 

A considerable genus of scented herbs or shrubs having its headquarters in 
the Mediterranean region, but extending westwards to the Canary Islands, and 
eastwards to India. 

L. Nimmoi, Benth. in DC. Prod. xii. 148. 

Herba caule patentim villosulo ; foliis pinnafcisectis segmentis oblongis obovatisve inciso- 
dentatis pinnatifidisque utriuque viridibus parce hirsutis ; spicis gracilibus ; foliis floralibus 
lanceolatis acutissime acuminatis calyces villosulos aequantibus ; fioribus solitariis 
alternis. 

Perennis effuse ramosa 1-2-pedalis. Folia varie pinnatisecta et pubescentia interdum fere L. 
multifidai similia sed longius petiolata lobis latioribus. Spicai 1-3-pollicares. Calyx 
viridis ^ poll, longus, dentibus lanceolatis acutissimis. Corolla calyce duplolongior. 

Socotra. Abundant both on the plains and on the hills. B.C.S. nn. 
486, 507, 689. Schweinf. nn. 220 in lit., 361, 657. Hunter n. 4. Nimmo. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This species was described by Bentham, from Nimmo's specimens now in 
Kew Herbarium, in DC. Candolle's Prodromus, and is there referred to the 
shores of the Red Sea. But it is undoubtedly one of the plants got by Nimmo 
from Socotra. 

In habit it closely resembles the Aden L. seti/era, T. Anders, (in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 29), but it wants the setaceous bracts. 

In Socotra the form of the plant from the dry plains is a much branched 
diffuse herb with few inconspicuous, small (often a half-inch long) leaves vary- 
ing much in pubescence, sometimes becoming almost glabrous. The bracts are 



240 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

widely ovate and acuminate, and the calyx shortly toothed, the whole spike 
being densely pubescent. This is our n. 486, Schweinfurth's n. 361. 

The plant as it occurs on the hills is, however, a loosely slightly-branched 
one, always densely hairy and having large conspicuous leaves. The bracts 
arc gradually tapered, the calyx more longly toothed, and the spike is less 
densely pubescent, rather more pilose. This is the form of the plant described 
by Bentham. B.C.S. n. 507. Schweinf. n. 657. 

We have another set of specimens from high altitudes, in leaf only, showing 
a form possessing very large and hairy leaves, often two and a half inches long, 
and one inch broad. B.C.S. n. 689. 

5. MICROMERIA. 

Micromeria, Benth. iti Bot. Beg. sub. t. 1282 ; Benth. efc Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1188. 

A large genus of wide range in the tropics of both old and new worlds, 
sometimes extratropical. 

M. microphylla, Benth. Lab. 377, and in DC. Prod. xii. 219 ; Boiss. Flor. 
Orient, iv. 572. 

M. Forbesii, Benth. loc. cit. 

M. ovata, Benth. loc. cit. ; Ach. Bich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 189. 

M. spliaciotica, Boiss. and Heldr.; Boiss. Diagn. ser. i. 12, 48 ; Benth. loc. cit. 

M. Tcneriffce, Benth. loc. cit. 

M. tcrebintliinacca, Webb et Berthel. Phyt. Canar. iii. 80, t. 164. 

M. filiformis, Benth. loc. cit. 

M. punctata, Benth. loc. cit. ; Ach. Rich. loc. oil. 

M. biflora, Benth. loc. cit. 

For the older synonymy, see Bentham loc. cit. 

Nom. Veen. Theijeijah (Schweinf). 

Socotra. Abundant. B.C.S. nn. 213, 613, 631. Schweinf. nn. 529, 
600. 

Distrib. A widely dispersed and variable species occurring in the Canary 
and Cape de Verde islands, south Europe, north-east Africa, and through Arabia 
to northern India. 

We have from Socotra an extensive series of specimens, which, differing 
from one another in minor characters, yet all naturally come within one specific 
limitation, and on comparing them with the specimens of Micromeria in Kew 
Herbarium and with Bentham's descriptions, I an convinced that the many 
allied plants from different regions which he doubtfully maintained as separate 
species are better regarded as so many forms, perhaps geographical, of one 
widely-dispersed species. I have therefore brought together above such of 
them as I take to be conspecific, adapting for the specific name that which has 
been most frequently used, although another of the synonyms antedates it. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR EAYLEY BALFOTJE. 241 

The character by which specific diagnoses have been made, — long branching 
or compact habit, glabrousness or more or less pubescent vestiture, breadth 
of leaf, solitary or fascicled stalked or sessile flowers, narrow or broad calyx, 
— are features which are by no means constant, and in our Socotran plants 
we have almost every degree of variation in these respects. I doubt, indeed, 
whether it is possible to keep up, even as distinct varieties, all the old specific 
forms. 

It appears to me that this widely-spread species may in any one locality 
vary in two directions, and thus all the forms seem to fall into two groups 
characterised thus : — 

a. remota : ramulis internodiisque elongatis ; foliis rernotis. 

b. imbricata : ramulis internodiisque brevibus ; foliis approximates subitnbricatis. 

Of the first set, M. Jiliformis, Benth. (sp. typ. ex herb. Gay), and M. 
microphylla, Benth., south European forms, may be taken as typical, along 
with the Canary island plant, M. Teneriffce, Benth. (M. terebinthinacea, Webb). 
The branches may be greatly elongated, often rigid, and are commonly more 
or less purple, and, owing to the length of the internodes, the leaves are far 
apart. T*hese are frequently purple, usually glabrous and shining, often very 
small and somewhat narrowed, never subrotundate, but occasionally they 
become pubescent. The flowers may be either solitary or fascicled and the 
calyx may be narrow or wide, one-sixth inch long or under one-eighth inch. In 
this group we include also the Cretan M. sphaciotica, Boiss., the Abyssinian 
M. ovata (ex herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. i. n. 1859), some Abyssinian specimens 
(ex herb. Roth, n. 508), and also some Indian plants (ex herb. Griffith, n. 3979, 
sub M. biflora). Our Socotran specimens, n. 213, and Schweinfurth's n. 529, 
also come into this set, which has thus a very wide distribution. 

The second set is typified in the Indian M. biflora, Benth. The leaves in 
this group are usually larger, much broader, and often nearly rotundate, and 
owing to the shortness of the internodes are close set somewhat imbricated 
when dry, and they may be glabrous or pubescent. The flowers are either 
solitary or fascicled and sometimes are almost or quite sessile. Into this 
section goes the true M. punctata, Benth., from Abyssinia and Somali Land, 
and M. Forbesii, Benth., from Teneriffe ; also almost all the Indian and 
Arabian plants described as M. biflora, and probably also some forms from 
Abyssinia under M. ovata (in herb. Schimp. Abyss, n. 12). Our Socotran 
specimens, n. 631, Schweinfurth's n. 600, belong here. The Indian forms 
we find are, as a rule, glabrous. The Socotran specimens, like those from 
Teneriffe, are more or less pubescent. One specimen sent by Schweinfurth is 
much more so than almost any other form I have seen. The Abyssinian plants 
are commonly pubescent, and have usually elongated leaves. This group has 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 2 H 



242 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

an extensive distribution, but apparently does not run into Europe. With 
the last set it is represented both in the Canary Islands and in Socotra. 

It may be possible within these groups to recognise local varieties, but I 
shall not enter upon that question here. 

The plant has a tendency to form galls from the attacks of some Cecidomyia. 
n. 613 shows this. 



6. LEUCAS. 

Leucas, E. Br. Prod. 504 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 1213. 

A large genus of usually woolly plants of the Asiatic and African tropics, 
and introduced in America. Of the four Socotran species, one is endemic, 
belonging to a section of the genus that is essentially Asiatic or Australian, one 
is a native of north-east Africa alone, and one of the Indian Peninsula alone, 
and the fourth is common to north-east Africa and south west Asia. 

1. L. (Hcmistoma) urticsefolia, R. Br. Prod. 504; Benth. in DC. Prod, 
xii. 524 ; Ach. Kich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 199 ; Boiss. Elor. Orient, iv. 778 ; 
Wight Ic. t. 1451. 

L. affinis, B. Br. in Salt. Abyss, app. 

Ballota arabica, Hochst. et Steud. in herb. Schimp. Arab. n. 818. 

Socotra. Common near Galonsir, Tamarida, and elsewhere. B.C.S. n. 
726. Schweinf. n. 390. 

Distpjb. South-west Asia and north-east Africa. 

2. L. (Loxostoma) Neuflizeana, Courb. in Ann. Sc. Nat, ser. 4, xviii. 
(1863), 145. 

L. fancier enata, Vatke in Linnsea xliii. (1880), 98. 

Socotra. At Tamarida. Schweinf. nn. 337, 733 in lit. 

Distiub. Abyssinia, Dessi island, cast tropical Africa. 

A little-known species described by Courbon in his account of the flora of the 
island Dessi in the Red Sea. Ehrenberg had many years previously collected 
specimens of the same plant in Abyssinia. Hildebrandt's specimen from 
"N-Dara (Taita)," described as L. paucicrenata, by Vatke, is a more villous 
form than the Abyssinian plant, but is undoubtedly the same sjDecies. 

3. L. (Ortholeucas) lanata, Benth. in Wall. PL As. Rar. i. 61, and in DC. 
Prod. xii. 525. 

L. collina, Dalz. in Hook. Kew Journ. ii. (1850), 338. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUE. 243 

Socotra. On the Haghier hills. Not frequent. B.C.S. n. 690 } 
Schweinf. n. 611. 

Distrib. Through the Indian Peninsula. 

I have not been able to discover sufficient ground for separating our 
Socotran plant from this species, and it appears to me that the two Indian forms 
quoted above are hardly specifically distinct. 

In habit our plant takes more after Dalzell's plant, but the calyx is much 
shorter and the calyx-teeth hardly so elongate. The corolla, too, has the upper 
lip scarcely so much arched or so long, and the anther-lobes are more 
constricted and narrower than in the Indian specimens. Further, the leaves 
in our specimens are commonly dark on the upper surface, a character not so 
often seen in true L. lanata, and the larger ones are more persistently truncate 
at the base. 

From the nearly allied L. montana, Spreng. (Syst. ii. 742 ; Benth. in DC. 
Prod. loc. cit) and L. mollissima, Benth. (in Wall. PI. As. Par. i. 62, and in 
DC. Prod. loc. cit.), the spreading hairs on the stem readily distinguish it. 

4. L. (Ortholeucas) virgata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 91. 

Suffruticosa virgata ramis fulvis ; foliis petiolatis plus minusve obovatis v. spathulatis v. 
subellipticis integris v. superne trilobatis crassiusculis velutino-pubescentibus ; verticell- 
astris 3-fioris ; bracteis calyce multo brevioribus ; calycis dentibus brevissimis. 

Suffrutex 1-3-pedalis virgatus laxe v. s?epe intricato-ramosus ramulis lignosis ultinris haud raro 
ad extremitates marcescentibus sulcatis fulvis breviter pubescenfcibus. Folia petiolata 
plus minusve obovata v. obcuneatim deltoidea v. spathulata v. subelliptica inagnitudine 
variantia ssepe f poll, longa § poll, lata petioloque ?-£ poll, longo interdum l poll, longa 
l^ P°H- l a ^ a petioloque £ poll, longo, maxima apice obtusa saepe emarginata v. superne 
rotundata trilobata lobo medio maximo et emarginato inferne integra et in petiolum 
gradatim attenuata subtus pallidiora dense velutino-tomentosa incana demum ssepe solum 
glandulosa supra velutino-pubescentia subglabrescentia, minima plerumque spathulata 
crassiuscula subtus pallidiora incana dense velutino-pubescentia. Verticillastri parvi 
3-flori ; bractese subulatie brevissinise vix ^ poll, longse. Calyx \ poll, longus rectus 
basi angustatus ore eequali, dentibus 10 minutis alterneparum brevioribus, costis striguloso- 
pubescentibus intervallis glandulosis. Corollce tubus -J poll. loDgus intus piloso-annulatus 
extus ad partem inferiorem calyce inclusam glaber superne cum limbo pilis derlexis 
vestitus glandulosusque, limbi lobus posticus cucullatus pilis longis fimbriatus, anticus 
postico longior ^ poll, longus 3-lobatus lobo medio maximo obovato bilobato crenulato. 
Stamina corolla longiora. Discus inconspicuus. Nuculcc ^q poll. longa3 glabra? maculata?. 

Socotra. Very abundant, B.C.S. nn. 141, 274, 543, 548. Schweinf. 
n. 343. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This is one of the commonest undershrubs on the island. It varies some- 
what in habit and in size of foliage. In some situations on the plains it forms 
a very densely and intricately branched small-leaved undershrub, with the 



244 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

branches often withering at the ends ; in other places it lias long curved wide- 
spreading somewhat decumbent branches, or there may be long ascending rigid 
twigs. In these latter forms the leaves are much larger than in the first 
mentioned. It is quite a distinct species in the Ortholeucas section of the genus, 
marked by its habit, small leaves, and the small flower clusters. 

7. LASIOCARYS. 

Lasiocarys, Benth. Lab. Gen. et Sp. 600 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL ii. 1213. 

A small genus of five species, one being south African, two Abyssinian, 
and two are endemic in Socotra. Both the Socotran forms differ from all 
others in their prickly habit and in inflorescence. 

1. L. spiculifolia, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 92. Tab. 
LXXXI, A. 

Suffruticosa nana; foliis spiculil'ormibus v. triaculeatis ; tloribus solitariis axillaribus. 

Suffrutex huroilis spiculosus caulibus s?epe prostratis cortice crasso rugoso profunde sulcato 
rnulto intricatoque ramosis, raraulis ultimis tenuibus adscendentibus puberulis albidis ad 
nodos tumidis et axillares contractos ramulos gerentibus. Folia parva ^-\ poll, longa v. 
minora rigida sessilia opposita oblanceolata et spiculiformia ad extremitates anibos 
attenuata apiceque longe pungentia v. in parte superiore triaculeata hastata spiculo medio 
maximo inferneque gradatim attenuata spiculis plerumque lateraliter patentibus 
obscure glandulosa puberula viridia venulis striata supra subconcava. Flores in axillis 
superioribus solitarii brevissime pedicellati foliis plerumque breviores ; bracteae minuke 
subulato-pungentes pedicellis longiores. Calyx ^ poll, longus glaber rigidus tubuloso- 
campanulatus parum obliquus 10-costatus 5-fidus, segmentis acuminatis pungentibuo 
patentibus suba^qualibus. Corolla fere ^ poll, longa, tubo incluso intus piloso-anuulato 
extus basi glabro superne pilis deflexis vestito, limbi lobo postico coucavo emargiuato dense 
pilis longis hirto, antico extus villoso et glanduloso trilobato lobo medio majore obovato 
emarginato lateralibus ovatis obtusis. Stylus inclusus. Nuculas glabra; oblongoe \ poll, longa-. 

Socotra. A scrub plant of the plains. B.C.S. n. 216. 

Disteib. Endemic. 

A species clearly marked out by its spicular leaves and solitary axillary 
flowers from all others in the genus. The very thick corky bark on the stems 
is another very interesting feature. 

This is one of the jilants which makes progress over many parts of the plains 
unpleasant on account of its dart-like and often triaculeate leaves. The 
mimicry in foliage between this species and the Acantliaceous Blepharis spiculi- 
folia is worthy of note. 

2. L. flagellifera, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 92. Tab. 
LXXXI, B. 

Flagellifera ; foliis spatbulatis v. cocldeariformibus cum deutibus 5-7 pungentibus ; floribus 

solitariis axillaribus. 
Perennis flagellifera flagellis longe repentibus ramos laterales contractos ad nodos gerentibus 






PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 245 

internodiis 1^ poll. longis, juvenilibus longe pilosis. Folia petiolata § poll, longa ad 
ramos laterales contractos dense rosulatim conferta cochlearifonnia v. spathulata parte 
superiore expansa \-\ poll. diam. superne 5-7-dentata dentibus acuminato-subulatis 
pungentibus inferne integra cuneatim in petiolum lougum attenuata crassinscula 
5-7-nervia nervis subtus prominentibus firmis glanduloso-puberula et pilis longis sericeis 
varie vestita ; petiolus \ poll, longus complanatus sulcafcus basi amplexicaulis dense 
sericeo-villosus. Flores in axillis solitarii brevissime pedicellati bracteis setoso-subulatis 
longe pilosis calyce parum brevioribus. Calyx \ poll, longus extus glanduloso-puberulus 
et pilis paucis longis vestitus intus nitidus eb pilis adscendentibus instructus, tubo 
campanulato ore requali, limbi dentibus 5 sequalibus deltoideis acuminatis subulato- 
pungentibus. Corolla -fy P°H- longa, tubo extus in feme glabro superne pubescente intus 
piloso-annulato et antice leviter pubescente, limbi lobo postico parum concavo oblongo- 
obovato emarginato dorsaliter margineque dense villoso, antici lobi segmento medio 
maximo subspatbulato emarginato crenulato segmentis lateralibus obliquis truucatis. 
Stamina corolla breviora, filamentis acerosis et basi pilosiusculis. Discus crenatus. 

Soeotra. On the limestone cliffs south-west of Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 233. 

An extremely interesting form of this genus differing from all hitherto 
described. Like the last mentioned species it is prickly, although the leaves 
are not hard and glabrous, and it has also solitary axillary flowers. The 
feature by which it is distinctly marked out is its habit. On the limestone 
cliffs in the only situation where we found it, its long runners spread over the 
rocks to a great distance, and the nodes producing plantlets which fix them- 
selves in the crevices of the rotting stone, the plant thus covers a wide area. 

8. TEUCRIUM. 
Teucrium, Linn. Gen. n. 706; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1221. 

A very large genus of both warm and temperate climates, having its maximum 
in the Mediterranean region. Both the Socotran species are endemic. 

1. T. (Polium) prostratum, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 
92. 

Prostratum ramis incanis ; foliis petiolatis oblongis apice truncatis dentatis basi abrupte con- 
tractis revolutis ; floribus in capitula pauciflora dispositis ; corolla calyce pubescente 
duplolongiore. 

Perenne parvum prostratum basi lignosum ramosissimum rainulis incanis patentibus subprostr- 
atis ultime adscendentibus. Folia brevissime petiolata \-\ poll, longa oblonga apice 
truncata obscure dentata basi abrupte in petiolum contracta margine integra revoluta 
firma supra plus minusve rugosa pubescentia medio sulcata subtus incana venulis pro- 
minentibus ; petiolus ^ poll, longus. Flores breviter pedicellati in axillis foliorum superi- 
oruin solitarii et nonnunquam in pauciflorum capitulum folia excedentem conferti. Calyx 
tubuloso-campanulatus \ poll, longus pubescens, dentibus 5 late ovatis acutis subciliatis. 
Corolla ^ P°ll- longa extus puberula intus antice palato piloso, limbi lobo medio maximo 
subspathulato concavo obtuso margine sinuato-crenato, lobis lateralibus minimis. Stamina 
longe exserta, filamentis basi pilosiusculis. Nuculce valde rugosse. 



240 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Soeotra. At the base of the limestone cliffs near Galonsir, and also near 
Tamarida. B.C.S. nn. 342, 547. Hunter. 

DlSTRlB. Endemic. 

A very odorous species. It is nearly allied to T. Pol'mm, Linn. (Sp. 792 ; 
Benth in DC. Prod. xii. 591), widely spread in south Europe, north-east Africa, 
and south-west Asia, but it is readily distinguished by its somewhat petiolate 
1 eaves, and its flowers not so densely and distinctly capitate. With T. mont- 
amim, Linn. (Sp. 791 ; Benth. loc. cit. 593), also a native of south Europe, there 
is a near affinity, but the smaller leaves, the flower-heads, and the long subulate 
acuminate calyx-teeth of that species distinguish it. 

2. T. (Polium) petiolare, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 92. 

Pennine a collo ramosnm ramis adscendentibus pins minusve incanis ; foliis longe petiolatis 
ellipticis snperne serrato-crenatis inferne integris obtnsis parum revolutis supra viridi- 
bus subtus incanis ; calycis dentibus deltoideis ; corolla calycem pubescentem excedente. 

Suffrutex radice lignoso a collo multiramosus ramis adscendentibus incanis v. velutino- 
pubescentibus. Folia longe petiolata §-§ poll, longa J— *■ poll, lata elliptica v. oblongo- 
elliptica v. subobovata obtusa basi in petiolum gradatim attenuata margine parum revoluta 
superne serrato-crenata inferne integra crassiuscula supra viridia obscure puberula venul- 
oso-sulcata saape glabrescentia nitida subtus incana venulis prominentibus ; petiolus } } -\ poll, 
longus. Mores in axillis supremis solitarii spicas capitatas § poll. diam. formantes. Calyx 
tubuloso-campanulatus \ poll, longus pubescens glandulosus, dentibus subsequalibus 
deltoideis acutis pilis longis ciliatis. Corolla -fy poll, longa extus inferne glabra superne 
leviter puberula et glandulosa iDtus antice pilosa, limbi lobo medio maximo parum concavo 
subpanduriformi integro obtuso, lobis lateralibus oblongis obtusis minoribus. Stamina 
breviter exserta, filamentis sparsim pilosis. Nitculw valde rugospe. 

Soeotra. On the hills south of Galonsir, and on Haghier. B.C.S. n. 
431. Schweinf. n. 566. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another novelty of the same section of the genus as the foregoing, and 
probably having most affinity with T. buxifolium, Schreb. Unilab. 42 ; Benth. in 
DC. Prod. xii. 591, a species from south Spain. But ours is altogether a larger 
plant, and is distinguished by its longly-petiolate leaves, and its flowers with the 
longish calyx not much exceeded by the corolla. T. montanum may also be 
compared as an ally. 

Schweinfurth sends a specimen, n. 578, which I refer to this species, 
gathered by him at an altitude of 3000 feet on the Haghier hills. It differs 
from the type in the persistently pubescent character of the whole plant, in 
the absence of hoariness, which is only visible on the under surface of some of 
the upper leaves, and in the longer branches with larger leaves, which are not 
so thick, and are very decidedly oblong or narrowly elliptic. It may be 
named a variety as, — 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOK BAYLEY BALFOUR. 247 

var. pubescens, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 
Pubescens noninoanum ramis folia majora gerentibus. 

Soeotra. On the Haghier hills. Schweinf. n. 578. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

Order LVIII, PLANTAGINE^. 

A small order with representatives in every part of the globe, but most 
abundant in temperate zones. 

PLANTAGO. 

Plantago, Linn. Gen. n. 142 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. ii. 1224. 
A large genus with the distribution of the order. 

P. amplexicaulis, Cav. Ic. Ear. ii. 22, t. 125; Dene, in DC. Prod. xiii. 1, 
719 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 883. 

P. Bauphula, Edgew. in Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. vii. 2. (1838), 766 ; Dene. loc. cit. 
P. salina, Dene. loc. cit. 720. 

Soeotra. Abundant on the plains. B.C.S. n. 200. 

Distrib. From the Canary islands through the Mediterranean region 
eastwards to Arabia, Persia, Affghanistan, and southern India. 



GENUS ANOMALUM. 
WELLSTEDIA. 

Wellstedia, Balf. fil. in Proc. Boy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Flores hermaphroditi, regulares. Calyx alte 4-partitus, persistens, tubo basi ovario adnato, lobis 
angustis acutis sequalibus extus adpresse rigide pilosis. Corolla hypocrateriformis, tubo 
cylindraceo extus intusque glabro sub fructu a basi sursum in segmenta 4 rumpente, limbi 
lobis 4 ovatis v. deltoideo-ovatis sequalibus extus adpresse pilosis imbricatis. Stamina 4, 
aequalia, angulis corollas loborum inserta, filamentis liberis subulatis incurvis corollas lobis 
paulum brevioribus ; antheras cordato-rotundatas v. suborbiculares, 2-loculares, loculis 
parallelis introrsis rima longitudinali, dorso affixse. Discus 0. Ovarium 2-carpellatum, 2- 
loculare, compressum, integrum, parte triente inferum, inferne glabrum, superne basin styli 
circum dense albido-setosum ; stylus validus, calycis lobis subaequilongus, adpresse rigide 
pilosus, bifidus, stigmatibus parvis terminalibus ; ovula anatropa, in loculo quoque solitaria, 
(plerumque in uno abortivum?), ab placentis sub apice septi medii affixis pendula, funiculo 
brevi. Capsula oblique subobcordata, inasqualiter bilobata, complanata, bilocularia, loculo 
majore vacuo, angustiseptata, loculicide dehiscentia, valvis coriaceis a septo crustaceo tenui 
irninervio in loculum vacuum convexo semenque amplectente secedentibus, extus adpressis 
rigidis pilis vestita. Semen solitarium, septo pendulum, complanatum, obliquum, superne 



248 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

truncatum, interne acntum, testa tenui comosa ; embryo magnus, cotyledonibus carnosis 
ovatis plano-convexis accumbentibus radicula longioribus, radicula supeva tereti, albumine 
nullo. — Suffrutex pulvinatus, parvus, ramis congestis, omnino pilis rigidis adpressis vestitus. 
Folia alterna, subimbricata, anguste spathulata v. obovata, obtusa. StipuUe 0. Flores in 
axillis sessiles, spicas unilaterales breves formantes. 

A monotyj)ic endemic genus, and one of the most peculiar plants in the 
whole flora. 

Its most noteworthy features are its depressed Boragineoid habit and 
alternate leaves, the calyx adnate to the ovary, the gamophyllous tetramerous 
regular floral envelopes, four equal epipetalous stamens, the two-celled ovary 
with a solitary pendulous ovule in each loculus, the loculicidally septifragal 
capsule containing a single exalbuminous seed embraced by the isolated 
septum, and the large embryo with accumbent cotyledons and superior 
radicle, — altogether, making a combination with which I can find no parallel. 

The gamopetaly, andrcecial characters, and the bicarpellary ovary, indicate 
its position in the series Bicarpellatae of the Gamopetalse, but the somewhat 
inferior ovary is a character exhibited only in a few Apocynacese, Asclepiadaceae, 
and Gesneraceae in this series, and with none of these families has our plant 
any near affinity. 

Amongst the Inferos of the Gamopetalse, the only family in which the 
technical characters are such as to admit of our considering the question of in- 
corporating our plant, is Rubiaceas. But the alternate leaves, the absence of 
stipules and of a floral disk, at once exclude our genus. 

There is no polypetalous order occasionally exhibiting gamopetaly of 
which we can regard our plant as an aberrant type. 

In spite of the slight epigyny we must, I think, regard our plant as one 
of the Bicarpellatre ; and whilst I have, for the present, preferred to locate the 
genus as an anomalous one of the Gamopetalae, I may here indicate the affinities, 
and the probable ultimate position of it. 

As I have above mentioned, its habit is thoroughly Boragineoid, indeed it 
has quite the look of one of the desert species of Heliotropium, or some 
nearly allied genus. Against its incorporation in Boraginese, the capsular 
fruit is, perhaps, the greatest difficulty to overcome, and then, whilst it has the 
characteristically superior radicle of the order, the ovule is pendulous and 
anatropous, not erect with a superior micropylc as is typical. Besides, the 
accumbent cotyledons are a feature not described in the family. 

Mr Bentham, who has very kindly given an opinion upon the plant, writes 
<: it is certainly very anomalous. It seems to me to come nearest to Ver- 
benaceae, amongst which we exceptionally find (though in very few cases) 
dehiscent fruits or alternate leaves." The characters which seem most to 
militate against its position in Verbenacese are, in addition to those indicated 
by Mr Bentham, the accumbent cotyledons with the superior radicle, —this 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 249 

latter being a most important character as Mr Bentham mentions (Benth. et 
Hook. Gen. PL ii. 1132), by which genera of Boraginese may be easily 
separated from Verbenacese, as it occurs only in very few of the latter family, 
— and in Verbenacese we do not find plants with the habit shown by our 
genus. Some few genera in the family, it is true, are of prostrate and woody 
habit, and bear imbricated leaves, but they want the indumentum so character- 
istic of our plant, which is that of the Boraginese. 

Loganiacese have a number of characters with which our plant agrees, but 
the copious albumen and small embryo, and the opposite leaves, do not admit 
of our associating the genus with it. 

Convolvulacese cannot include the genus on account of its pendulous ovules 
and superior radicle, and from Scrophularinese the very regular flowers, the 
lateral carpels, and the solitary seed seem to exclude it. 

The free septum embracing the seed recalls the retinaculum of Acanthacese, 
but is of quite a different nature, and there is no near relation with this family. 

Of all the Bicarpellate families, Boraginese and Verbenacese are the two 
with which our plant appears to have most affinity. And whilst the weight of 
Mr Bentham's opinion is in favour of the latter, yet, especially on account of 
the habit, indumentum, and foliage, I am inclined to consider the family with 
which our plant has closest affinity, and with which it may be hereafter joined, 
to be Boraginese. 

Etym. The name is in honour of Lieut. Wellsted, who explored the island 
of Socotra for the Indian Government in 1834, and who published the first good 
account of the island (see Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc. v. (1835), 129). 

W. socotrana, Balf. fil. loc. tit. Tab. LXXXII, A. 

Lignosa canescens multiramosa ramulis brevissimis tortuosis eb congestis inferne foliis 
marcidis vestitis. Folia \—^ poll, longa \ poll, lata basi late inserta imbricata subsecunda 
persistentia crassiuscula iuduplicata dense pilis albidis rigidis adpressis vestita. Ccdycis 
lobi j 1 ^ poll, longi a basi angustati. Corollcc tubus ^ poll, longus, lobi ^ poll, longi. 
Capsula £ poll, diam., valvis intus glabris nitidis. Semina superne truncata inferne 
acuta, testa circutn radiculam incrassata atriore glabra obscure foveolata inferne pilis 
sursum versis vestita. 

Socotra. B.C.S. n. 569. Hunter. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

A small dwarf plant, very like a Heliotrope or stunted Scrophularineous 
species. 



TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 2 I 



250 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 



MONOCHLAMYDE^l. 

Order LIX. NYCTAGINE^. 

A small family, the genera of which are almost exclusively American. Of 
the two genera which extend to the old world, one has three representatives in 
Socotra. 

BOERHAAVIA 

Boerhaavia, Linn. Gen. n. 9 ; Benth. ct Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 5. 

A small genus of badly-defined widely-spread species inhabiting the warmer 
regions of the globe. The three Socotran species have a wide range, but one 
is confined to the old world. 

1. B. repens, Linn. Sp. 5 ; Choisy in DC. Prod. xiii. 2, 453 ; Ach. Rich. 
Tent, Flor. Abyss, ii. 209 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 1045 syn. plur. excl.; Franch. 
Sert. Somal. in Miss. Revoil Gl ; Delile Fl. Egypt. 2, t. 3, f. 1. 

Socotra. On the plains. Common. B.C.S. n. 54. 
Distrib. From north-east Africa eastwards to China. 
The compact small viscid form of this species, which is typical of the 
Abyssinian and Arabian plains, is the commonest on the island. 

2. B. diffusa, Linn. Sp. 4 ; Choisy in DC. Prod. xiii. 2, 452 ; Ach. Rich. 
Tent, Flor. Abyss, ii. 208 ; Franch. Sert, Somal. in Miss. Rdvoil 61. 

B. repens, L., var. diffusa, Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 1045. 
B. procumhens, Eoxb. Flor. Ind. i. 146 ; Wight Tc. t. 874. 

Nom. Vern. Attif (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Common on hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 629. Schweinf. n. 370. 

Distrib. A common weed in the warmer parts of the world. 

3. B. scandens, Linn. Sp. 4 ; Choisy in DC. Prod. xiii. 2, 454 ; T. Anders, 
in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 33. 

B. repanda, Willd. Sp. PL i. 22 ; Choisy loc. eit. 45,") ; Wight 1c. t, 1766. 

B. grand.iflora, Ach. Bich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 209. 

B. plumb i (j boo i, Cav. Ic. ii. 7, t. 112 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 1044. 

For further synonymy, see authors quoted. 

Socotra. Abundant. B.C.S. n. 65. 

Distrib. Maritime regions of warmer parts of the whole world. 

A very variable plant. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 251 

Order LX. ILLECEBRACE^. 

A small order the genera of which are spread, especially in dry and warm 
regions, over the whole world. Two species are found in Socotra, and each is 
the type of a new genus. 

1. HAYA. 

Haija, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Eclin. xiii. (1883). 

Flores bermaphroditi, parvi, ad nodos glomerati, bracteis scariosis stipuliformibus involucrati. 
Periauthium 5-partitum, album ; seginenta aequalia, oblonga, obtusa, mutica, erosa v. 
emarginata, tenuia, enervia, basi subcrassa. Stamina 5, basi segmentorum inserta, stamin- 
odiis minutissimis alteruantia, filamentis subulatis ; antherse biloculares. Ovarium parvum, 
trigonum, membranaceum ; stylus filiformis, elongatus, stigmate capitellato ; ovulum 
solitarium, basilare, erectum, anatropum, funiculo longo tereti. Fructus tenuis, basim versus 
in valvas tres debiscens. Semen erectum, ellipsoideum, testa Crustacea ; embryo dorsalis, 
albumine farinaceo applicitus, leviter curvatus, radicula infera. — Herba annua, diffuse 
divaricatim ramosa, glabra. Folia sessilia, 3-verticillata, obovata, apiculata, integerrima ; 
stipulae minutre, ovatse, acuminata^, scariosse. Flores sessiles, in dicbasia brevia secunda 
oppositifolia et axillaria conferti ; bractere parvse, fusco-brunneae, scariosae. 

A monotypic endemic genus belonging to the tribe Pollicltiece. Its nearest 
ally is the monotypic IUecebrum, distributed in west Europe and northern 
Africa. But from that genus the whole character of our plant separates it, its 
inflorescence, perianth, and three-valved fruit being the more prominent 
diagnostic features. 

Etym. I have named this genus after George Hay, M.D., Port Surgeon at 
Aden, to whom I am indebted for much kindness and assistance in carrying 
out the objects of our expedition, and who, an accomplished naturalist, has done 
much to advance our knowledge of the flora and fauna of Aden and the 
adjacent country. 

H. obovata, Balf. fil. loc. cit. Tab. LXXXIII. 

Herbacea vix pedalis a collo multiramosa ramulorum internodiis elongatis rectis tenuibus. Folia 
|— 1 poll, longa ^— \ poll, lata ad nodum quemque 2 lateralia majora 1 minus inflorescentiae 
oppositum obovata v. subspatbulata. Stipnlm ^ poll, longae. Inflorescentia § poll. diam. 
ramulis brevissimis ; bracteas fiorales 8-10 £ poll, longi. Perianthii segmenta ^ poll, 
longa. Stamina periantbiis breviora. Stylus ovario multo longior. Fructus minutus 5 4 
poll, longus. 

Socotra. Not uncommon on the hill slopes. B.C.S. n. 250. Schweinf. 

n. 554. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

2. LOCHIA. 

Lochia, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Flores cunsimiles, bracteis scariosis non-involucratis. Pcriantliium berbaceum, demum 
induratum, 5-lobum, tubo brevissimo obconico angulato,fauce disco tenui annulari instructa 



252 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

lobi conniventes, ovato-oblougi, firmi, dorso infra apicem mucronati. Stamina 5, perigyna, 
cum staminodiis setosis altemantia, filamentis brevibus ; anther* parva?, oblongae. 
Ovarium ellipsoideum, liberum ; stylus filiforrnis, apice bifidus; ovulum amphitropum, 
funiculo basilari erecto longiusculo complanato suspensum. Utriculus meiribranaceus, 
deniiun basi ruptus. Semen ab apice funiculo suspensum, inversum, compressum, testa 
membranacea. — Fruticuhcs rigidus, salsoloideus, diffusus, caulibus tortis, ramulis intricatis 
nodosis. Folia opposita et in axillis fasciculata, sessilia, anguste lanceolata v. spiculiformia, 
integerrima, crassa ; stipulaj interpetiolares, connatse, breves, hyalinaa. Flores parvi, in 
dichasia breviter ramosa terminalia bracteis obtegentibus majoribus membranaceis 
brunneis dispositi, sessiles. 

Another monotypic endemic genus. Of the genera in the tribe Paronychiew, 
in which it falls, Gymnocarpos is its closest ally. That genus is monotypic, 
and is spread through the Mediterranean region and reaches from the Canary 
islands to Scindh. Though of the same habit and foliage our plant differs 
from the generic character of Gymnocarpos in flower and inflorescence, the 
most salient features of difference being its large membranous bracts of the 
cymes, the short perianth-tube with connivent lobes, short stamens, and non- 
adherent ovary. 

Etym. I have named this genus after General Loch, C.B., Commandant at 
Aden at the time of our expedition, who did everything in his power to make 
our expedition successful, and from whom I received much hospitable kindness. 

L. bracteata, Balf. fil. he. cit. Tab. LXXXFVV 

Suffruticosa 1-2-pedalis cortice griseo ramis plurimis contractis lateralibus ramulisque termiu- 
alibus elongatis subtetragonis compressis albido-lepidotis. Folia J-J- p n, longa ^ poll, 
lata ad extremitates ambos attenuata viridia glabra. Stipidw late ovatas acuta? v. apice 
setosaB. Dichasia vix 1 poll. diam. ; bractea? late ovataa v. subrotundata3 acutce late 
inserts membranacea; fusco-brunnere }—%- poll. longaa flores obtegentes. Perianthium £ 
poll, longum, lobis imbricatis apice subcucullatis margin e membranaceis uervo medio 
dorsaliter prominulo. Staminodia filamentis staminum multo longiora. Ovarium ^ poll, 
longum obscure puberulum. 

Nom. Vern. Kalkaho (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the slopes of Haghier. Not common. B.C.S. n. 429. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

A very beautiful undershrub, striking by the contrast of its rich brown 
inflorescences and bright green leaves. 

Order LXI. AMARANTACE^. 

A considerable order having representatives in all parts of the globe. Six 
genera are found in Socotra. Two of them are world-wide and include common 
weeds of cultivation, three have a considerable range through tropical Africa 
and Asia, whilst the sixth has a limited distribution in Nubia and east Africa, 
Arabia and eastern India. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 253 

1. DIGERA. 

Digera, Forsk. Fl. Sgypt. Arab. 65 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 28. 

A monotypic genus widely spread in the tropics of Asia and Africa. 

D. arvensis, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 65 ; Moq. in DC. Prod. xiii. 2, 324. 

D. alterrdfolia, Aschs. in Schweinf. Flor. iEthiop. 180 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 994. 
Dcsviochceta muricata, "Wight Ic. t. 732. 

Soeotra. At Tamarida. Schweinf. n. 700. 

Distrib. Of the genus. 

The leaves in the Socotran specimen are rather wider above the middle than 
is the case in the Arabian and north African specimens, and it is also of a 
more pubescent character. 

2. AMARANTUS. 

Amarantus, Linn. Gen. n. 1060 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 28. 

A considerable genus of wide range in both the old and new worlds, many of 
the species being common weeds of cultivation. 

1. A. (Euxolus) Blitum, Linn. Sp. 1405 ; Moq. in DC. Prod. xiii. 2, 263. 

Albersia Blitum, Kth. Flor. Berol. ii. 144, ex Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 991. 

Soeotra. Near habitations, common. B.C.S. n. 649. 
Distrib. Cosmopolitan. 

2. A. (Euxolus) polygamus, Linn. Amoen. iv. 294 ; Wight Ic. t. 714. 

Uuxoltcs polggamus, Moq. in DC. Prod. xiii. 2, 272. 

Albersia polygama, Kth. Flor. Berol. ii. 144, ex Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 991. 

Soeotra. Occasional. B.C.S. n. 725. Schweinf. n. 686. 
Distrib. Tropical Africa and Asia. 

Our Socotran specimens sIioav fruits rather larger and more coarsely ribbed 
than is usual. 

3. PUP ALIA. 

Pupalia, Juss. in Ann. Mus. Par. ii. (1803), 132 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 31. 

A small genus of three or four species which inhabit the tropics of Asia and 
Africa. 

P. lappacea, Juss. in Ann. Mus. Par. ii. (1803), 132 ; Moq. in DC. Prod, 
xiii. 2, 331 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 217 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 995 ; 
Franch. Sert. Somal. in Miss. Revoil 59. 

Desmochccta xanthioides, A. Br. in Flora 1841, 285, t. 2, A. 

Soeotra. On the plains at Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 7. 

Distrib. Across tropical Africa, and through Arabia to the east Indies. 



254 I'.OTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

4. PSILOSTACHYS. 

Psilostachys, Hochst. in Flora 1844, Beil. 6, t. 4 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 32. 

A genus of three species of small herbs, one being found in Arabia and 
Nubia, one in eastern Africa, and the third, which occurs in Socotra, is known 
elsewhere only in eastern India. 

P. sericea, Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 32. 

A ■hyranthes sericea, Kou. in Roxb. Flor. Ind. i. 765 ; Wight Ic. t. 726. 

Socotra. Not uncommon near Galonsir and Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 43. 
Schweinf. n. 328. 

Distrib. Eastern India (Goozerat). 

The Socotra specimens are not so silky as the Indian ones in Kew 
Herbarium, especially is this the case in Schweinfurth's specimens collected in 
the palm groves at Tamarida. Our plants, too, are much more lax and strag- 
gling than the Indian forms, and the peduncles of the inflorescences are, as 
a rule, much shorter ; indeed, the inflorescences in the axils of most of the 
leaves are shorter than the leaves themselves. With all these differences there 
is, I think, no doubt as to the identity of the Indian and Socotran plants. 

5. ^ERUA. 

jEru-a, Forsk. Fl. .Egypt. Arab. 170 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL iii. 34. 

A small genus of some dozen species, inhabitants of the warmer regions of 
Asia and Africa. Two of the four species found in Socotra are endemic. The 
others have a wide range through tropical Africa and Asia. 

1. iE. javanica, Juss. in Ann. Mus. Par. ii. (1803), 131 ; Moq. in DC. Prod, 
xiii. 2, 299; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 214; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. v. (I860), Suppl. 31 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 992; Franch. Sert. Somal. in 
Miss. Revoil 58 ; Wight Ic. t. 876. 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 41. 

Distrib. Tropics of the old world from Cape de Verde islands to Java. 
A plant of considerable variability, and with a large synomymy for which 
the authors cited may be consulted. 

2. M. microphylla, Moq. in DC. Prod. xiii. 2, 301. Tab. LXXXV. 

Suifruticosa multirainosa erecta v. nana caule subtereti obsolete striato glabro cinerascente ; 
foliis fasciculatis v. oppositis petiolatis magnitudine variantibus obovatis v. obovato-spathul- 
atis inferne attenuatis obtusis haud mucronatis glabris vix punctulatis viridibus ; spicis 
2-3-natis sessilibus divaricatis oblongo-ovatis obtusiusculis villoso-lanatis ; floribus haud 
nitidis sul-rufo-canescentibus ; ealyce bracteis obtusissimis duplolongiore, sepalis uninerviis. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 255 

Suffrutex semipedalis v. altior ssepe intricato- et copiose nunc laxe ramosus. Rami breves 
parvifoliosi, rami elongati flexiles subdecumbentes ssepe 3-pedales foliis majoribus 
vestiti. Folia parva \-\ poll, longa (incl. petiolo £§ ^ poll.) 2^~xV poll, lata, majora 
1-lj poll, longa £ poll, lata, crassiuscula coriacea carnosula subglauca siccatione obscura 
nervo medio subtus obsolete prominulo. Spicce \-^ poll, longee £-£ poll, latse inferiores 
nutantes superiores ascendentes vix paniculatre, Bractece subaequales latissime ovato- 
orbiculares villosiusculae albidse. Flores vix -j 1 ^ poll, longi. Sepala vix carinata, exteriora 
2 oblonga obtusissima, interiora 3 angustiora obtusa. Staminodia filamentis breviora 
triangulari-linearia acuta truuca tula v. emarginata. Anthercn subrotundse. Stylus brevis ; 
stigmate minuto. Utriculus subrotundus compressus membranaceus griseus. Semen sub- 
lenticulare inflatum obsoletissime birostratum margine obtusissimum nitidulum fusco- 
nigrum. 

Socotra. On the plains about Galonsir. B.C.S. nn. 28, 650. Schweinf. 
n. 702. Nimmo. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This species was founded by Moquin upon a fragmentary specimen in herb. 
Hooker, which belongs to the collection sent by Nimmo and recorded as from 
the " shores of the Red Sea."* It is undoubtedly as we know it at present, an 
endemic plant. 

The specific name is hardly applicable to the plant as shown by our 
specimens. It exhibits some variation in habit ; on the dry plains a dwarf 
compact woody undershrub with very small thick leaves, (B.C.S. n. 28, 
Schweinf. n. 702) ; in more favourable localities the branches are long, flexible, 
and bent to the ground, and bear thinner and much larger glaucous leaves, 
(B.C.S. n. 650). Nimmo's fragmentary specimen is from one of the dwarfed 
plants, and Moquin's description is, therefore, incomplete as regards the size 
of the leaves. 

3. 2&. lanata, Juss. in Ann. Mus. Par. ii. (1803), 131 ; Moq. in DC. Prod, 
xiii. 2, 303 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 214 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 993 ; 
Wight Ic. t. 723. 

^.floribunda, Wight To. t. 1776 bis. 

Amarantus aervoides, Hochst. et Steud. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. i. n. 249. 

Nom. Vern. 'Feh (B.C.S.). 

Soeotra. Common near Galonsir and elsewhere. B.C.S. nn. 50, 412. 
Schweinf. n. 538. Hunter. 

Distrib. Tropical Africa eastward to the Indian Archipelago. 

This widely-spread old world plant is abundant on the maritime plains of 
Socotra. It is a species of some variation, and Moquin (loc. cit.) names four 
varieties. Ascherson (in Schweinf. Flor. iEthiop. 174), names two more. But I 
doubt whether it is possible to determine these varieties with any certainty. 
Our n. 412, (Schweinf. n. 538), is the commonest type of the species. This 

* See, on page 26, remarks under Hypericum mysorense, Heyne. 



256 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

plant is considerably pubescent, the leaves are more or less lanceolate and 
narrow at the apex, and the spikes are small with the bracts and perianth 
segments acuminate. 

But besides this we have specimens which are remarkable for the great 
amount of their downy vestiture and in which the bracts and perianth segments 
are less acuminate. The downiness is most developed in some specimens with 
a very robust habit, more so than in any specimens in Kew Herbarium, and 
with leaves much larger and thicker and more rounded at the apex than is 
typical, and spikes more closely set and longer. As varieties are constituted 
of this species this may well be one, as — 

var. robusta, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 
Dense lanata caulibus robustis ; foliis crassis magnis apice rotundatis ; spicis elongatis. 

Socotra. Near Galonsir, on the plains. B.C.S. n. 517. Schweinf. n. 
219. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another set of Socotran specimens (B.C.S. n. 50) shows smaller leaved and 
shorter spiked plants, more nearly resembling the type which Ascherson has 
taken for his variety oblongata. 

JE. floribunda, Wight, appears to be merely a form of this species with long 
spikes. 

4. 2&. revoluta, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 92. 

Suffruticosa incana parva ramis erectis complanatis ; foliis obovatis obtusis alternis revolutis 
subtus incanis supra demum glabrescentibus ; spicis oblcmgis brevibus ad extreruitates 
ramornni spicatim dispositis ; floribus haud nitidis ; perianthii segmentis uninerviis 
bracteolis multo longioribus ; staininodiis brevissimis deltoideis. 

Suffrutex parvus basi lignosus a collo ramosus ramis erectis patentibus 1-2-pedalibus 
angulatis complanatis dense incanis. Folia petiolata 1-1£ poll, longa j^-f P ^- ^ a 
alternata obovata basi attenuata apice obtusa saspe emarginata margine revoluta sub- 
crenulata crassiuscula subtus incana nervo medio prominente supra sulcata primuni 
subtiliter arachnoideo-pubescentia canescentia demum glabrata. Spicai -|- poll, longse I 
poll, lata: oblonga3 ad extremitates ramorum spicatim singillatim v. 2-4-natim dispositae 
inflorescentiamque compositam saape subpaniculatam formantes. Flores albescentes haud 
nitidi. Bracteolcc late ovataj subacutte concavre perianthii segmentis multo breviores. 
Perianthii segmenta late ovata obscure carinata submucronata basi subincrassata exteriora 
villosa interiora minora uuinervia. Stamina 5, filamentis basi dilatatis cupula longioribus ; 
antherae suborbiculares ; stamiuodia brevissima subdeltoidea. Ovarium subglobosum ; 
stylus apice capitatus obsolete bilobatus. Utriculus globosus. Semen fuscum j 1 ,; poll. 
diam. 

Nom. Vern. 'Feh (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On the Haghier range at considerable elevation. B.C.S. n. 
478. Schweinf. n. 558. 
Distrib. Endemic. 



PEANEROUAM^— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 257 

A very distinct species easily separated from all others by its foliage and 
habit. Its position in the genus is probably near M. microphylla , Moq. 

6. ACHYRANTHES. 

Achyranthes, Linn. Gen. n. 288 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 35. 

A small genus including species some of which are spread as weeds all 
over the tropics and warm regions of the globe. 

A. aspera, Linn. Sp. 295 ; Moq. in DC. Prod. xiii. 2, 314 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. 
Flor. Abyss, ii. 215 ; Aschs. in Schweinf. Flor. iEthiop. 172 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, 
iv. 993, excl. var. ; Wight Ic. t. 1777. 

Socotra. Common near habitations. B.C.S. 620. 
Distrib. Spread over the world. 

var. sicula, Linn. loc. cit. ; Aschs. loc. cit. 

A. argentea, Lamk. Encyc. i. 545 ; Moq. loc. cit. 315 ; Sibth. Flor. Grpec. t. 244. 
A. aspera, Linn. var. argentea, Boiss. loc. cit. 

Socotra. Common on the plains. B.C.S. nn. 39, 625. 
Distrib. Chiefly in Africa and south Europe. 

Order LXII. CHENOPODIACE^. 

A considerable family spread over the whole world, but most common in 
maritime and salt regions. Three genera are represented in Socotra, all of 
them of wide distribution over the globe. 

1. CHENOPODIUM. 

Chcnopoclium, Linn. Gen. n. 309 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 51. 

A considerable genus including many weeds of cultivation widely spread, 
chiefly in temperate regions, more rare in the tropics. 

C. murale, Linn. Sp. 318 ; Moq. in DC. Prod. xiii. 2, 69 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. 
Flor. Abyss, ii. 220 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 902 ; Flor. Dan. t. 2048. 

Nom. Vern. Agalazi (B.C.S.). 
Socotra. Near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 62 
Distrib. Cosmopolitan weed. 

2. ATRIPLEX. 

Atriplex, Linn. Gen. n. 1153 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. Pi. iii. 53. 

A large genus of mostly littoral plants very variable in character, inhabiting 
temperateand tropical regions of the globe. 

A. Stocksii, Boiss. Diagn. ser. ii. 4, 73. 
A. Griffithii, Moq. in DC. Prod. xiii. 102, var. Stocksii, Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 916. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. .VOL XXXI. 2 K 



258 BOTANY OF SOOOTRA. 

Socotra. On Kadhab plain near Khor Hadjin. B.C.S. n. 264. 

Distrib. Beloocliistan, Scindh, and Persia. 

Boissier who founded this species upon specimens gathered by Stocks in 
Beloocliistan and Scindh, and by Aucher Eloy in Persia, has more recently sunk 
it as a variety of A. Griffithii, Moq. But this appears to me quite unnatural. 
The bracts in fruit of A. Griffithii, are almost orbicular with very conspicuous 
raised veins, and are nearly twice the size of those in A. Stocksii; and the 
leaves are large and quite entire. The Scindh plant, which is the only one I 
have seen, does vary somewhat in foliage, but the fruits are uniform in shape, 
being more cordate or cordate-reniform. Our Socotran plant resembles most 
nearly Stock's specimen from Scindh, n. 452, in Kew Herbarium. It is 
noteworthy on account of the very crisped condition of the leaves and the 
prominent much-fruited spikes. Possibly when we know more about them, 
other apparent specific forms, as A. persicum, Boiss., may be joined with this 
one, or this and the several allied forms may prove varieties of the better 
known European and Mediterranean A. Halimus, Linn. (Sp. 1492). 

The plant is not common on the island. We only found it at one locality. 

SIT JED A. 

Suceda, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 69, t. 18, B ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 66. 

A small genus of plants inhabiting the salt plains and shore districts of 
both the old and new world. 

S. monoica, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 70; Moq. in DC. Prod. xiii. 2, 156; 
Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 940. 

Socotra. Common at many places on the shores. B.C.S. nn. 356, 363, 
618, 619. 

Distrib. North-east Africa to Arabia and India. 

Like most succulent maritime plants this species shows a tendency to 
tumidity and the formation of tumours on stems and leaves. On Socotra this 
tendency is very marked in several places. 

Order LXIIL POLYGONACEiE. 
A large family found in every part of the globe. 

POLYGONUM. 

Polygonum, Linn. Gen. n. 495 ; Betith. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 97. 

A very large genus spread over the whole world and containing several 
almost cosmopolitan weeds. Two well-known species are Socotran. 

1. P. (Persicaria) glabrum, Willd. Sp. ii. 447 ; Meisn. Monog. Polyg. 78, 
and in DC. Prod. xiv. 114; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 226; Wight Ic. t. 
1799. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 259 

Socotra. B.C.S. n. 648. 

Distrib. Tropics of both old and new world. 

2. P. (Persicaria) barbatum, Linn. Sp. 518 ; Meisn. Monog. Polyg. 80, 
and in DC. Prod. xiv. 104 ; Ach. Rich. Tent, Flor. Abyss, ii. 226. 

Socotra. B.C.S. n. 628. 

Distrib. Tropics of Africa and Asia and in Australia. 
The Socotran specimens are not so hairy on the back of the stipules as is 
typical. 

Order LXIV. ARISTOLOCHIACE^E. 

A small order widely-dispersed in temperate and warmer regions especially 
of the northern hemisphere. 

ARISTOLOCHIA. 

Aristolochia, Linn. Gen. n. 1022; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 123. 

The largest genus of the order and with its distribution. 

Aristolochia sp. 

Socotra. On cliffs south-west from Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 641. 

There is a small fragment of an Aristolochia in our collection but not 
sufficient for identification or description. I saw only one straggling plant in 
the locality mentioned from which I pulled the only twig bearing leaves and 
two flowers visible. I looked carefully in other places but never found the 
plant again. 

Order LXV. PIPERACE.E.* 

A large order widely-spread over both old and new worlds, most abundant 



in warmer regions. 



PEPEROMIA. 



Peperomia, Ruiz et Pav. Flor. Per. et Chil. 1. 29, t. 44 ad 52 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. H. iii. 
132. 

A considerable genus of the warmer regions of the globe, attaining a 
maximum development in America. There are three forms in Socotra. One 
is the Himalayan and Ceylon type of a widely-spread plant ; another is found 
in Arabia, Madagascar, and the Cape, and the third is apparently a Bourbon 
species. 

P. arabica, Dene, in Miq. Syst. Piper. 121, and in Miq. Illustr. 18, t. 12; 
Gas. DC. in DC. Prod. xvi. i. 442. 

* I am indebted to M. Casimir de Candolle for the identification of t T ie thirl specie"; here mentioned. 



2<5() BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Socotra. On the Hagbier hills. B.C.S. n. 723. Schweinf. in lit. 

Distrib. Arabia, Madagascar, and Cape of Good Hope. 

Living specimens of this brought by us to this country flowered at Kew in 

1881. 

P. reflexa, A. Dietr. Sp. v. 1, 180 ; Miq. Syst, Piper. 169 ; Cas. DC. in 
DC. Prod. xvi. 1, 451 ; Wight Ic. t. 1923, 

var. parvifolia, Cas. DC. he. cit. 

Socotra. Occasional. B.C.S. n. 721. Schweinf. n. 792. 
Distrib. Of the species, — widely spread in the tropics. Of the variety, — 
Ceylon, Eastern Himalayan. 

3. P. Goudotii, Miq. Syst. Piper. 133 ; Cas. DC. in Linnaea xxxvii. 
(1871-73), 390. 

Forma foliis feri orbicularibus brevius pubescentibus. 

Socotra. On Haghier. B.C.S. n. 722. Schweinf. n. 791. 
Distrib. Bourbon. 

We have some imperfect specimens which M. Casimir de Candolle considers 
may be a form of this species. 

Order LXVI. THYME L.EACE.E. 

A considerable family represented in most parts of the globe. 

LASIOSIPHON. 

Lasiosiphon, Fresen. iu Flora 1838, 602 ; Benth. et Hook. Geu. PI. iii. 197. 

A small genus chiefly represented in south Africa, but occurring also in 
tropical Africa, Madagascar, and tropical Asia. Our solitary endemic Socotran 
species necessitates an emendation in the generic character to allow of the 
admission of species without any scales on the throat of the perianth. 

L. socotranus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Koy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 92. Tab. 
LXXXVI. 

Fruticosus glaber ; foliis obovatis v. oblanceolatis glaucis ; bracteis involucri coriaceis glabris 
latis ; calycis fauce esquamato. 

Frutex multiramosus glaber dense foliis vestita. Folia copiosa brevissime petiolata f-1.' 
poll, longa J-J poll, lata anguste obovata v. oblanceolata obtusa cum acunrine v. cuspidata 
deorsum gradatim attenuata crassiuscula nervo medio subtus prominente margine paruni 
incrassato-revoluta glauca glabra bcto-viridia ; petiolus ^ g poll, longus. Capitula solitaria 
terminalia pedunculata (pedunculo A— 1 poll, longo) e foliis supremis exserta iu alabastro 
globosa ; involucri folia 5 \ poll, longa imcqualia extima minima late ovata v. reniforme- 
cordata obtusa latitudine longitudinem excedente coriacea glabra; receptaculum hemi- 
sphairicum pilis albis brevibus vestitum. Flores in quoque capitulo circa 20. Calyx \ poll, 
longus crassus citrinus 5-fidus extus sericeo-pubescens intus glaber, tubo cylindraceo 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 261 

fauce uuda, lobis £ poll, longis oblongo-obtusis. Stamina 10, 5 lobis calycis opposita, 
fauci inserta, 5 lobis calycis alternantia medio tubi affixa. Ovarium sessile curvatum ; 
stylus tubo calycis dinridio brevior sursum dilatatus, stigraate fimbriate 

Nom. Vern. Legief (Schweinf.). 

Soeotra. A not uncommon shrub. B.C.S. n. 518. Schweinf. n. 567. 
Hunter nn. 7, 12. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Quite a distinct species in this genus, and interesting because of its variation 
from the generic type. The presence or absence of scales on the throat of the 
perianth is a character in this family which readily enables us to arrange many 
of the genera in groups. Lasiosiphon belongs to the group in which scales are 
commonly present, and in all hitherto described species these are developed. 
But in our Socotran plant there are none. At first their absence led me to 
regard the plant as probably an Arthrosolen; but its features are thoroughly 
those of Lasiosiphon, its position in the genus being in the vicinity of L. glaucus, 
Fresen. (in Flora 1838, 603 ; Meisn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 593), a tropical African 
species, and of the Mascarene L. Bojerianus, Dene, (in Jacquem. Voy. Bot. 149; 
Meisn. loc. cit. 597). 

In Kew Herbarium I find two specimens collected in east Africa by 
Hildebrandt. They are undescribed. One, n. 2838, is labelled "Kitui in 
Ukamba, frutex 2 ,n alt.," the other is n. 2369, and has the label " Wildness 
zwischen Duruma u. Teita (u. i. Ndara), frutex 2 m alt. ram. striat., fl. aurant." 
These are of the same species, and it is unquestionably nearly allied to the 
Socotran plant, in fact is its nearest ally, distinguished, however, by the slightly 
pilose leaves and the oblong silky involucral bracts. It is noteworthy that in 
the flowers of this species, the scales of the perianth are absent as in the 
Socotran plant, 

Order LXVII. LORANTHACE^. 

A small order of commonly parasitic plants widely dispersed in tropical 
regions, rarer in extratropical countries. 

LORANTHUS. 

Loranthus, Lion. Geu. u. 443 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PL iii. 207. 

A large genus constituting the major part of the order, widely dispersed over 
the globe, and most abundant in the tropics. 

Loranthus sp. 

We have twigs of a species of Loranthus but no flowers, and the specimens 
are not sufficient for identification or complete determination. The plant 
jesembles somewhat L. oblongifolius , E. Mey. (in herb. Schimp. Abyss, sect. ii. 



262 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

n 763 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, i. 342), but is not conspecific. The follow- 
ing is a brief indication of characters derived from our fragments : — 

Hamuli glabri glauci striati. Folia breviter petiolata elliptica v. elltptico-oblonga v. oblonga 
obtusa bnsi contracta 2-2^ poll, longa 1-1 j poll, lata valde coriacea venulis a basi sursum 
divergentibus ; petiolus validus \ poll, longus. 

Socotra. Near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 195. 

Order LXVIII. SANTALACE^. 

A considerable order of tropical and temperate woody plants, sometimes 
parasitical, spread all over the world. The Socotran members of the order 
belong to old world genera. 

OSYRIS. 

(hyris, Linn. Gen. n. 1101 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 227. 

A small genus of glabrous often glaucous shrubs or small trees, natives of 
south Europe, Africa, and India. One Socotran species has a wide distribution 
in Africa and India ; the other is endemic. 

1. O. arborea, Wall. Cat. n. 4035; A. DC. Prod. xiv. 633. 

0. Wirjhtiana, Wall. Cat. n. 4036 ; A. DC. loc. cit ; Wight Ic. t. 1853. 

0. abyssinica, Hocbst. in herb. Sohirap. Abyss, sect. i. n. 281 ; Ach. Eich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 
236 ; A. DC. loc. cit. 

Socotra. On the Haghier range at altitudes over 1500 feet. B.C.S. n. 
503. Schweinf. n. 730. 

Distrib. India and Africa from Abyssinia to the Cape. 

The name adopted here for this species was originally given by Wallich to 
Nepal plants. But I cannot find specific differences betwixt the Nepal plants 
and those widely-spread (in India and Ceylon) species which he named O. 
Wightiana. I also take the African plant O. Abyssinica of Hochstetter to be 
a form of the same species ; and retaining the oldest name for the species, we 
find it a widely-spread form throughout India and Africa. It is not a little 
variable in size and form of leaf. Our Socotran plants have broad and very 
glaucous leaves resembling in this particular the Indian O. Wightiana. Of the 
flowers we have only a few males, but they give no ground for separation from 
this species. 

2. O. pendula, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 93. Tab. 
LXXXVII. 

Arborea glabra ramis pendulis ; foliis breviter petiolatis alter nis lanceolatis v. suboblanceolatis 
acuti-; glancis ; floribus dioicis ; & dimorphicis in cymas 3-4-floras longe pedunculatas 
dispositis, plurimi's mihutis periantbio rotato 3-4-lobato discoque carnoso, paueis majori- 
bus pyriformibus lobis conniventibus ; $ ign. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 263 

Arbor parva glabra ramis multiramosis ultimis teimibus pendulis angulatis compressis. Folia 
alterna £-1 poll, longa £- £ poll, lata petiolata lanceolata v. elliptico-oblonga v. suboblauce- 
olata v. anguste obovata acuta basi attenuata iutegra parum revoluta crassiuscula 
glauca subtus nervo medio promiuente ; petiolus g— i poll, longus. Mores dioici; $ ignoti ; 
J in cymas axillares foliis subteudentibus subaequales v. lougiores 3- (rarius 4-) floras 
longe pedunculatas ad extremitates ramulorum dispositi ; pedunculi ^~2 P oU - ^ 011 gi > 
cymse quaeque flos centralis solum aperiens et longissime pedicellatus, laterales caduci ; 
bracteolae lineares v. sublanceolataj rubro-panctatse caducae j\ 2 poll, longas. Mores £ 
dimorphici : plurimi minuti crassiusculi glauci in alabastro trigono- v. tetragono-glcbosi 
^g poll. diam. pedicelloque £ poll, longo ; perianthio subrotato alte 3-4-lobato expanso £ 
poll, diam., lobis ovato-rotundatis obtusis ; disco obscure 3-4-lobato carnoso ; staminibus 3-4 
inflexis lobis oppositis eisque brevioribus, antberarum loculis parallelis filamentis 
subaequalibus : pauci majores et ssepissime ad basin inflorescentiae totae pyriformes v. 
obovoidei £ poll, longi j 1 ^ poll, diam., pedicello incrassato | poll, longo ; periantbio coriaceo 
incrassato glauco levi 3-lobato lobis alte connatis intus spougioso demum aperieute ; 
staminibus 3, antberis pollinibusque majoribus. Caet. iguot. 

Socotra. On the Haghier hills. B.C.S. n. 630. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very graceful plant ; quite distinct from, though allied to, other species. We 
have no female flowers of the plant, but the male flowers present an interesting 
feature deserving special mention. The majority of the flowers are small with 
somewhat rotate perianths as in other species of the genus. The stamens in 
these flowers are perfect, the anthers splitting laterally and discharging a 
granular smooth pollen when the corolla opens. But id addition to these 
normal flowers there is another kind. They are more sparingly developed and 
usually at some distance from the apex of the flower-bearing branch. They 
are much longer and have with their pedicels a pear-shape. As in the case of 
the other kind of male flower, it is commonly the centre flower only of each 
cyme which develops and opens, the lateral ones falling off, and these solitary 
pyriform flowers on long peduncles become thus conspicuous, and might at first 
be taken for fruits. The pedicel is thickened, and gradually blends with the 
floral perianth, which is greatly hardened and thickened and divided slightly 
into three lobes, which, however, remain connate and connivent for a long- 
time, and thus the perianth forms a box of an obovoid shape. The inner surface 
of the perianth is somewhat spongy, and bears three stamens on short filaments. 
The anthers are normal in form, larger than those in the small male flowers, 
and contain smooth pollen grains, which are larger than the grains of the 
smaller flowers. When mature these flowers open slightly but do not expand 
freely ; they merely form a chink at the apex. Of what service this dimorphism 
is to the plant it is difficult to say, in the absence of specimens to show the 
character of the female flowers, in which one would possibly find a corresponding 
dimorphism. In no specimens of other species in Kew Herbarium have 
I been able to find a like condition. 



2<>4 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

THESIDIUM. 
TheMdiwm, Sond. in Flora 1857, 364 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL iii. 222. 
A small south African genus. 

Thesidium sp.? 

Suffrutex nanus lignosus cortice griseo intricato- et breviter ramosus raniis terminalibus albidis 
subnitidis puberulis. Folia sessilia crassa minuta sub £ poll, longa ad ramulos laterales 
contractos imbricata deltoidea cordata arnplexicaulia canescentia antice concava postice 
convexa carinata margine subniembranacea. Mores $? solitarii sessiles ad extremitates 
ramulorum contractorum lageniformi £ poll, longi. Perianthium 5-lobatum, lobis connatis 
apice obtusis inflexis conniventibus extus canescentibus. Staminodia 5 basi connata apice 
membranacea linearia. Ovarium?, subclavatum 5-alatum staminodiis cequilongum. Ca^t. 
ignot. 

Soeotra. On Kadhab plain. B.C.S. n. 359. 

A small woody undershrub we have doubtfully referred to this San- 
talaceous genus. Its habit is quite that of other species in the genus, but 
unfortunately the two or three flowers on our specimens have been attacked by 
a grub, and the internal structure is undeterminable, so that it is not possible 
to give an accurate diagnosis, and to fix its position clearly. The plant is a very 
characteristic plain form. 

Order LXIX. EUPHORBIACE^. 

A vast order represented in all parts of the globe. Twelve genera have 
representatives in Soeotra, and of them, eight are found more or less all over the 
world, though two attain a maximum in America. Three are more peculiarly 
old world types of some range, whilst one is a small tropical African genus. 

1. EUPHORBIA. 

Euphorbia, Linn. Gen. n. 609 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 258. 

A vast genus having representatives in all parts of the globe. Ten species 
occur in Soeotra. Of these, one is a Mediterranean and north African species, 
two are north-east African and south-west Asiatic, and seven are endemic. 

1. E. (Anisophyllum) indica, Lamk. Encyc ii. 423 ; Boiss. in DC. Prod. xv. 
2, 22, and Flor. Orient, iv. 1086. 

A', (egyptiaca, Boiss. Cent. Euph. 13, and in DC. Prod. xv. 2, 35, and Flor. Orient, iv. 1088 ; T. 

Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 34. 
E. hyjpericifolia, Acb. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 243 (non. Linn.). 

Soeotra. Near Tamarida and Galonsir. Common. B.C.S. n. 042. 
Schweinf. n. 300. 

Distiub. From Cape de Verde islands through tropical Africa and south- 
west Asia to northern India. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 265 

2. E. (Anisophyllum) Chamsesyce, Linn. Amoen. Acad. iii. 115 ; Boiss. in 
DC. Prod. xv. 2, 34, and Flor. Orient, iv. 1088 ; Sibth. Flor. Grsec. t. 461. 

Socotra. In many places. B.C.S. n. 78, 643. Scliweinf. n. 796. 

Distrib. Mediterranean region of Europe and north Africa. 

The discovery of this species in Socotra extends its distribution consider- 
ably farther eastwards. 

In Socotra the plant varies much in indumentum and involucral appendages. 
Schweinfurth's specimens are nearly glabrous, and the appendages to the 
involucral segments are merely erose. But in our plants the foliage is much 
smaller and over all hoarily pubescent, and the involucre appendages are longly 
and deeply fringed. 

3. E. (Anisophyllum) leptoclada, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. 
(1883). 

Fruticosa ramulis ultimis delicatulis articulatis glabris ; foliis omnibus oppositis parvis petiolatis 
ellipticis ; capitulis minutis terrainalibus solitariis pedicellatis ; iuvolucri glaudulis in- 
appendiculatis ; staminibus paucis. 

Frutex copiose rainosus ramulis ultimis capillaribus rectis v. subanfractuosis internodiis elongatis 
glabris. Folia J— f poll, longa £ poll, lata breviter petiolata elliptica v. nonnunquam 
obovata paulum obliqua obtusa iutegerrima supra viridia subtus pallidiora ; petiolus vix 
jJg- poll, longus. Stipulcc minutissimse. Capitula solitaria terminalia breviter pedicell- 
ata ; pedicellus ^ P ^- longus. Involucrum ^ poll, longum campanulatum extus 
glabrum intus villosum ; bractese ovato-acutae villosae ; glandulse 4 glabrae subrotundata? 
stipitatse. Stamina pauca. Floris fceminei pedicellus elougatus. Caet. ignot. 

Socotra. Above Kischen at an elevation over 2700 feet. Scliweinf. 615 
in part. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Imperfect specimens of a Euphorbia, I find in Schweinfurth's collection 
mixed with specimens of Phyllanthus Jilipes, Balf. fil. (see page 270), which 
I have described here as a new species. It is apparently referable to the 
Anisophyllum section, but it differs from the majority of species in that section 
by its habit. 

4. E. (Eremophyton) socotrana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Hoy. Soc. Edin. xii. 
(1883), 93. Tab. LXXXVIII. 

Arborea glabra ; foliis magnis breviter petiolatis late obovatis apiculatis ; capitulis magnis 
solitariis terminalibus ; involucro glabro, bracteis fimbriatis ; glaudulis 6 ; staminibus 
paucis ; capsulis seminibusque pulverulentibus. 

Arbor glabra 20-pedalis dichotome ramosa trunco elevato cortice atro-brunneo nitido, ramis 
ultimis validis ad extremitates foliis facile detersis arete vestitis et sub foliis cicatricosis. 
Folia l-2~2^ poll, louga 1-1| poll, lata alterua breviter petiolata plus minus ve obovata 
ssepe late obovata v. subelliptica apice rotundata integra v. truncata et emargiuata rarius 
acuta apiculata basi nunc anguste nunc late obtuse attenuata margine integra subrevoluta 
coriacea glauca penuivenia nervo medio prominente primariis soepe rubescentibus ; petiolus 
TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 2 L 



266 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

4-4 poll, lougus canaliculatus basi dilatatus. Stijpulce nulla?. Capitula conica magna 
$ poll. diam. breviter pedunculata adextremitates ramulorum solitaria; pedunculus i poll, 
longus validus ; bractea? peduuculares ovata? acutse squamiformes. Involucri bractea; rotund- 
ata? acute fimbriata? imHexa? ; glandula? 6 ina?quales transverse oblonga? £ poll, longa? 
parum concava? carnosa? leviter refiexa? ; bracteola? interflorales plurima? magna? expansa? 
lacera? pedicello staminum sequilongae ; receptaculum pyramido-conicum glabrum. 
Scaminum pedicelli £ poll, longi ; filamenta brevia crassa ; antherarum loculi oblongi basi 
divergentes. Ovarium solitarium glabrum subturbinatum subsessile ; styli vix ad medium 
coaliti segmentis breviter bifidis reflexis. Capsida fusco-pulverulenta £ poll, longa plus 
minus sulcata. Semina pulverulenta I poll, longa. 

Nom. Vern. Dugush (B.C.S.). Duggei (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. On the slopes of the hills on both sides of the island. B.C.S. n. 
464. Schweinf. n. 531. Hunter n. 13. 

Dtrtkib. Endemic. 

A fine new species growing in several places on the hill slopes of Haghier, 
and also in the valleys on the south side of the island. 

It has no near alliance with any other species in the section. 

5. E. (Tirucalli) obcordata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 93. 

Fruticosa ramis juvenilibus puberulis ; foliis breviter petiolatis late obovatis v. obcordatis 
crassiusculis ; cymis solitaries terminalibus 3-cepbalis ; involucro extus pubescente, 
bracteis fimbriatis, glandulis rubris ; staminibus paucis. 

Frutex parvus nonspiuescens noncarnosus resiniferus multo breviterque raraosus cortice griseo 
glabro, ramis baseis ramulorum demissorum tuberculatis, juvenilibus pulverulento-toment- 
ellis angulatis. Folia 1-1|- poll, longa -£— 1 poll, lata breviter petiolata ad ramulos breves 
disposita alterna exstipulata obcordata v. late obovata apice rotundata v. subtruncata 
retusa v. fere subbilobata rarius minute apiculata interne in petiolum gradatim attenuata 
integra v. obscure subcrenulata crassiuscula subtiliter puberula subtus parum pallidiora 
nervo medio prominulo ; petiolus £— £ poll, longus basi incrassatus. Cymai 3-cepbala? 
solitaria? ramulos floriferos terminantes basi duobus oppositis bracteis late obovatis minutis 
\ poll, longis pubescentibus cincta? ; capitula subsessilia v. brcvissime pedunculatR, 
centrale plerumque solum expensum. Involucrum \ poll, longum campanulatum carnosum 
extus pubescens intus villosum ; bractea? rotundato-ovata? rimbriata? ; glandulae 5 rubrte 
glabra? transverse elliptica?. Stamina pauca. Ca?t. ignot. 

Socotra. On the hills in rocky places near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 268. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A species referable to Boissier's section Lyciopsis which includes but one 
Arabian species E. cuneata, Vahl (Symb. ii. 53 ; Boiss. in DC. Prod. xv. 2, 1>7; 
Jaub. et Spach 111. PI. Or. tt. 463, 464), one of the most frequent plants of 
Aden. Our Socotran plant is nearly allied to this species, like which it produces 
a gum-resin. But there are sufficient characters for distinction in the 
nonspiny habit, the absence of fasciculate leaves, the broader and more obovate 
leaves, and the smaller inflorescences of our plant. Our specimens are unfor- 
tunately imperfect, and do not show mature female flowers. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 267 

6. E. (Tirucalli) Schweinfurthii, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xiii. 
(1883). 

Fruticosa ramis juveuilibus glabris ; foliis sessilibus elougatis linearibus ; cyinis solitariis 
terminalibus monocephalis ; involucro extus pubescente, bracteis fimbriatis, glandulis albis ; 
staminibus paucis. 

Frutex virgato-raniosus cortice rugoso ramorum interaodiis elougatis, juveuilibus tetragonis. 
Folia omnia opposita sessilia v. subsessilia 1-1-|- poll, longa ^ P°U- l a ^ a linearia obtusa 
basi abrupte contracta crassiuscula integerrima supra viridia margine erubesceutia subtus 
pallidiora. Stipulce minutae ovatae margine ciliatae fuscae. Capitula solitaria terminalia 
subsessilia v. brevissime pedicellata. Involucrum ^ poll, longum campanulatum extus 
puberulum intus villosum ; bracteae minutae fimbriatae ; glandulse transverse ellipticae 
margine lato albo. Stamina pauca. Floris foeminei pedicellus \ poll, longus. Cast, ignot. 

Socotra. Above Kischen at an altitude over 2500 feet. Schweinf. n. 650. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A plant, of which Schweinfurtli sends fragmentary specimens, I have 
described as a new species, not having been able to identify it with any known 
form. It appears to fall into the Tirucalli section of the genus somewhere in 
the vicinity of E cuneata, Vahl. 

When describing the Socotran Asclepiadacese, I referred to some specimens 
which I took to be anomalous forms of Ectadiopsis brevifolia, the flowers 
exhibiting a marked phyllodia ; and this Euphorbia of Schweinfurth's is not at 
all unlike these. 

7. E. (Tirucalli) oblanceolata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. 
(1883), 93. 

Suffruticosa ramis glabris ; foliis subsessilibus oblanceolatis mucronulatis ; umbellis cymosis 
terminalibus ramulis brevibus, bracteis magnis rotundatis ; involucro extus glabro intus 
villoso, bracteis fimbriatis, glandulis flavis ; capsulis glabris ; seminibus tuberculatis. 

Suffrutex parvus ramis longis teretibus cicatricosis subcrassis foliaque alterna numerosa facile 
detersa gerentibus glabris cortice griseo. Folia l|-2£ poll, longa \-\ poll, lata breviter 
petiolata v. subsessilia exstipulata oblanceolata v. longe obcuneata apice rotundata rarius 
acuta mucronata basi in petiolum brevem dilatatum attenuata integra coriacea supra 
obscure pulverulenta infra pallidiora glabra nervo medio inferne prominente. Cymce in 
umbellas terminates ramosas 1 poll. diam. dispositae cicatricibus bractearum ad nodos 
inferne conspicue notatas ; rhachis brevis £ poll, longa ; bracteae late ovatae v. rotundatae 
saepe mucronatse -f$ poll. diam. albidae puberulas tenues venulosae subtus nervo medio 
prominulo mox decidual ; capitula subsessilia. Involucrum ^V poll, longum campanulatum 
extus glabrum intus villosum ; bracteae rotundatae fimbriatae ; glandules 5 transverse 
oblongae flavee margine involutse glabrae. Stamina pauca, filamentis validis. Ovarium 
glabrum, stipite angulato ; styli basi in columnam validam connati lobis bifidis. Capsula 
\ poll, longa glabra trisulcata, coccis subcarinatis apice subacutis. Semina oblonga 
subtetragona omnino tuberculata grisea, carunculo magno albido. 

Socotra. On the Haghier hills south from Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 639. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very interesting species, of the section Tirucalli, on account of its great 



268 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

resemblance with the E. daphnoicles, Balf. fil. (in Trans. Roy. Soc. 168, (extra 
vol.), 368) a plant endemic in Rodriguez. The affinity is very close, the specific 
diagnosis resting on the slightly smaller foliage, the much smaller cymose umbels 
with bracts and capitula also smaller, and these latter on very much shorter 
pedicels. It is apparently not common on Socotra, we only found it in one 
locality. 

£. E. (Tirucalli) Schimperi, Presl. Bot. Bemerk. 109: T. Anders, in 
Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (1860), Suppl. 34 ; Boiss. in DC. Prod. xv. 2, 96. 

E. Larica, Boiss. Cent. Eupli. 24, and in DC. Prod. xv. 2, 96, and Flor. Orient, iv. 1090. 
Arthrothamnos Schimperi, Schweinf. in herb. Nub. n. 924. 

Nom. Vern. Agebah (B.C.S.). Eschba (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Common about Galonsir, Tamarida, and elsewhere. B.C.S. n. 
292. Schweinf. nn. 526, 795. Hunter. 

Distrib. Nubia, Arabia, and Persia. 

In Schweinfurth's specimens, n. 795, the style is, as he remarks, much 
shorter in fruit than is typical. 

9. E. (Tirucalli) arbuscula, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 
93. Tab. LXXXIX. 

Arborea carnosa aphylla ; cymis terminalibus sessilibus ; involucri glandulis 5 concavis sub- 
stipitatis ; capsulis tomentosis : seminibus levibus carunculatis. 

Suffruticosa alta v. arbor parva candelabriformis 20-pedalis carnosa plus minusve glauca ramis 
validis ultimis sajpe elongatis (6-7 poll.) teretibus v. subcomplanatis. Folia obsoleta ad 
squamas minutas deciduas reducta. Capitula ad extremitates ramulorum in cynias parvas 
sessiles dense conferta ; bracteoe parvte ^ poll, longse ovatre v. rotundatae glabrae nitidie. 
Involucrum tenue ^ poll, longum subglobosum extus tomentosum intus glabrum, bracteis 
obtusis tomentosis, glandulis transverse elongatis concavis glabris substipitatis stipite 
villoso. Stamina plurima, bracteolis interfloralibus membranaceo-fiinbriatis. Ovarium 
non visum. Cajpsula -^ 6 poll, longa J poll, lata tomentosa profunde trisulcata minute 
calyculata, pedicellis \ poll, longis validis, coccis carinatis apice rotundatis, stylis j^" poll, 
longis. Semina fere globosa }j poll. diam. levia albida, carunculis nigris. 

Nom. Veen. Emka (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Abundant. B.C.S. n. 207. Schweinf. nn. 241, 525. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A distinct fleshy tree-Euphorbia with a dome-shaped crown, occurring 
abundantly on the plains and on the hills. It is interesting to find such an old 
type upon the island in view of the occurrence of a similar type and very nearly 
allied species E. aphylla, Brouss. (in Willd. Enum. i. 501 ; Boiss. in DC. Prod, 
xv. 2, 96), on the Canary Islands. In habit this species mimics the Dragon's 
blood tree. 

On many parts of the hill regions of Socotra a fleshy tree-Euphorbia grows, 
which has much shorter and stouter branchlets than the one above described, 



PHANEROGAMS — PBOFESSOB BAYLEY BALFOUR. 269 

and it branches more irregularly. The floral structure is alike in both, but the 
fruit on specimens of the latter sent home by Schweinfurth is smaller, as is also 
the seed, and the style is shorter. I am not certain that it is possible to regard 
it as a distinct species, but it may be considered a variety, as, — 

var. montana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 
Irregulariter ramosa ramis ultimis brevibus validis articulis brevibus ; capsulis £ poll, longis \ 
poll, latis, pedicello^ poll, longo tenui, stylo brevi -^ poll, longo ; seminibus^ P°U- longis. 

Socotra. On the hills. B.C.S. n. 347. Schweinf. n. 643. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

10. E. (Diacanthium) spiralis, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Fruticosa carnosa candelabriformis a basi pauciramosa 1-2-pedalis, caule ramisque acute 5-7- 
augulatis sulcatis, angulis compressis subalatis spiraliter tortis rarius rectis lobatis lobis 
rotundatis parvis arete positis, aculeis stipularibus binis brevibus \- \ poll, longis ab 
pulvino basali glauco divaricatis demum frequenter demissis, podariis distinctis. 

Socotra. On the plains, not infrequent. B.C.S. n. 729. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This plant appears to be a distinct species, but we have not material 
sufficient for a complete description. Several plants are now growing in this 
country, and ere long it may flower and enable us to determine its true character 
more accurately. One of its most distinctive features is the spiral twist on its 
stem and branches. From the Canary Islands and the dry plains of south 
and north Africa, several species with which our plant has some affinity are 
recorded. 

2. BUXUS. 

Buxus, Linn, Gen. u. 1053 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 267. 

A small genus, several species of which are inhabitants of temperate and 
mountain regions in the old world, one occurs in Madagascar, and one (the 
Socotran plant) is found in Somali Land. Other species are west Indian. 

B. Hildebrandtii, Baill. Adans. xi. 268. 

Nom. Vern. Mithan (B.C.S.). Kelle (Schweinf). Metayne or Malarah 
(Wellst.). 

Socotra. Abundant. B.C.S. n. 637. Schweinf. n. 415. Hunter. 

Distrib. Somali Land. 

This small tree is very abundant on the island, and the foliage exhibits a con- 
siderable range of variation. Sometimes the leaves are nearly orbicular, in other 
instances quite narrowly oblanceolate. The size of the fruit, too, varies much. 

Young twigs of this species are used by the inhabitants for tooth sticks. 

The wood is hard and compact. Schweinfurth brought home a quantity of 
it to test its value economically, but I have not learned the result of the trial 



270 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Wellsted (in Jonrn. Roy. Geog. Soc. v. (1835), 200) testifies to the hardness of 

the wood. He says, " the wood of a tree named Metayne or Malarah, which 

abounds in every part of the island, is so hard that our seamen used it for the 

same purposes as lignum vita? is applied to, such as sheaves for blocks, splicing 

fids, &c." 

3. PHYLLANTHUS. 

Phyllanthus, Linn. Gen. n. 1050 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 272. 

A very large genus widely dispersed in the warmer regions of the globe. 

Of the three Socotran species one is endemic and the others are tropical African 

and south Asiatic. 

1. P. (Paraphyllanthus) maderaspatensis, Linn. Sp. 1393 ; Mull. Arg. 
in DC. Prod. xv. 2, 362. 

P. venosus, Hochst. in herb. Scliimp. Abyss, sect. ii. 814 ; Acb. Eicb. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 254. 
P. madi'aspatensis, var., Wight Ic. t. 1895, f. 3. 
P. TJwnningii, Schum. Beschr. PI. Guin. 418. 

Socotra. Common near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 138. Schweinf. n. 715. 
Distrib. From Cape de Verde islands through tropical and south Africa 
to the Indian Archipelago and Australia. 

2. P. rotundifolius, Willd. Sp. iv. 584 ; Mull. Arg. in DC. Prod. xv. 2, 405; 
Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 1139, 

var. leucocalyx, Mull. Arg. loc. cit. 

P. Niruri, Ach. Bich. Tent. Flor. Abyss. 255 (non. Linn.). 

Socotra. Near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 636. 

Distrib. Of the species, — through tropical Africa, south-west Asia, and 
India. The variety is tropical African. 

3. P. filipes, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc Edin. xii. (1883), 94. 

Sutfruticosus ramis distichophyllis florigeris angulatis apicalibus ; foliis oblongis, stipulis 
scariosis basi nonproductis ; floribus monoicis paucis fasciculatis ; staminibus 5, filamentis 
ad medium connatis, antherarum loculis contiguis ; stylis 6 ; capsulis glabris trisulcatis 
longe filiformiter pedicellatis ; seminibus scrobiculatis. 

Suffrutex parvus vix pedalis ramulis ru6s ultimis florigeris angulatis v. obscure alatis erectis 
glabris angulisque scabridis internodiis distinctis distichophyllis. Folia oblonga v. 
elliptico-oblonga ^-§ poll, longa \-\ poll, lata breviter petiolata (petiolo \ poll, longo) 
apice mucronulata basi obtusa margine crenato-undulata glabra pennivenia. Stipuloe 
scariospe ovato-lanceolatae acuminatse membranaceaj margine lacerse basi non products £ 
poll, longae rufaj. Flores monoici in axillis fasciculati mares 2-3 foeminei plerumque 1 in 
fasciculo quoque ; bracteae ovatse fimbriatse. Fl. & breviter pedicellati (pedicello ^ poll, 
longo). Periantliii segmenta 5 ^ poll, longa late elliptica v. subrotundata nervo medio 
herbaceo margine scariosa. Stamina 5, filamentis in columnam ad medium connatis supra 
liberie patentibus ; antherarum loculi contigui. Discus urceolatus crenatus. Fl. ? 
pedicello ^ poll, longo sub fructu § poll, longo stricto capillari. Perianthium apertum 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 271 

sub fructu £ poll, latum, segmentis ovatis obtusis. Discus urceolatus. Styli 6 recti breves 
divaricati. Capsula glabra ^ poll, longa £ poll. diam. trisulcata apice depressa cicatricibus 
seuis tuberculatis stylorum demissorum notata. Semina fusco-nigra reniformia lineato- 
scrobiculata et obscure strigosa. 

Soeotra. On the plains. Not common. B.C.S. n. 332. Schweinf. n. 
615 in part. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Appears to be a distinct species of the section Euphyllanthus. The long 
pedicels to the fruit and the six free styles are marked features. 

4. SECURINEGA. 

Securinega, Juss. Geo. 388 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 275. 

A small genus of branching shrubs distributed in tropical and temperate 
regions. 

S. Schweinfurthii, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xiii. (1883). 

Fruticosa ramulis subtetragonis nonspinescentibus; foliis crassiusculis obovatis ; pedicellis 
masculis solitariis. 

Frutex ramosissimus ramis ultimis erectis strictis subvirgatis microphyllinis nonspinescentibus 
superne ssepe denudatis ramulos contractos laterales baseis foliorum demissorum et stipulis 
squamiformibus rugosos gerentibus. Folia ad ramulos contractos fasciculata sessilia parva 
5 poll, longa v. minora £ poll, lata obovata obtusa integerrima crassiuscula glabra. 
Stipulce minutae ^ poll, longge ovatse rufe. Flores masculi solitarii ; pedicelli stricti erecti 
^q poll, longi. Perianthii segmenta ^ P ^- longa oblonga obtusa 3-nervia apice sub- 
crenata. Stamina 5 ad medium connata superne divaricata. Discus 5-lobus lobis obovatis 
emarginatis. Flos fcemineus et fructus ignotus. 

Soeotra. Above Wadi Digal at an altitude of over 1500 feet. Schweinf. 
n. 562. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Some imperfect specimens of a shrub sent by Schweinfurth I have taken as 
the type of the foregoing species. The plant is, as far as our specimens show, 
very closely allied to the south European S. (Colmeiroa) buocifolia, Mull. Arg. 
(in DC. Prod. xv. 2, 452), but is hardly conspecific, having more fleshy leaves 
and more shortly pedicellate flowers. Our specimens show only a few male 
flowers. 

5. FLUGGEA. 
Fliiggea, Willd. Sp. iv. 757 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL iii. 276. 

A very small genus widely-dispersed in the old world tropics. Both 
Socotran species have an extended distribution. 

1. F. microcarpa, Blume Bijdr. 580. 

F. obovata, and other synonyms Wall. Cat. n. 7928. 
Securinega abyssinica, Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 256. 



272 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

S. obovata, Miill. Arg. in DC. Trod. xv. 2, 449. 

Phyllanthus polygawms, Hochst. in herb. Scbimp. Abyss, sect. ii. n. 877, and sect. iii. n. 1698. 

There are a vast number of additional synonyms, for which see Midler as 
quoted. 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 495. Sehweinf. n. 668. 

DiSTitiB. A very common plant in the tropical and subtropical regions of 
the old world. 

2. F. Leucopyrus, Willd. Sp. iv. 757; Wight Ic. t. 1875. 

Securinega Leucopyrus, Miill. Arg. in DC. Prod. xv. 2, 451. 

Socotra. A not uncommon tree near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 483. 
Distrib. Widely spread in Tropical Asia. 

6. JATROPHA. 
Jatrqpha, Linn. Gen. n. 1084; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 290. 

A considerable genus of the warmer regions of the globe, but attaining 
a maximum of development in America. 

J. (Adenoropium) unicostata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. 
(1883), 94. Tab. XC. 

Arbuscula resinifera; foliis lanceolatis v. oblanceolatis glaucis unicostatis; stipulis minutis 
glandulosis ; floribus majusculis ; staminibus 8 ; capsulis magnis glabris. 

Frutex altus v. arbuscula resinifera ramis ultiniis validis cortice cicatricibus magnis foliorum 
delapsorum notato. Folia ad extremitates raniulorum aggregata 4-6 poll, longa 1-2 poll, 
lata breviter petiolata lanceolata v. lata oblanceolata v. oblongo-elliptica rarius sublinearia 
et £ poll, lata versus extremitates ambos attenuata apice acutissima basi subcuneata 
margine obscure crenulato-undulata coriacea glabra opaca subglauca rufescente-venosa 
unicostata costa prominente pennivenia ; petiolus 4— |- poll, longus pulvino magno semi- 
lunato. Stipulm minutoe inconspicu?e integral. Infloresccnticc in axillis foliorum supre- 
morum cymoso-paniculatae, pedunculo brevi ^-1 poll, longo glabro valido angulato, ramulis 
primariis longis saepe 2-3 poll., pedicellis brevibus \-^ poll, longis, bracteis \ poll, longis 
angustissimis apicaliter attenuatis subacerosis basi subcarinatis margineque inferne rubris 
glandulosis dentibus 2-3 instructis. PI. J — Calyx alte 5-fidus, segmentis \ poll, longis 
ovato-lanceolatis obtusis glabris multinervosis. Corolla colorata, segmentis liberis -J- poll, 
longis £ poll, latis oblongis retuso-truncatis glabris. Discus 5-lobatus lobis rubris caruosis 
globosis. Stamina 8, exteriora 5 breviora sed antberis majoribus, interiora 3, columna 
angulato-striata petalis dimidio breviore. Fl. ? major — Calyx alte 5-fidus, segmentis 
ovato-lanceolatis -fa poll, longis. Corolla; segmenta £ poll, longa. Styli vix connati 
segmentis apice breviter 2-divisis. Capsula bexagona basi apiceque depressa glabra levia 
|— § poll. diam. interdum glauca. Semina £-J poll, longa. 

Nom. Vern. Sibrha (Sehweinf.). 

Socotra. Abundant on the plains near Galonsir and elsewhere. B.C.S. 
nn. 13, 89, 137. Sehweinf. nn. 256, 379. Perry. Hunter. 
Distrib. Endemic. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 273 

An interesting species of the section Adenoropium, which contains most of 
the old world forms. It differs from the majority of species in its unicostate 
more or less lanceolate leaves. Specimens, not sufficient for complete descrip- 
tion, were sent to Kew Herbarium some years ago by Wykeham Perry. 

The plant yields a quantity of gum-resin, and the bark is used on the 
island for tanning. 

One of our specimens, n. 13, is of a young seedling collected near Galonsir. 
It shows a great thickening on the primary stem at the collar, and the leaves 
are more longly petiolate than in the adult. 

7. CROTON. 

Croton, Linn. Gen. n. 1083 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 293. 

A vast genus of warmer regions of both worlds. Four species occur in 
Socotra, and all belong to the same section of the genus and are endemic. 

1. C. (Eluteria) sarocarpus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 
94. Tab. XCI. 

Arbor ; foliis ovatis penniveniis longe petiolatis lamina basi patellari-glandulosa subtus 
avgenteo-lepidota ; stipulis subulatis ; inflorescentiis psuedoterminalibus ; floribus dioicis ; 
5 racemis multifloris, alabastris globosis, staminibns ultra 20 ; $ umbellis paucifloris, stylo 
bis bifido, capsula dense setigera, seminibus levibus. 

Arbor 20-pedalis ramis rugosis verrucosis ultimis angulatis lepidotis. Gemmae rafae. Folia 
magnitudine valde ludeutia plerumque 3-4 poll, longa nonnunquani 7 poll. 1-1^ poll, lata 
sed in exemplis maximis stepe 3 poll, longe petiolata ovata v. elongato-ovata apice 
gradatim attenuata obtusa basi cordata v. rotundata v. subtruncata v. rarius late cuneata 
margine subi'epanda coriacea pennivenia nervo medio subtus prominente supra pilis 
stellatis vestita subtus dense lepidota argentea albida nitida lepidibus plurimis parvis 
centro minute rubro-glanduloso margineque stellato-fimbriato albido sed paucis hinc inde 
distributis omnino fuscis centroque prominente rubro; petiolus plus minusve angulatus 
striatus lepidotus sub lamina glandulosus glandulis stipitatis umbilicatis 1-2^ poll, longus 
lamina parum brevior. Stipvlai minutse subulatae. Fl. in racemos multifloros breves 
termiuales dispositi, pedicellis tenuibus 1-1^ poll, longis lepidotis, bracteis inconspicuis. 
Akibastri globosi. Calyx l poll, longus 5-lobatus, lobis ovatis apice inflexis et incrassatis 
dorsaliter tomentoso-lepidotis lepidibus centro glauduloso-fuscis margiue intus villosis. 
Gorollcc petala membranacea ligulata nervo medio conspicuo margine ciliato-villosa revoluta 
apice recurva. Stamina exserta ultra 20. Receptactdum villosum. Fl. $ in cymas 
umbellatas paucifloras pseudoterminales conferti, rhachi angulata £ poll, longa valida, 
pedicellis \ poll, longis dense lepidotis, bracteolis inconspicuis. Sejmla 3 inpequalia non 
accrescentia. Corollce petala anguste linearia lanceolata. Stylus bis dichotome divisus. 
Fructus \- § poll, longus dense setigerus setis validis -j^ poll, longis apice pilis penicellatis 
radiatim coronatis. Semina levia -^ poll, longa carunculis fuscis transverse oblongis. 

Nom. Vern. Mitra or Mittera. This vernacular name is apparently applied 
to all species of Crolon. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXT. 2 M 



274 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Socotra. In many places on the hill slopes. B.C.S. nn. 298, 318; 640. 
Schweinf. nn. 517, 666. 

Disteib. Endemic. 

A distinct species of the section Eluteria. The dioecism is one of its marked 
features, as this is not a common character in old world forms. The fruits, 
too, are remarkable on account of their thick clothing of bristles, each of which 
is topped by a pencil of radiating hairs. 

As it occurs on the island it presents some variation. Some specimens (our 
n. 640, Schweinf. nn. 571, 666) belong to a large-leaved plant with their under 
surface densely scaly and silvery. On the other hand, our n. 298, and many 
portions of n. 318, show a much smaller-leaved form scarcely silvery under- 
neath, though there are many stellate hairs. Although we have not female 
plants of all the specimens, yet I have little doubt of their conspecific nature. 

2. C. (Eluteria) sulcifructus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 
94. Tab. XCII. 

Fruticosus ; foliis ovatis penniveniis petiolatis lamina basi patellari-glandulosa subtusargenteo- 
lepidota ; stipulis subulatis ; glomerulis florium in spicas dispositis ; fl. J supremis sub- 
sessilibus, staminibus sub 20 ; fl. $ paucioribus basalibus pedicellatis, stylo bis bifid©, 
capsula G-sulcata lepidota lepidibus planis, seminibus levibus. 
Frutex 10-pedalis cortice lenticellato rugoso subsuberoso. Folia 2^-4 poll, longa 1-1| 
poll, lata petiolata ovata acuta v. oblongo-elliptica obtusa basi plerumque rotundata saepe 
subcordata v. late obtusa margine paulum undulata coriacea pennivenia nervo medio et 
venis primariis subtus prominentibus, pagina superiore canescente lepidibus minutissimis 
rotundatis centra rubris margine fimbriatis instructa, inferiore argentea dense lepidota 
lepidibus uniformibus centra subflaveis rarius paucis majoribus rufis suffulta; petiolus 
|— 1 poll, longus angulatus canaliculatus uniformiter lepidotus sub lamina biglandulosus 
glandulis fulvis concavis stipitatis. Stipulai subulatae crassae. Florcs in glomerulos sessiles 
ad ramos lepidotos validos angulatos axillares spicatim dispositi, floribus in quoque 
glomerulo 3-4 sessilibus v. brevissime pedicellatis ; bracteolae minutae subulata3. Fl. & 
plurimi in parte superiore spicarum aggregati. Alabastri globosi. Calyx 5-lobatus, lobis 
sequalibus ovatis acutis imbricatis corolla brevioribus. Corollce lobi £ poll, longi late 
elliptici extus pubescentes intus basi villosi margine ciliato-villosi. Stamina sub 20, fila- 
mentis validis glanduliferis ; autherae antice tuberculatse. Disci lobi rotundati con- 
spicui. Beceptaculum villosum. Fl. ? pauci ad basin spicarum dispositi. Calyx 
5-lobatus, lobis ovatis intus sparsim strigosis extus stellatis adpressis pilis pubescentibus. 
Corollw lobi subobovati v. elliptici obtusi extus etellatim tomentosi margine ciliato-villosi. 
Ovarium extus rufo-lepidotum ; stylus bis bifidus ramis tuberculatis. Capsida ^ -poll. diam. 
valde 6-sulcata lepidoto-tomentosa pedicellata, pedicello -j 3 poll, longo tetragono. Semina 
\ poll, longa levia apice canaliculata. 

Nom. Vern. Mitra or Mittera. 

Socotra. On the Haghier hills. B.C.S. nn. 484, 496. Schweinf. n. 621. 
Hunter. 

Distkib. Endemic. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 275 

Another distinct species of this section easily distinguished from other 
Socotran forms by its inflorescence and fruit. Its nearest ally is probably C. 
zambesicus, Mull. Arg. (in Flora 1864, 483, and in DC. Prod. xv. 2, 515), a plant 
collected by Kirk near Senna in Zambesi Land. It is, however, quite a 
different plant. 

3. C. (Eluteria) elseagnoides, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 
95. 

Arboreus ; foliis anguste ovatis penuiveniis longe petiolatis lamina basi patellari-glandulosa 
subtus metallico-lepidota ; stipulis inconspicuis : fl. 5 ignotis ; fl. $ in umbellas dispositi. 
stylo bifido, capsnla lepidibus umbonatis dense vestita. 

Arbor ramorum cortice lenticellato subsuberoso, ramulis jnvenilibns angulatis tuberculato- 
lepidotis, lepidibus umbonatis umbone rufo margine breviter ciliato albido. Folia 1^—2 
poll, longa i-f poll, lata longe petiolata ovata v. ovato-lanceolata v. oblongo-ovata versus 
extremitates ambos attenuata apice obtusa basi late subcuneata obtusa margine obscure 
crenulato-undulata subinvoluta pennivenia medio nervo subtus prominente, pagina 
superiore canescente-viridi squamis rotundatis minutis centro rubro-glandulosis margine- 
que albidis delicatim fimbriatis plus minusve tecta, inferiore nitida sub-metallica rufo- 
maculata squamis adpressis centro umbonatis rubris sed margine albidis stellatim ciliatis 
dense plurimisque squamis omnino rufis sparsim vestita; petiolus |-| poll, longus 
canaliculatus lepidotus sub lamina glanduliferus glandulis stipitatis concavis. Stipules in- 
conspiciue. Fl. J ignoti. Fl. $ iu umbellas parvas pseudoterminales 6-12-floras dis- 
positi ; bracteolas minutse ; pedicelli validi ^ poll, longi subcompressi maculato-lepidoti. 
Calyx \ poll, longus alte 5-partitus, lobis ovato-ellipticis concavis subcarinatis imbricatis 
extus rufo-lepidotis margine tenuioribus iutusque villosis. Corollas lobi late elliptic! v. fere 
rotundati interne margine villosi dorsaliter rufo-tuberculati. Stylus bis bifidus. Fructus 
immaturus subglobosus squamis adpressis umbonatis rotundatis margine stellatim fimbriatis 
vestitus. 

Nom. Vern. Mitra or Mittera. 

Socotra. On the Haghier hills. B.C.S. n. 492. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Another species of this section having affinity with the south African C. gratiss- 
imus, Burch. (Trav. Afr. ii. 268 ; Mull. Arg. in DC. Prod, xv. 2, 516), and with 
the west African C. amabilis, Mull. Arg. (in Flora 1864, 537, and in DC. Prod. 
loc. cit.), but these are readily separated from it by the glabrous upper surface 
of their leaves as well as by other characters. Although we have imperfect 
specimens of our plant — neither fruit nor male flowers — there can be little 
doubt as to its position and novelty. It is possible that like the first described 
species it is dioecious. 

4. Oroton (Eluteria) socotranus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xii. 
(1883), 95. Tab. XCIII. 

Fruticosus; foliis penniveniis petiolatis ludentibus ab parvis ellipticis v. obovatis ad formas 



'27 Q BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

oblongas ovatas variautibus laniina basi patellari-glandulosa, pagina utraque pilis stellatis 
sparsim vestita ; stipulis obsoletis ; rloribus pedicellatis in umbellas unisexuales terminales 
dispositis ; staminibus ultra 20 ; foemiuei floris petalis linearibus ; stylo bis bifido ; capsula 
dense pilis setosis penicillatus vestita ; seminibus levibus. 
Frutex 10-pedalis v. minor bipartim rigide ramosus, ramis elongatis erectis cortice lenticellato 
griseo et subsuberoso terminalibus strictis sa?pe virgatis angulatis rufo-lepidotis ramulos 
plurimos laterales contractos siccatricosos gerentibus. Folia ad extreinitates ramuloruni 
eontractorum fasciculata forma magnitudine et petioli longitudine ludentia, in fruticibus 
parvis valide ramulosis camporum aridorum parva -J- J- poll, longa £-£ poll, lata (petiolo 
incluso 2*3— J P ^ 1 ^ on o°) elliptica v. oblongo-elliptica v. obovata apice obtusa saepe emarg- 
inata basi sensim attenuata margine integra v. obscure crenata et subinvoluta crassiuscula 
facile detersa, in fruticibus altioribus tenuius ramulosis locos gratos incolantibus majora 
1-1^ poll, longa £ poll, lata (petiolo incluso srepe 1 poll, longo) lanceolata v. anguste 
oblonga v. oblougo-ovata v. elongato-cordata nonnunquam inferne expansa et subbastata 
versus apicem attenuata obtusa basi plerumque subcuneata rarius rotundata margine 
integra v. distincte crenata tenuiora persistentiora, omnia pilis stellatis adpressis plus 
miuusve sparsim utrinque vestita ; petiolus albido-lepidotus et squamis rufis paucis etiam 
glandulis duabus stipitatis divaricatis sub lamina prajditus. Stipula inconspicua>. 
Flores in umbellas unisexuales ad extremitates ramuloruni dispositi. Fl. J — Uvibclla 
multiflome, bracteis squamiformibus, pedicellis \-% poll, longis rufo-lepidotis. Calyx 
5-partitus, lobis ovatis acutis intus nitidis margine pilosis extus lepidotis lepidibus rufis. 
Corolla: lobi calyce longiores oblongo-obovati angusti obtusi albidi membranacei margine 
villosi venulo medio conspicuo. Stamina ultra 20. Disci lobi rotundati. Fecejjtacnlum 
villosum. Fl. ? — Umhdla, pauciflorre, bracteis ut in masculis, pedicellis I poll, longis 
sub fructu auctis angulatis validis. Calycis lobi ut in masculis. Corolla lobi reducti tenues 
lineares apice breviter expansi. Discus inconspicuus. Stylus bis bifidus, segmentis apice 
dilatatis. Capsula globosa \ poll. diam. villis pilorum rigidorum stellatim radian tium 
arete vestita. Semina levia oblonga nitida \ poll, longa, carunculis magnis. 

Nom. Vern. Mitra or Mittera. 

Socotra. Very abundant on the plains and lower slopes of the hills. 
B.C.S. nn. 1, 278, 494. Schweinf. nn. 449, 798. Hunter. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A fourth species of the Eluteria section, and very widely distinct from all 
species hitherto described. From the other insular forms the vestiture of 
its leaves and their much smaller size at once separate it. In the female 
Mower the petals are greatly reduced, being merely narrow linear lobes. The 
fruit has somewhat the character of C. sarocarpux, but it is much smaller, and 
the brush-like surface is produced by sessile tufts of stiff hairs, not by pencils 
on the top of setsc. 

This species is perhaps the commonest plant on the plains and lower hill- 
slopes, forming indeed almost the whole of the scrub covering these regions. It 
varies much both in habit and foliage with situation. The plain plants (B.C.S. 
n. 1, Schweinf. n. 998) are, as is to be expected, commonly more dwarf, or at 
anyrate have stout branches and small fascicled leaves ; whilst in more favour- 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 277 

able localities the branches are more slender and the leaves are larger with 
longer petioles. 

The young seedling plants, of which our n. 494 is a specimen, have a 
silvery and scaly stem bearing many small deltoid leaves with crenate margins 
borne on long petioles. 

The wood of this tree is very hard, and is much used for rack-pins, camel- 
saddles, &c. 

8. CHROZOPHORA. 

Chrozuphora, Neck. Elein. Bot. ii. 337 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 305. 

A small genus of some six species, badly defined, extending from the 
Mediterranean region to tropical Asia and Africa. Both Socotran species are 
widely distributed. 

1. C. tinctoria, Ad. Juss. Tent, Euph. 28 ; Mull. Arg. in DC. Prod, 
xv. 2, 748 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 1140; Sibth. Flor. Grajc. t. 950. 

Socotra. Near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 644. 

Distrib. South Europe, north Africa, and south-west Asia. 

2. C. Obliqua, Ad. Juss. Tent. Euph. 28 ; Mull. Arg. in DC. Prod. xv. 
2, 749 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 1141 ; Schweinf. PI. Nilot. t. 3. 

C. oblongifolia, Ad. Juss. Tent. Euph. 28 ; T. Anders, in Journ. Linn. Soc. v. (I860), Suppl. 30. 
Croton oblongifolia, Delile Fl. JSgypt. 139, t. 51, f. 1. 

Socotra. Near Galonsir and Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 13:3. 

Distrib. From north-east Africa through south-west Asia to India. 

Schweinfurth sends specimens of this with very narrow leaves, which he says 
is characteristic of a type confined to the shores of the Red Sea, and for it he 
proposes a varietal name, — 

var. frutescens, Schweinf. : foliis angustis. 
Socotra. Near Tamarida. Schweinf. n. 358. 
Distrib. Shores of the Red Sea. 

9. CEPHALOCROTON. 

Cejphalocrolon, Hochst. in Flora 1841, 370 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 307. 

A genus of limited distribution including three species, two of which are 
tropical African and the third is Socotran. 

The discovery of this genus in Socotra necessitates an extension of the 
generic character as given by Bentham and Hooker, so as to include species 
in which the sepals of the female flower are entire and not " lacero-pinnati- 
fida," and in which the leaves are feather-veined. 



278 BOTANY OF SOOOTRA. 

C. socotranus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 95. Tab, 
XCIV. 

Fructicosus; foliis ad extremitates ramulorum lateralium contractonim soepe fasciculatis 
rotundatis v. obovatis subintegris peuniveniis; fl. ? sepalis integris. 

Frutex 10-pedalis lignosus ramulis terminalibus srepe subvirgatis cortice levi fulvo-pulverulento 
proventu glabro, lateralibus contractis arete cicatrosis. Folia ad ramos elongatos alternat- 
im et remote disposita, ad contractos fasciculatim aggvegata, in magnitudine et forma 
ludentia maxima \\ poll, longa 1 poll, lata minima ^ poll, lotiga £ poll, lata breviter petioLi'a 
rotundata v. obovata v. elliptica v. oblongo-elliptica apice obtusa integra v. emarginata versus 
basin plerumque attenuata v. plus minusve rotundata margine integra obscure subundulata 
coriacea pennivenia venulosa venulis plus minusve rubescentibus, pagina superiore atra in 
juvenilibus pilis stellatis vestita in senioribus glabra, inferiore albida velutino-tomentosa 
squamellis paucis irregularibus substipitatis minis venulas sparsim tegentibus; petiolus \—fo 
poll, longus fulvo-pulverulentus eglandulosus. Stipulcc obsolete. Flores in spicatim capitatas 
inflorescentias androgynas axillares ad extremitates ramulorum lateralium contractorum 
dispositi. Fl. J supremi glomerulum globosum £ poll. diam. multiflorum terminalem 
formantes, inflorescentia? rhacbi communi sub eis et supra fcemineos ^ poll, longa nuda 
valida angulata fulvo-pulverulenta, pedicellis ^ poll, longis, bracteolis inconspicuis runs 
squamiformibus. Calyx 3-lobatus, lobis integris late ovatis acutis extus tomentosis intus 
nitidis. Stamina 7-9 exserta. Ovarii rudimentum oblongum trifidum basi pilosum. Fl. ? 
pauci ad basin inflorescentise totaa subsessiles v. brevissime pedicellati, pedicellis angulatis 
tomentosis, bracteolis ut in masculis. Calyx 6-lobatus, lobis integris obovatis v. subulatis 
crassis falvo-tomentcsis inaaqualibus alternatim minoribus, majoribus £ poll, longis. Discus 
obsoletus. Ovarium pulverulento-tomentosum trisulcatum ; stylus fere ad basin trifidus 
segmentis multiramosis. Capsula extus glabra. Semina globosa J- poll, longa nigra 
puberula. 

Nom. Vern. Tehn. (B.C.S.). Than (Schweinf). 

SocotPa. In many places, both at great altitudes and also on the shore 
plains. B.C.S. nn. 391, 633. Schweinf. nn. 430, 594, 797. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very distinct plant, which falls naturally into this genus, though it differs 
much from the Mozambique and Nile Land species which hitherto constituted 
it. Altogether ours is a more compact and smaller leaved plant than these others, 
and the leaves are not dentate with broad 3-5-nerved bases. But the chief 
difference lies in the sepals of the female flowers which are entire. 

Like so many Socotran plants this one exhibits large-leaved and small-leaved 
forms according to its situation, and has usually many shortened branches on 
which the leaves are fascicled. 



10. ACALYPHA. 

Acalypha, Linn. Gen. n. 1082 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 311. 

A vast genus of the warmer regions of the world, chiefly American. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 279 

A. indica, Linn. Sp. 1424 ; Miill. Arg. in DC. Prod. xv. 2, 868 ; Wight 
Ic. t. 877. 

Socotra. Near villages. B.C.S. nn. 8, 19. Schweinf. n. 342. 

Distrib. Widely spread in the old world tropics. Our specimen, n. 19, 
which is the same as Schweinfurth's n. 342, is a much more hairy plant 
throughout than the type, and the male spikes are short. 

11. ETCINUS. 

Ricinus, Linn. Geu. n. 1085 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL iii. 321. 

A monotypic genus now found everywhere in warmer regions. 

R. communis, Linn. Sp. 1430 ; Ach. Rich. Tent. Flor. Abyss, ii. 250 ; Miill. 
Arg. in DC. Prod. xv. 2, 1017 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 1143. 

Socotra. Near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 29. 
Distrib. Of the genus. 

12. TRAGIA. 

Trayia, Linn. Geri. n. 1048 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL iii. 329. 

A considerable genus of often twining or climbing stinging plants dispersed 
widely in the tropics, and also extending in some areas into subtropical zones. 

T. (Tagira) dioica, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 95. 

Volubilis dioicus ; floribus masculis 3-meris ; flornm fcemineorum calycis lobis palmatim 5-fidis, 
stylo fere ad basin trifido segmentis revolutis. 

Frutex late volnbilis nrentissimus caule tereti lignoso canescente, ramnlis juvenilibus pilosis 
striatis. Folia 3-6 poll, longa 1^-2^ poll, lata in exemplis majoribus interdum multo 
minora longe petiolata (petiolo srepe 2^ poll, longo) ovata v. oblongo-cordata v. triangulari- 
cordata acuta basi cordato-rotuudata margine grosse dentata axillis dentium villoso- 
hispidis pilosa et urentibus pilis venulas obtegentibus pagina inferiori pallidiore. Stipulce 
caduca? lanceolatae longe acutae extus pubescentes. J — Spicce axillares 3-4^- poll, longa' 
multiflorae, bracteis lanceolatis v. lineari-lauceolatis acutis v. obtusis subcoucavis extus 
pubescentibus, pedicellis ^ poll, longis sparsim pilosis brevioribus . v. subaequi longis ; 
bracteolpe plerumque miautae lanceolate ^ poll. long*. Calycis segmenta late ovata v. 
subobovata v. subrotundata apice abrupte attenuata basi lata. Stamina 3. Ovarii 
rudimentum 3-lobatum glanduloideurn. $ — Spicm longae floribus ad nodos subglomeratis 
pedicellatis, pedicellis sub fructn \ poll, longis, bracteis obovatis £ poll, longis \ poll, latis 
ciliato-hispidis. Calyx 5-6-lobatus accrescens subliguascens, lobis palmatim v. pedatim 5- 
laciniatis laciniis (centrali maxima) lineari-obtusis v. oblanceolatis rarius lacinulatis intus 
strigoso-pubescentibus extus hispidis. Ovarium, hispidum. Stylus fere ad basim trifidus 
segmentis revolutis. Capsula hispida. Semina globosa \ poll. diam. areolato-marmorata. 

Nom. Vern. Zafak (B.C.S.). Safaga (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Common on the slopes of Haghier. B.C.S. nn. 366, 626. 
Schweinf. nn. 360, 479. 
Distrib. Endemic. 



280 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Anew species allied to T. involucrata, Jacq. (Ic. Ear. i. 18, t. 190 ; Mull. Arg. 
in DC. Prod. xv. 2, 943), an eastern species of considerable distribution, and also 
to the tropical African and Arabian T. mitis, Hoclist, (in herb. Schimp. Abyss, 
sect, ii. n. 517 ; Mull. Arg. in DC. Prod. xv. 2, 942), but marked out from these 
and other species by its dicecism, the palmately-cleft calyx of the female 
flowers, and by its style and seeds. 

Its sting is extremely irritant, rapidly producing large blisters. 



Order LXX. URTICACE^. 

A very large order of plants of varying habit spread through the warmer 
and temperate regions of the world. Five genera occur in Socotra. Two are 
found nearly all over the warmer regions of the globe, one is chiefly spread in 
America and tropical Africa, one has a distribution from south Europe through 
Africa and Asia, and the fifth is known, out of Socotra, only from Australia and 
the Cape of Good Hope. 

1. DORSTENIA. 

Dorstcnia, Linn. Gen. n. 158 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 366. 

A genus of about fifty species chiefly found in America and tropical Africa. 
Two species only are Asiatic, one occurring in Arabia, and the other in India. 

D. gigas, Schweinf. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 95. Tab. XCV. 

Cauleseens caudice crassissimo camoso ramoso ; foliis oblanceolatis bullatis ; receptaculo orbicul- 
ari margine 6-8-radiato. 

Planta crassa 2-5-pedalis flavo-lactescens caudice tuberoso globoso cortice albo breviter et cand- 
elabrifoi miter ramosa, ramis crassis tessalatim cicatricosis glabris. Folia ad apices ramulor- 
um tantum manentia in planta adulta 6 poll, longa 1 poll, lata in juvenilibus 1£ poll. 
longa /. poll, lata oblanceolata srcpe lateraliter curvata versus apicem contracta obtusa v. 
acuta deorsum in petiolum brevissimum gradatim attenuata margine obscure crenulata re- 
voluta membranacea plusminusve bullata delicatim venulosa venulis rubris subtus subtiliter 
pubescentia ; petiolus crassus supra concavus obscure puberulus. Stipules minutre subulatse 
v. squamiformis. Hypantlwdia in axillis supremis solitaria, pedunculis |-§ poll, longis 
erectis validis breviter pubescenti-velutinis, parte superiore florigera orbicnlari § poll. diam. 
margine velutina radiata radiis brevibus obtusis 6-8 inrcqualibus plerumque alterne 
majoribus. Flores masculi foemineique intermixti. Fl. $ — Stamina 2 filamentis mem- 
branaceis acuminatis exsertis. FL $ — Ovarium globosum breviter stipitatum album ; 
stylus subulatus, stigmate acuto. Fruetus ignotus. 

Socotra. In crevices and rocky places on the hills. B.C.S. n. 038. 
Schweinf. n. 737. 

DTSTRIB. Endemic. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 281 

A very curious species. In some respects it is not unlike D. radiata, Lamk. 
(Encyc. ii. 318 ; Boiss. in DC. Prod. xvii. 275), described and figured by Forskal 
(Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 164. t. 20), under the name Kosaria species. This is its nearest 
ally, but the Socotran species is a more grotesque plant having a much thicker 
and more gouty stem, and in its technical characters, notably foliage and 
hypanthodia, is widely separate. 

Our plant in general character is not unlike an Adenium, having the same 
stout stems and the leaves clustered at the end of thick branches. The plant 
bleeds very freely on being wounded, yielding a yellow viscid juice which 
soon hardens into a yellowish-brown cake. The leaves on small plants of 
this species differ somewhat from those on larger and more adult plants. 
They are much narrower, with margins greatly revolute and so bullate as to 
make the upper surface quite rough. We only obtained plants with young- 
flower buds. Schweinfurth got splendid flowering specimens, and as he was 
enabled thereby to identify its genus we have retained his specific name. 
There are several plants of this now growing in this country, and Schweinfurth 
has it in cultivation at Cairo. For further remarks as to its structure see 
Appendix. 

2. FICUS. 
Ficus, Linn. Gen. n. 1168 ; Benth. et. Hook. Gen. PL iii. 367. 

A vast genus spread all over the warmer regions of the globe. Many of 
the species are polymorphous, and they are very difficult to define and to 
determine. Of three species in Socotra, one is endemic, one is a tropical and 
south African form found also in Arabia, and the third is probably an endemic 
one, but our specimens are not sufficient for determination. 

1. F. (Urostigma) socotrana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. 
(1883), 96. 

Arborea ramulis pubescentibus ; foliis rotundato-cordatis molliter pubescentibus 5-nervatis 
utrinque alterne 5-8-costatis ; stipulis villosis ; hypantbodiis obovatis - pubescentibus ; 
acheniis ovoideis levibus periantbio membranaceo inclusis. 

Arbor magna umbragea ramulis valiclis annulatis pubescente-tomentosis. Folia magna 
petiolata maxima pedalia 8 poll, lata plerumque 6 poll, longa 4 poll, lata v. minora 
rotundato-cordato acumine apicali obtuso lobis basalibus subeequalibus sinu alto margine 
obscure subsinuata parum revoluta coriacea molliter pubescentia basi 5-nervia utrinque 
alterne 5-8-costata nervo medio costisque subtus prominentibus ; petiolus striatus 2—3^ poll, 
longus fulvo-tomentoso-pubescens glandula sublaminari nigra nitida. Stipidce dense 
villosse coriacea? late ovatse. Hypanthodia axillaria bina -^ poll, longa ^ poll, lata obovata 
extus pubescente-tomentosa ; calyculi lobi minuti rotundati ; pedicelluli ^-\ poll, longi 
validi dense pubescentes ; bracteoe basilares late ovatse rufye. Fl. ? sessiles v. pedicellati 
bracteolis interfloralibus acuminatis carinatis. Ferianthii segmenta membranacea. 
Stigma complanatum expansum. Achenia ovoidea nitida levia periantbio inclusa, 
pericarpio intus erustaceo extus carnosulo. 
TKANS. KOY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 2 N 



282 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Nom. Vern. Tuk (Wellst.). Teke (Schweinf.). 

Socotra. Abundant. B.C.S. n. 283. Schweinf. n. 414. 

Distkib. Endemic. 

A large tree, one of the largest on the island, affording a very grateful shade. 
It is a distinct species, though not far removed from Ficus platyphylla, Cailliaud 
(Cent. d. PI. d'Afr. 62), {Urostigma platyphyllum, Kotschy Aufz. Phaner. u. 
Gefasskrypt. d. Nil. Lander 291, nom. sol.), a tree of Nubia. But that species 
has amongst other diagnostic characters longly peduncled hypanthodia. In the 
same alliance may also be mentioned Urostigma catalpcv folium, Miq. (in Hook. 
Lond. Journ. vi. 551), a tropical African tree, and the Indian Urostigma 
Dalhousice, Miq. (loc. cit. 571). But there is no likelihood of their being con- 
founded with our plant. 

2. F. (Urostigma) salicifolia, Vahl Symb. i. 82. t. 23 (non Miq.). 

F. indica, Forsk. Fl. iEgypt. Arab. 179. 

Urostigma salicifolium, Miq. iu Hook. Lond. Journ. vi. 556. 

Nom. Vern. Etheb. 

Socotra. Spread over the island. B.C.S. nn. 354, 410, 448, 476, 646, 647. 
Schweinf. nn. 339, 473. 

Distrib. Considerable range in tropical Africa and in Arabia ; also found 
in south Africa. 

This species varies to a considerable extent, and the specimens we obtained 
at different parts of the island show a fair amount of variation. 

n. 410 may be taken as the typical tropical African form, with downy 
shoots and small oblong lanceolate leaves somewhat cordate at the base, 
and with small fruits about the size of a pea, which are pubescent and have a 
few red-capped glandular hairs on them. n. 354 is a form nearly typical, only 
having leaves slightly larger and less cordate at base. Schweinfurth's n. 339 is 
very nearly this ; but the leaves are larger and are not so cordate at the base, 
the flowering shoots being glabrous, the nonflowering downy. 

In Schweinfurth's n. 473 we have again a small-leaved form, but the leaves 
are somewhat elliptic with a distinct acumen — the twigs are usually pubescent. 
An exaggerated form of this we have in our n. 646, and here, too, the fruits 
are considerably larger and more densely tomentose. 

In nn. 476 and 647 we have the extremes of variation as exhibited in 
Socotra. The twigs are here long, sparsely leaved, and glabrous, and the 
leaves themselves are much elongated, often attaining a foot in length, but 
remaining narrow and having an apical acumen. The stipules, too, are some- 
what smaller. The larger bracteoles at the mouth of the hypanthodium are 
in these specimens nearly orbicular, and show no keeling, whilst in all the 
other forms these have a keel, and are more oblong. I do not, however, find 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 283 

any good characters enabling me to define these as of a different species from 
the others, and therefore, for the present at least, include them as a form of 
this widely-spread species. 

3. Ficus sp. 

We have specimens of another fig showing foliage-leaves only, which I 
have not been able to identify, and it is probably a new one. It belongs to the 
set which includes F. Sycomorus, Linn. (Sp. 1513; Boiss. Flor. Orient, iv. 
1155 ; and F. pseudosyeomorus, Dene. Flor. Sinaic. 4 ; Boiss. he. cit.). 

Socotra. B.C.S. n. 451. 

3. POUZOLZIA. 

Pouzolzia, Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. 503 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL iii. 387. 

A considerable genus distributed in the tropics of both worlds, though chiefly 
in the old world. 

P. auriculata, Wight Ic. t. 1980, f. 2, t, 2099, f. 37 and tab. cit. in Wedd. 
Monog. Urtic. 393, and in DC. Prod. xvi. 1, 225. 

Socotra. Not uncommon on the hills. B.C.S. n. 624. Schweinf. n. 
675. 

Disteib. Indian Peninsula and Ceylon. 

This extremely variable species, for the extensive synomymy of which and 
references to Wight's figures, Weddell's work must be consulted, occurs 
frequently on the island, and j)resents foliage varying in form from widely 
elliptical to narrowly lanceolate. 

4. FORSKOHLEA. 

ForsJcoJdea, Linn. Mant. n. 1262 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 393. 

A small genus of herbs spread through Africa, Arabia, and India, also occur- 
ring in south Europe. 

F. viridis, Desf. Cat. Hort. Par. ed. 3, 347 ; Wedd. Monog. Urtic. 537, 
t. xix. B. ff. 5, 13, and in DC. Prod. xvi. 1, 235 56 ; Franch. Sert. Somal. in 
Miss. KeVoil 65. 

Socotra. Common. B.C.S. n. 58. Schweinf. nn. 309, 494. 

Distrib. Atlantic Islands, Abyssinia, and Arabia. 

5. AUSTEALINA. 

Australina, Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. 505 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 394. 

A small genus of herbs limited hitherto to Australia and south Africa. The 
Socotran plant is a south African form. 



284 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

A. capensis, Wedd. in Ann. Sc. Nat. se>. 4, i. (1854), 212. 

Didymodom debilis, E. Mey. in Sched. PL Dreg. ; Wedd. Monog. Urtic. 548, t. 20, f. B, and in 
DC. Prod. xvi. 1, 235 59 . 

Socotra. On the hill slopes with species of Galium and Valerianella, 
B.C.S. n. 487. 

Distpjb. South Africa. 

Another interesting relationship with the south African flora is established 
by the discovery of this plant in Socotra. 



MONOCOTYLEDONES. 

Order LXXI. HYDROOHARIDE^. 

A small family of water plants. The fresh-water species are found widely 
spread over warmer and temperate regions of both the old and new world ; the 
marine forms are chiefly and almost entirely developed in the Indian Ocean and 
adjacent seas — but some species are described from districts in the new world. 

LAGAROSIPHOK 

Zagarosiphon, Harv. in Hook. Journ. Bot. iv. 230, t. 22 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 450. 

A small genus of about five species of submerged fresh-water plants. 
Tropical Africa, south Africa, Madagascar, and India are the areas of their 
limited distribution. 

L. Roxburghii, Benth. in Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL iii. 451. 

Vallisneria alternifolia, Koxb. Plor. Ind. iii. 750; Wight in Hook. Bot. Misc. ii. 344, 

Suppl. t. 11. 
Nechamandra Roxburghii, Planck, in Anu. Sc. Nat. sdr. 3. xi. (1849), 78. 

Socotra. In pools formed by the rivers. Boivin n. 1064. 

Distrib. India, Malay Peninsula, and some of the islands of the Eastern 
Archipelago. 

This is a plant collected by Boivin but absent alike from Schweinfurth's and 
from our collections. To Dr Schweinfurth I am indebted for the information 
that a specimen from Socotra is in Berlin Herbarium. This I learn from 
Professor Eichler is a duplicate from Paris Herbarium, and he has kindly 
sent me a small fragment of it. Professor Ascherson identifies it as above, 
and after examination of the small portion sent to me, I agree with him. lie 
suggests it is introduced in Socotra. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 285 

Order LXXII. ORCHIDE^. 

A very vast order largely represented in tropical regions, rarer in dry 
districts. 

HABENARIA. 

Habenaria, Willd. Sp. PI. iv. 44 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 624. 

A vast and polymorphous genus widely dispersed over the temperate and 
warmer regions of the globe. 

H. socotrana, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1882), 96. Tab. 
LXXXII, B. 

Glabra caule gracili ; foliis menibranaceis oblanceolatis v. oblongis ; racemis elongatis floribus 
distantibus ; bracteis ovario brevioribus attenuato-acuminatis ; sepalis petalisque obtusis, 
labello 3-partito lobis linearibus calcare gracillimo ovario longiore. 

Sesquipedalis glabra caule gracili erecto basi tuberosa. Folia plus minus basi rosulata v. per 
partem infimam caulis approximatim disposita, lamina ssepe 5£ poll, longa 1 poll, lata sed 
ad 1£ poll, longam et \ poll, latam varians oblanceolata v. longe oblongo-elliptica apice 
acuta ssepe cuspidata basi gradatim attenuata margine integra v. obscure crenulata ; vagina 
3^ poll, longa integra laxa. Folia bractealia cauliuia pauca remota lanceolata acuminata 
amplexicaulia sed vix vaginantia. Bacemi sublaxi elongati ssepe f ped. longi, pedicelli 
£ poll, longi ; bracteae oblongo-ellipticae acuminata^ ad medium ovarii attingentes. Sepala 
intus glandulosa, posticum ellipticum obtusum subapiculatum concavum erectum 3-nervium 
\ poll, longum i 1 ^ poll, latum ; lateralia ovata obtusa 1-nervia. Pctala lateralia oblonga 
falcata apice venulis conjunctis 1-nervia intus glandulosa. Ldbellum alte trifidum 
medio segmento \ poll, longiore lobis linearibus obtusis, calcare longissimo £ poll, longo 
arcuato binervoso lineari acuto. Stigmatici appendices breves rotundatae. Capsula \—L 
poll, longa. 

Socotra. On the hills near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 315. Nimmo. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A species having a close alliance with H. attenuata, Hook. f. (in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. vii. (1864) 221), a plant of the Cameroon mountains at an elevation of over 
7000 feet, but it is readily distinguished from it by the more delicate habit with 
rosulate basal leaves, and the bracts of the racemes shorter than the ovaries. 
Welwitsch's Angola plant described as II. Spiranthes by Keichenbach f. in Flora 
1865, 178, is also not far removed. 

A small and new species which we only gathered in one spot on the island. 
It is amongst the plants in Kew Herbarium from Nimmo. 

Order LXXIII. IBIDEM. 

An order widely dispersed over the old and new worlds, especially in tem- 
perate regions, and having a great development in the Mediterranean region, 
and south Africa. The two genera in Socotra are of much interest. One, 



286 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Bdbiana, is otherwise entirely south African, whilst the other is a Mediterranean 
genus extending over the Cameroon mountains, and Atlantic Islands to south 
Africa. 

1. ROMULEA. 

Bomvlca, Maratti, Diss. Romul. et Saturn., Rornre, 1772, 13, 1. 1 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 694. 
A considerable genus of western Europe, the Mediterranean region, and 
extending through west tropical Africa (occurring on the Cameroon Mountains), 
and the Atlantic Islands to south Africa. The Socotran plant is the most 
easterly extension and the only one in this direction. 

R. purpurascens, Tenore, Mem. 117; Jourd. and Four. Ic. t. 106, f. 161, 

var. edulis, Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xvi. (1878), 87. 

Bulbo parvo globoso eduli ; foliis 4 angustissime linearibus semipedalibus vel pedalibus margiue 
revolutis ; pedunculis 2-4-pollicaribus solitariis vel geminis ; spathse valvis oblongo-lanceo- 
latis exteriore firmiore majore semipollicari ; perianthii tubo erecto limbo triplobreviore 
segmentis oblongis semipollicaribus saturate purpureis omnibus laxe trinervatis ; genitali- 
bus limbo duplobrevioribus. 

Trichonema edide, Herbert in herb. Kew. 

Socotra. At over 3000 feet altitude on the Haghier hills. Schweinf. n. 
580. Nimmo. Wellsted. 

Distrib. Of the species — Mediterranean region. Of the variety — endemic. 

Schweinfurth sends two fruiting pedicels of this plant, and in Kew 
Herbarium are specimens from Nimmo, to which Herbert has added this note, 
" Found by Wellsted in Socotra, where the bulb is eaten." Baker (loc. cit.) 
cites the plant from the shores of the Red Sea as well as Socotra, quoting the 
ticket attached to Nimmo's specimens, but, as I have so often explained, his 
plants so labelled are really Socotran. 

We do not appear to have collected this species, and Schweinfurth's very 
poor specimens are brought from a very high altitude. 

Mr Baker has kindly supplied me with the above description of this variety. 

2. BABIANA. 

Bdbiana, Ker in Keen, et Sims, Ann. Bot. i. 233 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 706. 

A small genus of species confined to south Africa, extending from the Cape 
itself as far north as the Transvaal, with the exception of the one we discovered 
in Socotra. 

Sir Joseph Hooker, alluding to the Socotran plant in the Botanical Magazine 
(t. 6585), remarks regarding the genus — "In respect of the distribution of Cape 
types of vegetation, the occurrence of a Dabiana to the north of the Equator, 
and especially so far east as the Arabian Sea, is a very interesting fact ; for it 



PHANEROGAMS— PEOFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 287 

is another instance of that botanical affinity of Socotra with the Cape which I 
have alluded to under Begonia socotrana (t. 6555). Singularly enough no 
species of the genus occurs in Angola, or any of the collections from the Lake 
regions of Central Africa, where, however, it may be expected to occur when 
these are better botanically explored." 

B. socotrana, Hook. f. in Bot. Mag. t. 6585. 

Parvula acaulis glaberrima bulbi tunica reticulatim fibrosa; foliis auguste lanceolatis sensim 
acuininatis rigidulis plicatis et striato-nervosis ; floribus solitariis parvis inter folia sessili- 
bus ; spathre valvis linearibus ; periantbii tubo elongato gracillimo limbo bilabiato ringente 
pallide violaceo segmentis elliptico-lanceolatis acutis. 

3-4 poll. alta. Bulbi \-\ poll. diam. subglobosi sursum abrupte in collum \ poll, longum 
contract! vagina fibrorum fuscorum firme reticulatorum tecti. Folia bifaria 3-4 poll, longa 
\ poll, lata ab medio ultra acuminata nervis plurimis validis ; petiolus obliquus latus com- 
pressus. Perianthii tubus 1|- poll, longus, limbus fere 1 poll, latus segmentis subtequalibus. 
Stigmata vix protmsa cserulea. 

Socotra. On the hill slopes south-west from Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 249. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Sir Joseph Hooker remarks regarding this plant — " I can find no generic 
difference at all between B. socotrana, and the south African Babianas ; it is, 
however, much the smallest known species of the genus, and is one of the few 
that is perfectly glabrous. Its nearest affinity is with B. plicata (G. in Bot. Mag. 
t. 576)." We only obtained poor specimens of the plant in leaf and withered 
flower in February 1880, but the bulbs we brought home flowered in September 
of the same year at Kew, and from these specimens the plant has been figured. 

Order LXXIV. AMARYLLIDEtE. 

A large order dispersed over the warmer and temperate regions of the 
world and greatly developed in dry sandy and stony regions. Of the two 
Socotran genera, one has the distribution of the order, the other is a genus of 
south Africa of which a few species also occur in tropical Africa. 

1. CRINUM. 

Crinum, Linn. Gen. n. 405 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 726. 

A considerable genus of showy-flowered species distributed in tropical and 
subtropical regions of the whole globe. 

C. (Platyaster) Balfourii, Baker in Bot. Mag. Tab. 6570, and in Gard. 
Chron. xvi. 1881, 72. 

Bulbo ovoideo brevicollo ; foliis 10-12 synantbiis loratis firmulis viridibus vix pedalibus apice 
deltoideis ; scapo compresso foliis subduplo-longiori ; umbellis 10-12-floris ; spathse valvis 



288 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

lanceolato-deltoideis ; pedicellis crassis brevissimis; periantliii tubo recto viridulo bipolli- 
cari limbi segmentis lanceolatis albis tubo sequilongis; fdamentis segmentis distincte 
brevioribus, antheris parvis lineari-oblongis. 
Bulbus 3 poll. diam. Folia patentia arete venulosa 1^—2 poll, lata margine anguste cartilaginea 
denticulata. Scapus sub folds oriens ab apice bulbi 1^-2-pedalis. Flores fragrantissimi 
10-12 in quaque unibella. Spathcc valvi pallidi. Bractcolcc longae filiformes albae. 
Periantliii tubus cylindricus bipollioaris segmentis £ poll, latis horizontaliter patentibus. 
Filamenta erecto-patentia segmentis periantbii triente breviora. Ovarium oblongum J poll, 
longum ; stylus staminibus requilongus rubescens. 

Socotra. On the high plains at an elevation over 1500 feet, south-west 
from Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 129. Schweinf. in lit. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

Mr Baker remarks regarding this plant — " A well marked new species of 
Crinum. Its nearest alliance is with two Himalayan species C. amamuni, 
Boxb., and C. longifolium, Boxb. (Hort. Beng. 23). 

We obtained the plant with foliage leaves only, but the bulbs brought home 
flowered at Kew in the late autumn of 1880, and from them the figure and 
description in the Botanical Magazine were taken. The flowers are extremely 
fragrant, and though the perianth segments are rather narrow the truss of 
flowers is handsome, and the plant is an acquisition horticulturally. 

2. H^EMANTHUS. 

Hwraantlms, Linn. Gen. n. 400 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 730. 

A genus essentially south African but with a few tropical African repre- 
sentatives. 

H. grandifolius, Balf. fil. in Proc. Boy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1882), 96. 

Glaber et nonaculeatus. Folia 2 magna ssepe 1£ pedalia f- ped. lata ovata v. elliptico-ovata 
acuta basi parum attenuata v. plerumque rotundata v. rotundato-cordata margine vix undu- 
lata tenuia delicatim venulosa ; petiolus 1-1£ poll, longus non vaginalis. 

Socotra. On the stream banks of the slopes of Haghier south from 
Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 194. 

Our specimens of this species are confined to the leaves. We obtained 
bulbs but they have not grown in this country. The leaves are, however, so 
very distinct, being very much larger than in any known species with short 
petioles, that on our scant material we have ventured the diagnoses of a new 
species. 

Order LXXV. DIOSCOBEACE^. 

An order of few genera dispersed over the tropical and temperate regions 
of the world. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 289 

DIOSCOEEA. 

Dioscorea, Linn. Gen. n. 1122 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL iii. 742. 
A large genus with the distribution of the order. 

D. lanata, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Eclin. xii. (1882), 96. 

Volubilis caule tereti piloso ; foliis cordatis v. rotundatis v. reniformibus apice spinoso- 
mucronatis 7-9-nervatis subtus lanatis ; spicis solitariis axillaribus ; fl. $ glomeratis, stam- 
inibus 6, ovarii rudimento depresso triquetro ; fl. ? solitariis, capsulis pubescentibus. 

Volubilis ramis levibus teretiusculis sparsim pilosis. Folia petiolata magnitudine variantia 
maxima 4-5 v. 8 poll, longa 3-3£ poll, lata minima If poll, longa 1| poll, lata cordata v. 
cordato-rotundata v. subreniformia apice obtusa v. acuta mucrone duro deltoideo spinoso 
instructa basi lobis lateralibus late rotundatis sinu intermedio alto margine parum 
incrassata revoluta tenuia submembranacea 7-9-nervia supra pilosa subtus albido-lanata ; 
petiolus angulatus piloso-pubescens cum foliorum magnitudine varians |— 4 poll, longus. 
Spicce masmlce axillares solitariae simplices v. pauci-ramos?e 6-8 poll, longae ; rhacbis 
tenuis piloso-pubescens angulata ; bractese minutae ovato-acutae floribus dimidio breviores. 
Flores sessiles 2-3-aggvegati. Perianthmm ^ - poll, longum extus basi pilosum 6-partitum 
segmentis membrauaceis obovatis v. ovato-rotundis obtusis. Stamina 6 supra basin 
periantbii inserta eoque breviora filamentis subulatis antberis cequilongis ; antheree dorso 
medio adnata? introrsse. Pistilli rudimentum triquetrum apice depressum. Spicai fosminece 
breviores axillares 2-3 poll, longse ; rbacbis tenuis piloso-pubescens ; bracteas ut in masculis. 
Mores sessiles solitarii. Ovarium villoso-pubescens. Capsular cernuae breviter stipitatae 
tripterse § poll. diam. pubescentes. Semina minute rugulosa transverse elliptica | poll, 
diam. ala fusca. 

Nom. Vern. Seifcha (B.C.S.). 

Socotra. On many parts of Haghier. B.C.S. n. 482. Schweinf. in lit. 
Nimmo 

Distrib. Endemic. 

This is apparently a new species, possibly a near ally of D. spinosa, Roxb.; 
(Wall. Cat. n. 5103), a form I have not seen, and it has some resemblances with 
forms of D. sativa, Linn. (Sp. 1463 ; Kunth Enum. v. 340). Its most prominent 
features are its leaves, woolly underneath and with a spiny apical mucro, and 
the solitary axillary male inflorescences. 

In Kew Herbarium there are plants of this species sent by Nimmo from the 
island. The tuber is sought after by the troglodytic inhabitants. Specimens 
of the tuber we brought home produced male flowers at Kew in August 1880, 
and in Edinburgh the following year. From the Kew flowers our description 
is taken. We only found the plant in fruit on Socotra. 

Order LXXYI. LILIACEiE.* 

A very large order of tropical and temperate regions, most abundant in the 
latter, and especially developed in dry sandy districts. Seven genera are 

* To Mr J. G. Baker I am indebted for the description of, and notes to, the new species in this 
order to which his name is attached. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 2 O 



290 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

known from Socotra. One of these, Draccvna, is dispersed over the whole globe, 
but the section to which the Socotran species belongs is limited to a few 
spots in north Africa and the Atlantic islands ; the genus Asparagus, has a 
general old world distribution; three — Asphodclus, Dipcadi, and Urginea— reach 
from the Atlantic islands through Africa and the Mediterranean region (two of 
them extending to south Africa) to northern India; one — Anlhericum— is 
world-wide except in Asia, and Aloe is an African, especially south African, 
genus, reaching to the Atlantic and Indian Ocean Islands. 

1. ASPARAGUS. 

Asparagus, Linn. Gen. n. 424; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 725. 

A large genus widely dispersed in the warmer and temperate regions of 
the old world. 

A. africanus, Lamk. Encyc. i. 295 ; Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xiv. 
(1875), 619. 

Asparajopsis Lamarckii, Kunth Enum. v. 87. 
A. juniperina, Kunth Enum. v. 85. 

var. microcarpus, Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 411. 

Suffruticosus intricato-ramosus cortice griseo nitido levi ramulis anfractuosis ; foliis spinosis 
brevibus -^ poll, longis recurvis; floribus in umbellis interdum paucis; baccis parvis \ 
poll. diam. pedicello brevi. 

Socotra. Abundant on the plains. B.C.S. n. 16. Schweinf. n. 374. 

Distrib. Of the species — Tropical and south Africa. Of the variety — endemic. 

Our Socotran plant presents several features of difference from the type of 
the species, but the technical differences between them are so slight, more 
especially in the case of Cape forms described as Asparagopsis juniperina by 
Kunth, that I can get no good characters for a specific diagnosis and I have 
only made it a variety. Its most prominent features are its densely and in- 
tricately branched habit with numerous spines and short anfractuose twigs 
producing a spine at each node. The cladodes are, perhaps, as a rule shorter 
and thinner than is typical. The flowers are usually slightly smaller and shorter 
with few developing in the umbels, sometimes reduced to one but commonly 
two or three, this last being a character in which it approaches the Indian 
A. subulatus, Steud. (in Hohen. PL Ind. Exsicc. No. 1303), and the south 
African A. consanguineus, Baker [I.e. 615). Finally, the fruit is to be noted 
as it is much smaller, only one-third the size, than in the type, and the pedicels 
are also much shorter. This is one of the commonest plants on the plains 
about Galonsir and elsewhere. 

2. ALOE. 

Aloe, Linn. Gun. n. 430; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL iii. 776. 

A considerable genus with headquarters in south Africa and representatives 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 291 

through tropical Africa and the islands of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. 
Both the Socotran species are endemic. 

1. A. Perryi, Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. (1881), 161, and in Bot. 
Mag. t. 6596. 

Caulescens ; foliis 12-20 dense rosulatis lauceolatis acuminafcis subpedalibus a basi ad apiceni 
sensim angustatis glauco-viridibus rubrotinctis facie canaliculars dentibus marginalibus 
deltoideo-cuspidatis parvis pallide brunneis ; pedunculo deorsum applanato ; racemis 1-3 
oblongo-cylindricis ; pedicellis flore 3-4-plo brevioribus ; bracteis minutis lanceolato- 
deltoideis ; periantbii rubro-lutei pollicaris segmentis oblongis tubo cylindrico triplo- 
brevioribus ; genitalibus demum breviter exsertis. 

Caulis simplex circa pedalis 1-2 poll. diam. Folia §-1 ped. longa ad basin 2^-3 poll, lata 
apiee acuminata immaculata obscure verticalifcer lineata supra basin canaliculata medio 
'6 — 3 P ^- crassa dentibus marginalibus crebris -^ poll, longis remotis intervallis 1 poll, 
longis apice corneis, infimis exceptis abscendentibus. Inflorescentia 1^—2 ped. longa 
rarius simplex plerumque ramis tribus densifloris 3-6 poll, longis 2 poll, diam.; pedunc- 
ulus communis vix pedalis purpureo-tinctus ; pedieelli rubri \—^ poll, longi infimi cernui ; 
bractese pedicellis subsecpuilongse. Perianthium |~1 poll, longum rubrum in juventute 
apicaliter virido-tinctum proventu flavum tubo ad medium subconstricto. Capsula 
oblonga f poll, longa subglauca. 

Nom. Vern. Tayef (Wellst., B.C.S.). 

Socotra. In various parts of the island. B.C.S. n. 473. Schweinf. n. 744. 
Perry. Collins. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A plant of very great interest, being the source of one of the kinds of aloes. 
Mr Baker thus writes of it : — " It is said that aloes was known to the Greeks 
as a product of the island of Socotra as early as the fourth century before the 
Christian era ; and yet until very recently no material has been obtained from 
which the botanical characters of the plant which yields the drug could be 
settled. In the absence of any precise information on the subject, botanists 
and pharmacists have supposed that the plant that furnished it was an Aloe 
figured in 1697 by Commelinus from the Medical Garden at Amsterdam under 
the name of ' Aloe Succotrina Angustifolia Spinosa flore purpureo,' — a species 
which was called Aloe vera by Philip Miller, and has been characterised by 
Lanjarck and several later authors under the name of Aloe succotrina. By the 
researches of Mr Bolus this plant has now been ascertained to be really a 
native of the Cape of Good Hope, and the Socotra Aloe proves to be a species 
confined to that island, closely allied in general liabit to the well-known 
Barbadoes Aloe {Aloe vera, Linn., A. barbadensis, Miller, A. vulgaris, Lamk.), 
but differing in its shorter leaves and especially in its flowers, which have a 
tube much longer than the segments and are arranged in looser racemes on 
longer pedicels." 

The plant was first brought to this country by Wykeham Perry in 1878, 



292 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

and in the following year by Collins, but their specimens were not sufficient to 
afford a complete knowledge of the plant. We were fortunate in bringing home 
many plants alive which have thriven and some have flowered in this country, 
so that we now know the species thoroughly well. 

On Socotra the plant grows plentifully, sometimes it is to be found almost at 
the sea-level, but it is most abundant on the hills at some elevation. From it 
the inhabitants obtain the juice which, inspissated, forms the Socotrine aloes of 
commerce, designated by them with the same name as the plant, " Tayef." The 
collection of the drug is, however, very haphazard. For an account of this, and 
also for further remarks regarding the drug, see the Introductory Chapter 
and the Appendix to this volume, where also reference is made to the account 
of the drug given by Wellsted (in Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc. v. (1835), 107). 

2. A. squarrosa, Baker in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1882), 97. 

Caulescens caudice simplici ; foliis parvis laxe dispositis lanceolatis patulis maculatis apioe 
recurvatis aculeis marginalibus niagnis crebris deltoideis ; scapo brevi simplici ancipiti ; 
racemo simplici cernuo ; pedicellis brevibus ascendentibus bracteis lanceolatis ; perianthii 
cylindrici tubo brevi; staminibus inclusis ; stylo exserto ; capsula parva. 

Caulis 6-9-pollicaris simplex teres |-^ poll. diam. dimidio inferiori nudus basibusque 
membranaceis foliorum delapsorum cinctus. Folia producta 6-15 laxe disposita patula 
conspicue squarrosa 1^—2 poll, longa -£-§ poll, lata e basi ad apicem acuminatum sensim 
attenuata aculeis marginalibus patulis crebris corneis ^ poll, longis. Scapus simplex 2-3- 
pollicaris bracteis paucis vacuis pra3ditus ; racemus 1^-2-pollicaris subdensus ; pedicelli 
adscendentes £— | poll, longi apice orbiculati ; bractete lanceolatoe acuminatse albas ^-— |-poll. 
longce striis 3 brunneis percursae. Pcrianthium pallide rubrum |— $ poll, longum. Stamina 
periantbio paullo breviora antberis parvis luteis. Stylus ^ poll, longus. Capsula oblonga 
l poll, longa. 

Socotra. On the limestone cliffs south-west from Galonsir at an elevation 
of 1000 feet. B.C.S. n. 282. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A very distinct spotted-leaved species. Its nearest ally is the Cape 
species A. consobrina, Salm Dyck (Monog. Al. sect, xviii. f. 3), a plant long 
in cultivation in this country, but that species has much larger leaves and erect 
inflorescences as well as other features of difference. 

We only found two plants of this species at one locality in Socotra, at 
the base of the limestone cliffs south-west of Galonsir. Probably it is a scarce 
plant. Schweinfurth does not send it. 

3. DRACAENA. 

Draxcena, Vandel. ex Linn. Mant. n. 1256 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 779. 

A considerable genus widely dispersed in the warmer regions of the old 
world. 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 293 

D. Oinnabari, Balf. fil. in Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin. xxx. (1882), 623. 

Arborea robusfca rainosa; foliis ensiforniibus patento-erectis rigiclis supra concavis ; paniculis 
glabris ramulis penulfcimis elongatis compressis, pedicellis validis brevibus, bracteolis longis 
acuminatis ; perianthio sordido segraentis apice uncinatis ; filamentis antheris duplo- 
longioribus ; stigmate trilobate 

Arbor 25-pedalis trunco crassitie 3-ped. attirigente cicatricibus foliorum delapsorum notato 
apice copiose ramosa urnbraculiformis. Folia 1-2-pedalia 1-1£ poll, lata -}—^ poll, crassa 
sessilia ad apices ramorum validorum conferta pateato-erecta firma sed in plantis juvenili- 
bus frequenter longiora et ssepe subrecurva basi amplexicaulia et piscis caudse bomocercse 
similitudine expansa ibique 4 poll, lata rubescentia sursum gradatim attenuata ensiformia 
supra concava infra jugo medio prominente lateribus convexis apice trigona obtusa 
punctata ecostata glabra glauco-viridia margine concoloria. Paniculi glabri pseudo-termin- 
ales inter folia evoluti 1-2^-pedales multo-ramosi ramis et ramulis divaricatis ante- 
penultimis compressis subtortis striatis 9-12 poll, longis penultimis contractis 2-4-floris ; 
pedicelli validi \ poll, longi supra medium articulati ; bracteolse membranaceai longae 
acuminatfe. Perianthium sordidum \ poll, longum segmentis oblongis vix connatis apice 
uncinatis. Stamina inclusa filamentis subulatis ; antherae oblongae filamentis dimidio 
breviores. Ovarium oblongum stipite valido ; stylus ovario aequilongus stigmate trilobato. 
Baccce aurantiacse £ poll. diam. 

Nom. Vern. Of the tree— Kharya (B.C.S.). Of the resin— Edah (Wellst, 
B.C.S.). 

Soeotra. Common on the hills. B.C.S. n. 11. Schweinf. mi. 565, 785. 
Perry. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

One of the most interesting plants of the island. Like D. Draco, (Linn. 
Syst. Nat. (1767), ii. 246); Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xiv. (1875), 527), 
from the Canary Islands, D. Ombet, Kotsch. and Peyr. (Plant. Tinneanse, 47), 
from Nubia, and D. schizantha, Baker (in Trim. Journ. Bot. vi. (1877), 71), from 
Somali Land, this is a resin-producing tree. The four species are by this 
character marked out from others of the genus, and they also agree with one 
another in general habit, which is that of a more or less forkedly-branching 
thick-stemmed tree, with leaves forming dense tufts at the ends of the stout 
ultimate branches, which are arranged so as to form a larger or smaller 
umbrella-crown. 

These four species which thus form a distinct group in the genus, and one 
of a very ancient type, are quite distinct one from the other. Taking D. 
Cinnabari as described above, D. Draco differs in its compressed ensiform 
leaves, smaller bracteoles, greenish perianth the segments of which are not 
uncinate at the apex, anthers relatively to the filaments shorter, and the capitate 
stigma. D. Ombet has a less robust habit, more slender and shorter ante- 
penultimate branches in the panicle, longer pedicels, non-acuminate bracteoles, 
and more delicate perianth. This latter is the species most nearly allied to our 



204 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

Socotran plant, but it is not conspccific. D. schizantha, may be readily distin- 
guished by its downy panicles. 

It is a feature of considerable interest, from the point of view of geogra- 
phical distribution, to find four species of a type such as this restricted to the 
centres in which they now flourish. This point has been referred to in the 
Introductory Chapter, and need not be further dwelt on here. 

Regarding the red resin produced by the Socotran tree known in commerce 
as Dragon's Blood resin, its kinds, and the mode of its collection, I published some 
account when I described the species (Trans. Eoy. Soc. Edin. xxx. 619), and 
shall not here repeat what is there written, except to mention that the Socotran 
Dragon's Blood being undoubtedly that spoken of by Dioscorides and the 
author of the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea as " Kiwafiapi" I have taken that 
as the specific name of our plant. For the characters of the Socotran resin 
and of other resins in commerce known as Dragon's Blood, the valuable paper 
by Dr Dobbie and Mr J. G. Henderson (Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin. xxx. (1883), 
624) may be consulted, and also their subsequent paper in the Pharmaceutical 
Journal for 10th November 1883. 

In the Appendix will be found some account of the anatomy of our 
Dragon's Blood tree. 

Wellsted (in Journ. Roy. Geog. Soc. v. (1835), 198) gives a long description 
of the tree (calling it Pterocarpus Draco), but there is nothing in it calling for 
special citation, except that he states that the Arabs call Dragon's Blood 
" Dum khoheil." 

4. ASPHODELUS. 

Asphodelus, Linn. Gen. n. 421 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 782. 

A small genus of five species chiefly spread in the Mediterranean region, but 
extending to the Atlantic and Indian Ocean islands, Arabia, and to northern 
India itself. 

A. fistulosus, Linn. Sp. 444 ; Kunth Enum. iv. 557 ; Baker in Journ. Linn. 
Soc. xv. (1877), 271 ; Bot. Mag. t. 984. 

var. tenuifolius, Baker loc. cit. 

A. tenuifolius, Cav. in Anal, de Ciencias Nat. iii. (1801), 46, t. 27, f. 2. 
A. parviflorus, Wight Ic. t. 2062. 

Socotra. On the hill slopes near Galonsir. B.C.S. n. 319. 
Distkib. From the Atlantic Islands to the Indian Peninsula. 

5. ANTHERICUM. 

Anthericum, Linn. Gen. n. 422 (pro parte) ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PL iii. 788. 

A considerable genus with a European, African, and American distribution, 
but excluded from Asia. 



PHANEROGAMS— PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 295 

A. (Phalangium) graptophyllum, Baker in Gard. Chron. xvii. (1882), 
460. 

Fibris radicalibus multis cylindratis ; foliis vetustis in fibras validas copiosas dissolutis foliis 
productis lanceolatis dorso et facie glabris venis primariis validis 8-9-fasciis transversali- 
bus pallide et saturate viridibus decoratis rnargine conspicue ciliatis ; pedunculo brevi 
simplici foliis 4^6 rninutis scariosis bracteiformibus praedito ; racemo laxo paucifloro ; 
pedicellis 1-2-nis ; periantbii albi infundibularis segmentis lanceolatis ; staminibus 
perianthio brevioribus ; antheris parvis luteis. 

Pereunis collo radicis fibris erectis dense tecto. Folia 12-16 rosulata £ sed saepe 1 ped. 
longa i-f poll, lata in medio versus extremitates ambos attenuata basali vagina, polli- 
caris. Scapus 1£- 2-pedalis simplex v. parum ramosus tenuis nodis plurimis bractiferis, 
bracteis inferne vacuis. Eacemus laxus floribus remotis solitariis v. binis, pedicellis 
£ poll, longis prope basim articulatis. Perianthium £ poll. longum segmentis trinervatis. 
Staminum filamenta alba glabra subcomplanata ; antheras globosse. Ovarium globosum ; 
stylus periantbii segmentis aequilongus. 

Socotra. On the hills in several places. B.C.S. n. 328. Schweinf. n. 
607. 

Distrib. Endemic. 

A small flowered and not very showy species allied to the St Bruno's 
Lily of Europe, A. Liliago, Linn. (Sp. 445; Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xv. 
(1877), 301). Its closest relationship is, however, with a Nubian plant, A. 
nubicum, Baker (loc. cit.), and to the Somali Land, A. inconspicumn, Baker 
(in Trim. Journ. Bot. vi. (1877), 71). From both of which its strongly -ribbed 
foliage, and much longer scapes separate it. 

In February we collected the plant, with foliage leaves only, in quantity on 
the hills south-west of Galonsir, and were fortunate to bring to this country 
living rootstocks. These flowered in June 1881 at Kew, and from them Mr 
Baker drew up his description, which, however, was not published until the 
plant again came into leaf in the spring of 1882. 

Schweinfurth at the end of April obtained the plant near Kischen at an 
elevation of nearly 2000 feet, in full flower, but without leaves. 

6. DIPCADI. 

Dipcadi, Medicus in Act. Palat. vi. 431, ex eod, in Ust. Ann. ii. 13 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. 
iii. 809. 

A small genus with species spread over a region extending from the Canary 
Islands through the Mediterranean region and tropical and south Africa to 
south-west Asia and India. 

D. (Tricharis) Balfouri, Baker in Gard. Chron. xiv. (1880), 424. 

Bulbo ovoideo tunicis albo- viridibus ; foliis 3-4 synantbiis ensiformibus erectis subpedalibus 
facie profunde canaliculars ; scapo tereti stricto 2-3-pedali ; racemo laxo 10-12-floro > 



2i>0 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

pedicellis flore 2-3-plo brevioribus ; bracteis lanceolatis ; perianthio flavo-viridulo vix 
pollicari tubo oblongo, segmentis exterioribus oblongis falcatis tubo duplo-longioribus, 
seguientis interioribus parvis ovatis patulis; antberis sessilibus; ovario oblongo sessili stylo 
BBquilongo. 
Balbus lj-lA poll. diam. Folia Isete viridia firma glabra acuta f— 1 poll. lata. Scapus viridis. 
Racemus 6-9 poll, longus pedicellis adscendentibus |-£ poll, longis, bracteis infimis pedicellis 
brevioribus supremis longioribus. Perianthii tubus £ poll. diam. segmentis interioribus 
gamopbyllis sub apicibus patulis. Filamenta fauci segmentorum interiorum tubi affixa ; 
antherse lineares lutese J poll longa?. Stylus tubo perianthii interni lecpuilongus. 

Socotra. B.C.S. 
Distrib. Endemic. 
In the Autumn of 1880 a bulb amongst the collection brought to this 
country by us from Socotra flowered at Kew, and proved to be of a new species 
of this genus, which Mr Baker has described. I have no record of its collection, 
and can say therefore nothing regarding its distribution on the island. " The 
affinity of the species is with the well-known D. serotinum, Medic. (Act. 
Palat. vi. 431 ex eod in Usteri Ann. ii. 13 ; Bot. Mag. t. 859), of the Medi- 
terranean region, but the stature and characters readily distinguish it. 

7. URGINEA. 
Urginea, Steinb. in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, i. 321, t, 14 ; Bentb. et Hook. Gen. PL iii. 810. 

A moderate genus spreading from the Atlantic Islands through the Medi- 
terranean region, tropical and south Africa to north-west India. 

U. porphyrostachys, Baker in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xii. (1883), 411. 

Bulbo ovoideo ; foliis hysterantbiis ignotis ; scapo tereti fragili ; racemo laxo elongato ; pedi- 
cellis solitariis elongatis strictis erecto-patentibus ; bracteis minutis lanceolatis calcaratis ; 
perianthii parvi segmentis lanceolatis uninervatis albidis dorso late purpureo-vittatis ; 
staminibus inclusis filamentis glabris antheris parvis oblongis ; fructu acute angulato ; 
seminibus in loculo 2-3 magnis nigris discoideis. 

Bulbus 1^-2 poll, longus tunicis multis crassis, fibris radicalibus carnosis cylindricis. Folia 
haud vidi. Scapus subpedalis fragilis purpureo-tinctus. Racemus expansus 4-6 poll, 
longus 1-1£ poll. diam. pedunculis inferioribus £-£• poll, longis ; bractese membranacea; 
•j^ poll. longSB basi minute calcaratae. Perianthium £ poll, longum segmentis mem- 
branaceis dorso late saturate purpureo-vittatis. Stamina periantbio distincte breviora 
filamentis albis linearibus glabris ; antberpe parva; oblongae luteal. Capsula glabra £ poll, 
longa £ poll. diam. loculis acutis conspicue lateraliter compressis. Semina oblonga 
discoidea \ poll, longa. 

Socotra. Near Kischen at over 3000 feet altitude. Schweinf. n. 678. 
Distrib. Endemic. 

This new species is in Schweinfurth's collection, we did not obtain it. 
Its nearest ally is U. antkericoides, Steinh. (in Ann. Sc. Nat. se>. 2, i. 238 ; 
Baker in Journ. Linn. Soc. xiii. (1873), 220), a plant of Algeria which is beauti- 



PHANEROGAMS — PROFESSOR BAYLEY BALFOUR. 297 

fully figured by Vaillant (in Explor. Sc. de 1' Algerie t. 45). The Socotran 
plant differs from the Algerian by its longer pedicels, spurred bracts, smaller 
flowers and fewer seeds. 



Order LXXVII. COMMELINACE^. 

A considerable order of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One 
of the Socotran genera has the dispersion of the order, the other is restricted 
to the old world. 

1. COMMELINA* 

Commelina, Linn. Gen. n. 62 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 847. 

A large genus widely dispersed in the warmer regions of the globe. The 
three Socotran species are distributed through tropical Africa and in southern 
Asia. 

1. 0. benghalensis, Linn. Sp. 60; 0. B. Clarke in DC. Monog. Phanerog. 
iii. 159, and Commel. et Cyrt. Beng. t. 4 ; Wight Ic. t. 2065. 

C. procurrens, Schldl. ; Hassk. in Schweinf. Flor. iEthiop. 209. 

Soeotra. In many localities. B.C.S. n. 651. Schweinf. n. 743. 

Distrib. From the Canary Islands through tropical south Africa to India 
and the eastern Archipelago. 

2. 0. (Heterocarpus) Forskalsei, Vahl Enum. 2, 172 ; Hassk. in Schweinf. 
Flor. ^Ethiop. 208; C. B. Clarke in DC. Monog. Phanerog. iii. 168. 

Nom. Vern. Kiooka (B.C.S.). 

Soeotra. About Galonsir and Tamarida and other places. B.C.S. n. 35. 
Schweinf. n. 742. 

Distrib. From Cape de Verde Islands, through tropical Africa and south- 
west Asia to India. 

3. 0. (Heteropyxis) albescens, Hassk. in Schweinf. Flor. iEthiop. 210; 
C. B. Clarke in DC. Monog. Phanerog. iii. 184 ; Boiss. Flor. Orient, v. 346. 

C. Schimperiana, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Abys3. n. 1242. 

0. multicaulis, Hochst. in herb. Schimp. Abyss, (eel. Hohen.), n. 2268. 

Nom. Vern. Gogo (Schweinf.). 

Soeotra. Near Galonsir and Tamarida. B.C.S. n. 134. Schweinf. n. 
444. 

Distrib. Abyssinia, Arabia, Scinde, and north-west India. 

* To Mr C. B. Clarke I am indebted for the identification of the species in this family. 
TRANS. ROY. S0C. EDIN. VOL. XXXI. 2 P 



298 BOTANY OF SOCOTRA. 

2. CYANOTIS. 
Cyanotis, Don. Prod. Flor. Nop. 45 ; Benth. et Hook. Gen. PI. iii. 851. 
A moderate genus of the hotter parts of the old world. 

C. cristata,